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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 09, 2019


Physics vs. asthma
A research team from the MIPT Center for Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-Related Diseases has collaborated with colleagues from the U.S., Canada, France, and Germany to determine the spatial structure of the CysLT1 receptor.
Growing and moving
How interactions between neuronal migration and outgrowth shape network architecture.
New research raises important questions on how mental illness is currently diagnosed
This research raises questions as to whether current diagnoses accurately reflect the underlying neurobiology of mental illness.
Columbia scientists reverse core symptom of schizophrenia in adult mice
Columbia researchers have restored normal working memory to a mouse model of schizophrenia, eliminating a core symptom of the disorder that, in people, has proven virtually impossible to treat.
Cretan tomb's location may have strengthened territorial claim
Examining the position occupied by tombs in their landscape in Prepalatial Crete gives us new insights into the role played by burial sites, mortuary practices and the deceased in the living society.
Autism spectrum disorders linked with excess weight gain in children
A recent meta-analysis published in Obesity Reviews revealed that children with autism spectrum disorders had a 41.1% higher risk of developing obesity than matched groups of children, and on average, 22 out of 100 children with autism were found to have obesity.
Single-particle spectroscopy of CsPbBr3 perovskite reveals the origin low electrolumine
Researchers from Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) used the method of single-particle spectroscopy to study electroluminescence in light-emitting devices.
Fruit flies help in the development of personalized medicine
It is common knowledge that there is a connection between our genes and the risk of developing certain diseases.
UBC study finds siblings of problem gamblers also impulsive, prone to risk-taking
Biological siblings of people with gambling disorder also display markers of increased impulsivity and risk-taking, according to a new UBC psychology study.
CNIO and University of Wurzburg solve 3D structure of 'nanomachine' that makes tuberculosis virulent
Tuberculosis bacterium releases virulence factors into the body through a secretion system whose structure and functioning were as yet unknown.
Bad behavior between moms driven by stereotypes, judgment
Mothers are often their own toughest critics, but new Iowa State University research shows they judge other mothers just as harshly.
Use of tape strips in early onset pediatric atopic dermatitis
May also help predict therapeutic responses.
Physicists have found a way to 'hear' dark matter
Physicists at Stockholm University and the Max Planck Institute for Physics have turned to plasmas in a proposal that could revolutionise the search for the elusive dark matter.
Statins linked to higher risk of diabetes and skin infections
Statins have been reported to be beneficial for infections such as pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.
DNA study sheds new light on the people of the Neolithic battle axe culture
In an interdisciplinary study published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, an international research team has combined archaeological, genetic and stable isotope data to understand the demographic processes associated with the iconic Battle Axe Culture and its introduction in Scandinavia.
Melatonin may not help prevent delirium after heart surgery
Delirium is observed in approximately 15% of hospitalised older adults, and it is more common in the critically ill and in those undergoing major surgery, such as heart surgery.
Finding upends theory about the cerebellum's role in reading and dyslexia
New brain imaging research debunks a controversial theory about dyslexia that can impact how it is sometimes treated.
Study links sleep disturbances and Alzheimer's among Hispanics
Sleep disturbances among Hispanics may increase their risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study led by a University of Miami Miller School neurologist and sleep expert.
A new strategy for the synthesis of complex natural products
Chemists from the University of Basel have succeeded in synthesizing two complex natural products from the group of dithiodiketopiperazines (DTPs).
CRISPR-BEST prevents genome instability
Scientists from The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability has developed CRISPR-BEST, a new genome editing tool for actinomycetes.
UTSA researchers investigate the impact of police stops on youth's mental health
New research looks into the impact police stops have on the mental health of youth.
Survey finds less than 1/2 of Americans concerned about poor posture
The average American adult spends more than three and a half hours looking down at their smartphones every day.
Chinese study reveals underuse of lifesaving drugs after heart attacks
Many heart attack patients in China fail to receive beta-blockers which could prevent another event and save their life.
Study: Losing weight -- and keeping it off -- linked to cardiometabolic benefits
People who lose weight and keep it off can stabilize or even improve their cardiometabolic risk factors compared to people who regain weight, finds a new study led by researchers from the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts.
Capturing elephants from the wild hinders their reproduction for over a decade
Capturing elephants to keep in captivity not only hinders their reproduction immediately, but also has a negative effect on their calves, according to new research.
Research brief: Nanoparticles may have bigger impact on the environment than previously thought
In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers have shown that nanoparticles may have a bigger impact on the environment than previously thought.
A unique study sheds light on the ecology of the glacial relict amphipod Gammaracanthus lacustris
The glacial relict amphipod Gammaracanthus lacustris only occurs in deep and cold waters.
NUS researchers show potential liver cancer treatment by targeting cancer stem-like cells
NUS researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore and the N.1 Institute for Health have shown the potential use of small molecule inhibitors to treat advanced liver cancer.
How to make biocatalysts immortal
Oxygen threatens sustainable catalysts that use hydrogen to produce electricity in fuel cells.
Global analysis of submarine canyons may shed light on Martian landscapes
On a map, submarine canyons seem identical to land canyons -- so much so that researchers surmised they are shaped by the same physical laws.
American Journal of Roentgenology reviews vaping-associated lung injury findings
A Clinical Perspective article in the American Journal of Roentgenology reviews various imaging manifestations of electronic nicotine delivery systems such as e-cigarettes, vape pens, and hookah tanks.
Surprise finding about HIV reservoir could lead to better therapies
HIV antiretroviral (ART) meds cannot completely eradicate the virus; it persists in reservoirs inside immune cells.
Chemical evolution -- One-pot wonder
Before life, there was RNA: Scientists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich show how the four different letters of this genetic alphabet could be created from simple precursor molecules on early Earth -- under the same environmental conditions.
Population shift resulting in fewer homicides
People are living longer and fewer are having children. This has caused the 15-29 age group to shrink worldwide, a demographic responsible for majority of homicides.
Fresh insights could lead to new treatments for liver disease
The fight against liver disease could be helped by the discovery of cells that cause liver scarring.
Highly virulent listeriosis pathogen discovered
An international team of researchers identifies the genetic basis for the hypervirulence of a Listeria strain that can cause severe infections.
Ethnically diverse mothers, children living in poverty at risk for sleep problems
African-American and other ethnically diverse mothers know the value of a good night's sleep, but they and their young children are at risk for developing sleep problems if they live in urban poverty, a Rutgers study finds.
NSU professor's research underpins World Health Organization first ever report on vision
Dr. Janet Leasher, optometrist and professor of health policy, economics and public health at Nova Southeastern University's (NSU) College of Optometry was the only optometrist from the United States who is part of the core Vision Loss Expert Group which provided the estimates on the numbers of persons affected around the world with blindness and vision impairment.
Study finds prehistoric humans ate bone marrow like canned soup 400,000 years ago
Tel Aviv University researchers have uncovered evidence of the storage and delayed consumption of animal bone marrow at Qesem Cave near Tel Aviv.
Ex-smokers, light smokers not exempt from lung damage
A new study shows that smoking even a few cigarettes a day is harmful to lungs and that former smokers continue to lose lung function at a faster rate than never-smokers for decades after quitting.
People who eat more meals at home have lower levels of harmful PFAS in their bodies
Preparing meals at home can reduce your exposure to harmful PFAS chemicals that are commonly found in take-out and fast food packaging, suggests a new study published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.
Researchers discover a new cancer-driving mutation in 'dark matter' of the cancer genome
An Ontario-led research group has discovered a novel cancer-driving mutation in the vast non-coding regions of the human cancer genome, also known as the 'dark matter' of human cancer DNA.
How bats relocate in response to tree loss
Identifying how groups of animals select where to live is important for understanding social dynamics and for management and conservation.
Blood test could help to accelerate brain cancer diagnosis
A blood test which could help to accelerate the diagnosis of brain cancer has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.
Engineered viruses could protect soldiers, fight antibiotic resistance
Antibiotic resistance is a one of the world's most pressing public health problems.
New method visualizes groups of neurons as they compute
Using a fluorescent probe that lights up when brain cells are electrically active, MIT and Boston University researchers found they can image the activity of many neurons at once, in mice brains.
Antibiotic resistance in food animals nearly tripled since 2000
Researchers from ETH Zurich, the Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI), and the Free University of Brussels report that the growing appetite for animal protein in low- to middle-income countries has resulted in a smorgasbord of antibiotic consumption for livestock that has nearly tripled the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in disease-causing bacteria between 2000 and 2018.
Can being neighborly reduce depression in older adults?
In a Health & Social Care in the Community study of 10,105 older adults in China examined in 2011, 2013, and 2015, living in neighborhoods with a higher level of neighborhood social participation was related to lower rates of depression.
How chromosomes change their shape during cell differentiation
Scientists from the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research have provided an explanation of how chromosomes undergo structural changes during cell differentiation.
Review of 96 healthy eating studies finds 'nudges' yield best changes in eating habits
A gentle nudge in the right direction is sometimes all people need.
Mapping white clover heritage
Pedigree analysis will help breeders develop clover varieties with desired traits.
Folding a drop of water solves a longstanding challenge in portable diagnostic devices
If you've ever stopped to watch rain falling on a windowpane, you've seen what happens when two drops of water touch and merge into one.
Unique immune cell could help stop breast cancer
A new study, published in Science Translational Medicine, has identified a specific subtype of gamma delta T cells in breast tissue and showed that they are linked to remission in patients with triple negative breast cancer.
Rest may help reduce PTSD symptoms, UCL study finds
A period of rest following a traumatic event can reduce the subsequent development of involuntary 'memory intrusions'*, one of the hallmark symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a new UCL study has found.
New insights into how to protect premature babies from common brain disorder
Premature babies have delicate brain tissue that is prone to bleeding and can result in post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, a dangerous condition that leads to excess fluid accumulation and brain dysfunction.
Could government-funded flood buyout programs be adjusted to better serve communities?
Wealthier, more densely populated counties in the US have been more likely to implement buyouts of flood-prone properties, according to the first programmatic-level analysis of voluntary property buyouts through the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
New study supports nervous system's role in age-related weakness
A study recently published by researchers from the Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI) at the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, in collaboration with a colleague from outside Ohio University, finds new evidence to support the belief that the nervous system plays an important role in age-related weakness.
Deep3DFly: the deep-learning way to design fly-like robots
EPFL scientists have developed a deep-learning based motion-capture software that uses multiple camera views to model the movements of a fly in three dimensions.
Uncovering the presynaptic distribution and profile of mitochondria
In a recent study published in the Journal of Neuroscience, scientists from the MPFI and the University of Iowa CCOM have provided unprecedented insight into the presynaptic distribution and profile of mitochondria in the developing and mature calyx of Held.
Vaccine against RSV could be in sight, researchers say
A vaccine for the common and sometimes deadly RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) has been elusive, but scientists say a new discovery puts them much closer to success.
Study in rats suggests special occasion drinking during pregnancy may cause harm
If you thought a glass or two of alcohol on special occasions was safe during pregnancy, think again.
Reef fish caring for their young are taken advantage of by other fish
Among birds, the practice of laying eggs in other birds' nests is surprisingly common.
First entirely digital clinical trial encourages physical activity
As little as a daily ping on your phone can boost physical activity, researchers from the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators report in a new study.
New research uncovers how common genetic mutation drives cancer
A new, multicenter study led by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center determined how a single mutation in splicing factor 3b subunit 1 (SF3B1), the most frequently mutated splicing factor gene, drives the formation of many cancers.
Women and black Americans more likely to face severe adult obesity
A multi-national study led by experts at Cincinnati Children's shows how adult severe obesity risk rates vary by sex, race and other factors identifiable in childhood.
Hush, little baby: Mother right whales 'whisper' to calves
A recent study led by Syracuse University biology professor Susan Parks in Biology Letters explores whether right whale mother-calf pairs change their vocalizations to keep predators from detecting them.
Electronic solid could reduce carbon emissions in fridges and air conditioners
A promising replacement for the toxic and flammable greenhouse gases that are used in most refrigerators and air conditioners has been identified by researchers from the University of Cambridge.
Researchers find multiple effects on soil from manure from cows administered antibiotics
A new study found multiple effects on soils from exposure to manure from cows administered antibiotics, including alteration of the soil microbiome and ecosystem functions, soil respiration and elemental cycling.
More patients with cardiovascular disease now die at home than in the hospital
In a new study, Haider Warraich, MD, of Brigham and Women's Hospital, and colleagues assessed place of death for CVD patients from 2003 to 2017, finding that home has surpassed the hospital as the most common place of death for these patients.
To learn English, bilingual children need robust vocabulary from parents and caregivers
A study examining parents' vocabulary and grammar as an influence on children's acquisition of English, finds that the quality of child-directed speech depends on the speaker's language proficiency.
Long-term outcomes for transplant patients who receive high-risk donor lungs
Researchers compared long-term outcomes between transplant patients who received conventional donor lungs and those who received high-risk donor lungs that had been assessed and reconditioned outside the body through a technique known as ex vivo lung perfusion.
No soil left behind: How a cost-effective technology can enrich poor fields
Many farmers across sub-Saharan Africa try to coax crops out of sandy soils that are not ideal for holding water and nutrients.
Are steroids used too much for patients with inflammatory bowel disease?
Steroid therapy is commonly used to treat acute attacks of the inflammatory bowel diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease; however, because it does not provide long-term benefits and it carries a risk of serious side effects, it should not be used to treat inflammatory bowel disease for more than three months.
New study analyzes FEMA-funded home buyout program
An analysis of FEMA's 30-year-old property buyout program offers new insight into the growing debate on managed retreat--moving people and assets out of flood-prone areas.
When blood vessels are overly permeable
In Germany alone there are around 400,000 patients who suffer from chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.
Study provides insights on statins' link to lower prostate cancer risk
In a Cancer Medicine study of cancer-free men followed for a median of seven years, statin use was associated with a lower risk of developing prostate cancer.
Fentanyl's risk on the 'darknet'
US overdose deaths attributed to synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl, have increased from under 3,000 in 2013 to nearly 20,000 in 2016, making up half of all opioid-related overdose deaths.
Irony and humour keep teenage #gymlads healthy on social media
Teenage boys rely on social media to access a wealth of information about living a healthy lifestyle -- but rather than being victims of online harms, such as an unhealthy body image obsession, the majority are able to use humour, irony and banter to navigate social media content.
Citizen science for sustainable development
Monitoring progress on the UN Sustainable Development Goals requires a huge amount of data.
How do children express their state of knowledge of the world around them?
A study published in Journal of Language, Learning and Development by researchers with the Prosodic Studies Group led by Pilar Prieto, ICREA research professor with the Department of Translation and Language Sciences, reveals for the first time that three-year-olds use gestural and prosodic precursors in the expression of uncertainty, which they will express after five years of age through lexical cues.
Calories in popular UK restaurant chain dishes can be 'shockingly high' warn experts
The calorie content of popular starters, sides and desserts served in UK restaurant chains is too high and only a minority meet public health recommendations, finds a University of Liverpool study published in BMJ Open.
Physicists couple key components of quantum technologies
Researchers are engaged in intensive work on the components of quantum technologies - these include circuits processing information using single photons instead of electricity, as well as light sources producing such quanta of light.
Infectious disease in marine life linked to decades of ocean warming
New research shows that long-term changes in diseases in ocean species coincides with decades of widespread environmental change.
New mechanism fueling brain metastasis discovered at Wistar
Wistar scientists described a novel mechanism through which astrocytes, the most abundant supporting cells in the brain, also promote cancer cell growth and metastasis in the brain.
Atomic-level imaging could offer roadmap to metals with new properties
A team of researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology has developed a new process that could help gain new insights into high-entropy alloys and help characterize their properties.
Children bullied by friends and siblings are more likely to think about suicide in their early 20s
Depression, self-harm and suicidal ideation are more prominent in adults in their early twenties if they were bullied at home and at school, a study by researchers at the University of Warwick have found.
Liquifying a rocky exoplanet
A hot, molten Earth would be around 5% larger than its solid counterpart.
Differences in severity, health care utilization for firearm injuries, other penetrating trauma in kids
Pediatric firearm injuries were associated with greater severity and health care utilization than other penetrating trauma suffered by children caused by cutting or piercing, such as with a knife.
Graphene substrate improves the conductivity of carbon nanotube network
Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, and the University of Vienna, Austria, have combined graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes into a transparent hybrid material with conductivity higher than either component exhibits separately.
Elevated risk of blood clot in lungs after surgery lasts for how long?
Researchers examined how long an increased risk of pulmonary embolism (lung artery blockage usually caused by a blood clot) persisted after six types of surgery (vascular, gynecological, gastrointestinal, hip or knee replacement, fractures and other orthopedic operations) among 60,000 cancer-free middle-age adults using data from a French national inpatient database.
Threshold-dependent gene drives in wild populations
The BioScience Talks podcast features discussions of topical issues related to the biological sciences.
Study examines timing of weight gain in children
Recent studies suggest kids tend to gain the most weight in summer, but schools are chastised for providing unhealthy food and beverages, along with decreasing opportunities for physical activity.
Algorithm personalizes which cancer mutations are best targets for immunotherapy
As tumor cells multiply, they often spawn tens of thousands of genetic mutations.
Researchers use game theory to successfully identify bacterial antibiotic resistance
Washington State University researchers have developed a novel way to identify previously unrecognized antibiotic-resistance genes in bacteria.
Mechanism regulating species coexistence in a subtropical forest revealed
A research group led by Prof. MA Keping from the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with scientists from the University of Maryland, College Park and the Institute of Microbiology, have now revealed the underlying mechanism regulating species coexistence in a subtropical forest.
'Wild idea' opens possible new frontier for preventing ovarian cancer
A laboratory study published in Clinical Cancer Research offers a new hypothesis about how ovarian cancer forms and suggests how it might be prevented.
Social determinant screening useful for families with pediatric sickle cell disease
Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) face the burdens of chronic illness and often racial disparities, both of which may increase vulnerability to adverse social determinants of health (SDoH).
Large income change associated with cardiovascular disease risk
Whether a significant change in income is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was the focus of this observational study.
New production technique for high-performance polymer could make for better body armor
Using a new composite nanoparticle catalyst, Brown University researchers have shown they can make degradation-resistant PBO, a polymer used to make body armor and other high-performance fabrics.
Patient-derived organoids help predict how patients respond to chemotherapy
Researchers have created a test based on tumor organoids -- or 3D tissue cultures -- that can help predict how patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) may respond to chemotherapy treatment.
Long-term dupilumab benefits adolescents with eczema
Results from a phase IIa open-label trial and a subsequent phase III open-label extension trial reinforce findings from an earlier short-term trial that adolescents with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis, or eczema, can experience significant improvements with dupilumab.
Predicting the impact of climate change on bridge safety
Climate change will increase the frequency and intensity of natural hazards like flooding.
Study examines care for knee osteoarthritis in the United States
A new study published in Arthritis Care & Research provides an overview of US physicians' recommendations for physical therapy, lifestyle counseling, pain medications for treating knee osteoarthritis.
How do the strongest magnets in the universe form?
How do some neutron stars become the strongest magnets in the Universe?
Dietary supplement from tomatoes discovered to boost sperm quality
Sperm quality can be improved with a simple diet supplement containing a compound found in cooked tomatoes, according to new research by the University of Sheffield.
Army bio-inspired theoretical research may make robots more effective on the future battlefield
In an effort to make robots more effective and versatile teammates for Soldiers in combat, Army researchers are on a mission to understand the value of the molecular living functionality of muscle, and the fundamental mechanics that would need to be replicated in order to artificially achieve the capabilities arising from the proteins responsible for muscle contraction.
First cell map of developing human liver reveals how blood and immune system develops
In a world first, scientists have created the human developmental liver cell atlas that provides crucial insights into how the blood and immune systems develop in the fetus.
Uncorrected congenital heart disease may lead to increased risks in pregnant women
Pregnant women with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have not had surgery to repair their cardiac condition are more likely to experience cardiac events or maternal death, especially those with certain conditions in emerging countries, according to a study published Oct.
Bioelectricity's promise for therapeutic targets in cancer
Bioelectricity of Cancer, a special issue of the peer-reviewed journal Bioelectricity, has just been published.
Tuberculosis: New insights into the pathogen
Researchers at the University of Würzburg and the Spanish Cancer Research Centre have gained new insights into the pathogen that causes tuberculosis.
Chlamydia in testicular tissue linked to male infertility
The potential impact of undiagnosed sexually transmitted chlamydia infection on men's fertility has been highlighted in a study led by scientists at Queensland University of Technology (QUT), which for the first time found chlamydia in the testicular tissue biopsies of infertile men whose infertility had no identified cause.
Study assesses cost of overpayments for topical prescription medications
This study examined how common and at what cost is the practice of so-called 'clawbacks' for topical prescription drugs when an insured patient's copayment exceeds the insurer's cost for the drug.
Human gut microbes could make processed foods healthier
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Brain tissue kept alive for weeks on an artificial membrane
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research in Japan have developed a new system for keeping tissue viable for long-term study once transferred from an animal to a culture medium.
Researchers are finding molecular mechanisms behind women's biological clock
Throughout life, women's fertility curve goes up and down, and in a new study led by the University of Copenhagen, researchers have now shown why.
Maintaining weight loss beneficial for people with Type 2 diabetes
People with Type 2 diabetes who regained weight forfeited the benefits of an intensive weight loss program that reduced their heart disease and stroke risk factors.
Scientists find gender-distinct circuit for depression
Depression affects women nearly twice as much as men, but unraveling the brain's blueprint that regulates this behavior, let alone identifying specific molecular differences between sexes, has proven difficult.
Late third trimester ultrasound may detect missed fetal abnormalities
In a study published in Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology that involved more than 50,000 pregnancies, a fetal anomaly was detected for the first time in the third trimester in one in 200 women who had undergone a first and/or second trimester ultrasound examination.
Helping conservation initiatives turn contagious
New research shows that conservation initiatives go viral, which helps scientists and policymakers better design successful programs more likely to be adopted.

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