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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 11, 2019


Deciphering the early stages of Parkinson's disease is a matter of time
Researchers at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the University of Virginia School of Medicine, USA, identified for the first time the initial steps of alpha-synuclein protein aggregates related to early onsets of hereditary Parkinson cases.
SLAS Discovery releases special issue
October's SLAS Discovery features part 1 of a 2-part special issue on 'Membrane Proteins: New Approaches to Probes, Technologies and Drug Design.' Part 2 of this special edition will be featured in December.
Food insecure Canadian households may have trouble affording prescription medication
Food insecurity is linked to higher disease rates but not much is known about the reasons for this.
CF patients experience improved lung health with lumacaftor-ivacaftor but with caveats
In adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis taking lumacaftor-ivacaftor (ORKAMBI®), the combination drug appears to improve lung function and body weight and reduce the need for intravenous antibiotic treatment, according to a French study published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Type 2 diabetes and obesity could be treated by new, less invasive procedure
New research from King's College London published in EBioMedicine, has found that a newly tested medical device, called Sleeveballoon, mimics the effects of traditional bariatric surgery in rodents and produces impressive results on body weight, fatty liver and diabetes control.
New tool enables Nova Scotia lobster fishery to address impacts of climate change
Researchers use long-term survey data sets and climate models to help fishing communities plan for a warmer ocean.
Overweight before age 40 increases the cancer risk
The risk of cancer increases considerably if you gain weight before the age of 40.
CO2 emissions cause lost labor productivity, new Concordia research shows
Extreme high temperatures caused by CO2 emissions could lead to losses in labor productivity.
Around half a million men who have sex with men in the EU need PrEP but cannot access it
This estimate on the 'PrEP gap' in Europe was published in a paper in Eurosurveillance today stating that 500 000 men who have sex with men in the European Union currently cannot access HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), despite being very likely to use it.
Researchers identify potential therapy for liver disease in people living with HIV
Researchers have identified a novel therapeutic strategy to significantly improve liver disease in people living with HIV.
Private property, not productivity, precipitated Neolithic agricultural revolution
The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution is one of the most thoroughly-studied episodes in prehistory.
Researchers identify brain protein that promotes maintenance of chronic pain
Study results illuminate the potential of novel approach for the treatment of chronic pain.
Overcoming the blood-brain-barrier: Delivering therapeutics to the brain
For the first time, scientists have identified a simple way that can effectively transport medication into the brain - which could lead to improved treatments for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.
Suomi NPP satellite finds a weaker typhoon Hagibis nearing Japan
On Oct. 10, Hagibis was a super typhoon, but overnight, the storm weakened to typhoon status.
Bacteria contradict Darwin: Survival of the friendliest
New microbial research at the University of Copenhagen suggests that 'survival of the friendliest' outweighs 'survival of the fittest' for groups of bacteria.
Habitual tea drinking modulates brain efficiency: Evidence from brain connectivity evaluation
The researchers recruited healthy older participants to two groups according to their history of tea drinking frequency and investigated both functional and structural networks to reveal the role of tea drinking on brain organization.
Expert second opinion improves reliability of melanoma diagnoses
A new study led by UCLA researchers, have found that obtaining a second opinion from pathologists who are board certified or have fellowship training in dermatopathology can help improve the accuracy and reliability of diagnosing melanoma.
Opioid Rx dosages drop 22% in Penn Medicine's NJ practices following changes to state law
The total amount of opioids dispensed per new opioid prescription decreased by 22% in Penn Medicine outpatient practices in New Jersey after the state passed a law limiting prescriptions to a five-day supply for new opioid prescriptions.
Black holes stunt growth of dwarf galaxies
Astronomers at the University of California, Riverside, have discovered that powerful winds driven by supermassive black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies have a significant impact on the evolution of these galaxies by suppressing star formation.
Study questions 'cross-transfer' benefits of special exercise technique
A paper recently published by researchers from the Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI) at the Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine questions the effectiveness of a patented exercise system for relieving lower back pain.
Researchers rediscover fast-acting German insecticide lost in the aftermath of WWII
A new study in the Journal of the American Chemical Society explores the chemistry as well as the complicated and alarming history of DFDT, a fast-acting insecticide.
Imaging tumor stiffness could help enhance treatment for breast and pancreatic cancer
Using a noninvasive imaging technique that measures the stiffness of tissues gives crucial new information about cancer architecture and could aid the delivery of treatment to the most challenging tumors, new research shows.
Conclusions from a behavioral aging study on male and female F2 hybrid mice on age-related behavior
Due to strain-specific behavioral idiosyncrasies, inbred mouse strains are suboptimal research models for behavioral aging studies.
Liquid metals the secret ingredients to clean up environment
Liquid metal catalysts show great promise for capturing carbon and cleaning up pollutants, requiring so little energy they can even be created in the kitchen.
Blood test raises hopes of tackling 'silent killer'
It is the 'silent killer' that claimed the life of Albert Einstein and affects 1% of men over the age of 65, but researchers at the University of Dundee believe they may be able to reduce the number of fatalities caused by abdominal aortic aneurysms.
Shaping nanoparticles for improved quantum information technology
Argonne researchers find that semiconductor nanoparticles in the shape of rings have attractive properties for quantum networking and computation.
Encyclopedic tumor analysis for guiding treatment of advanced, broadly refractory cancers: results from the RESILIENT trial
RESILIENT was a single arm, open label, phase II/III study to test if label agnostic therapy regimens guided by Encyclopedic Tumor Analysis can offer meaningful clinical benefit for patients with relapsed refractory metastatic malignancies.
The impact of human-caused noise pollution on birds
Anthropogenic noise pollution (ANP) is a globally invasive phenomenon impacting natural systems, but most research has occurred at local scales with few species.
40% of people did not visit a family doctor after being released from prison
A new study analyzing the experiences of people released from provincial prison in Ontario in 2010 has found that 60% of people who were in Ontario's prison system were seen by a family doctor in the two years after being released from prison compared to 85% of people in the general population.
Population aging to create pockets of climate vulnerability in the US
Population aging projections across the US show a divide between cities and rural areas, which could lead to pockets of vulnerability to climate change.
These new soft actuators could make soft robots less bulky
Engineers at the University of California have developed a way to build soft robots that are compact, portable and multifunctional.
Jumping genes can cause rare developmental disorders in children
The largest study of its kind into childhood developmental disorders has discovered that jumping genes cause genetic changes in some patients with undiagnosed neurodevelopmental diseases.
National focus on overdose prevention should include alcohol too, study suggests
The need to prevent and rapidly treat opioid overdoses is in the spotlight.
'Electroadhesive' stamp picks up and puts down microscopic structures
New technique could enable assembly of circuit boards and displays with more minute components.
Hydrologic simulation models that inform policy decisions are difficult to interpret
Hydrologic models that simulate and predict water flow are used to estimate how natural systems respond to different scenarios such as changes in climate, land use, and soil management.
Chronobiology: Sleep and synaptic rhythms
Chronobiologists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich, Germany, show in two articles in the journal Science how critical the sleep-wake cycle is for protein and phosphorylation dynamics in synapses to ultimately regulate its activity.
Repurposed quinacrine synergizes with cisplatin, reducing the effective dose required for treatment
The authors have developed the Accelera TED platform to repurpose drugs for HNSCC treatment; using in vitro assays and in vivo models.
Drug reverses signs of liver disease in people living with HIV
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health and their colleagues at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston report that the injectable hormone tesamorelin reduces liver fat and prevents liver fibrosis (scarring) in people living with HIV.
Antibody-based eye drops show promise for treating dry eye disease
Researchers have identified the presence of a specific type of antibody, called anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies, or ACPAs, in human tear fluid.
Rare sleep disorder common among veterans with PTSD
Military veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder or concussion suffer from a thrashing form of sleep behavior at a rate that is far higher than the general population, according to a new study by researchers at the VA Portland Health Care System and Oregon Health & Science University.
Physics: An ultrafast glimpse of the photochemistry of the atmosphere
Researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have explored the initial consequences of the interaction of light with molecules on the surface of nanoscopic aerosols.
Adipogenic progenitors keep muscle stem cells young
In adult skeletal muscle, loss of myofiber integrity caused by mechanical injuries or diseases are repaired by resident muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, which promptly exit from quiescence after disruption of muscle architecture to expand, differentiate and drive tissue regeneration.
Contextual engineering improves success of projects in non-industrial societies
Humanitarian engineering projects often focus on bringing western technologies to non-industrialized societies.
Daily consumption of sweets, cakes and unhealthy foods associated with acne, study reveals
The research, presented at the 28th EADV Congress in Madrid, evaluated the exposure to different worsening factors on acne more than 6,700 participants across six countries in North America, South America and Europe.
Physics: DNA-PAINT super-resolution microscopy at speed
Optimized DNA sequences allow for 10-times faster image acquisition in DNA-PAINT.
A reliable clock for your microbiome
The microbiome is a treasure trove of information about human health and disease, but getting it to reveal its secrets is challenging.
Public reporting on aortic valve surgeries has decreased access, study finds
Public reporting on aortic valve replacement outcomes has resulted in fewer valve surgeries for people with endocarditis, a new study has found.
Physicists look to navigational 'rhumb lines' to study polymer's unique spindle structure
A new study describes how spheres can be transformed into twisted spindles thanks to insights from 16th century navigational tools.
Sox9 reshapes the biliary tree in Alagille syndrome
Mose model shows that SOX9 gene influences the severity Alagille syndrome.
Radiation detector with the lowest noise in the world boosts quantum work
The nanoscale radiation detector is a hundred times faster than its predecessors, and can function without interruption.
Nanoscale manipulation of light leads to exciting new advancement
Scientists in the Theoretical Nanophotonics Group at The University of New Mexico's Department of Physics and Astronomy have made an exciting new advancement to this end, in a pioneering research effort titled 'Analysis of the Limits of the Near-Field Produced by Nanoparticle Arrays,' published recently in the journal, ACS Nano, a top journal in the field of nanotechnology.
Illumination of abnormal neuronal activities caused by myelin impairment
The neural circuit basis for motor learning tasks when myelination is impaired has been illuminated for the first time by an international collaboration of university research teams.
Coffee bean extracts alleviate inflammation, insulin resistance in mouse cells
Food science and human nutrition researchers at the University of Illinois are interested in the potential of inflammation-fighting compounds found in the silverskin and husk of coffee beans, not only for their benefits in alleviating chronic disease, but also in adding value to would-be 'waste' products from the coffee processing industry.
How preprocessing methods affect the conversion efficiency of biomass energy production
Research on energy production from biomass usually focuses on the amount of energy generated.
Creating 2D heterostructures for future electronics
New research integrates nanomaterials into heterostructures, an important step toward creating nanoelectronics.
Six degrees of nuclear separation
For the first time, Argonne scientists have printed 3D parts that pave the way to recycling up to 97 percent of the waste produced by nuclear reactors.
Cold temperatures linked to high status
Researchers have discovered that people associate cold temperatures with luxury items, which is important for companies that are trying to promote products that convey high status.
NASA sees Atlantic subtropical storm Melissa form off New England coast
Satellite data has confirmed the formation of Subtropical Storm Melissa.
Cuts in alcohol duty linked to 2000 more alcohol-related deaths in England
Government cuts to alcohol taxes have had dramatic consequences for public health, including nearly 2000 more alcohol-related deaths in England since 2012, according to new research from the University of Sheffield's School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR).
Family of crop viruses revealed at high resolution for the first time
For the first-time we can take a molecular-level look at one of the world's deadliest crop killers.
New genetic link found for some forms of SIDS
Some forms of sudden infant death syndrome stem from a genetic mutation that keeps infants from processing lipids in milk, a new study has discovered.
New material captures carbon dioxide
The captured CO2 can be converted into useful organic materials.
In-office gene therapy for wet age-related macular degeneration is coming
Gene therapy is showing promise for one of the most common causes of blindness.
Drugs for better long-term treatment of poorly controlled asthma discovered
Searching for better treatments for poorly controlled asthma, University of South Florida Health researchers examined how the distinct structure of five drugs affected their long-term ability to treat airway obstruction.
Under time pressure, people tell us what we want to hear
When asked to answer questions quickly and impulsively, people tend to respond with a socially desirable answer rather than an honest one, a set of experiments shows.
New in the Hastings Center Report, September-October 2019
The moral status of research animals with human brain cells, AI and doctoring, data privacy in California, tributes to Dan Callahan, and more in the September-October 2019.
Lung cancer screening guidelines do not detect disease among first responders
National lung cancer screening guidelines are inadequate to diagnose patients who contract lung cancer from occupational exposure, including first responders, according to a study reported today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer's North America Conference on Lung Cancer in Chicago.
Slower walkers have older brains and bodies at 45
The walking speed of 45-year-olds can be used as a marker of their aging brains and bodies.
Telescope technology used to take first accurate images of glaucoma-related eye structure
Researchers at the IU School of Optometry have used adaptive optics technology to create the first undistorted microscopic images of the eye's trabecular meshwork, which could help improve treatment for glaucoma.

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