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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 17, 2019


How roots grow hair
The roots of plants can do a lot of things: They grow in length to reach water, they can bend to circumvent stones, and they form fine root hairs enabling them to absorb more nutrients from the soil.
New clinical research offers possibility of future rehabilitation for patients in minimally conscious or vegetative state
Non-invasive brain stimulation is to be trialled for the first time alongside advanced brain imaging techniques in patients who are minimally conscious or in a vegetative state.
Financial hardship in cancer: The role of health insurance literacy
A new American Cancer Society study links health insurance literacy with medical financial hardship as well as non-medical financial sacrifices among adult cancer survivors in the United States.
Bone regrowth using ceramic substitute and E. coli-derived growth factors
Synthetic bone substitutes are promising materials for bone defect repair, but their efficacy can be substantially improved by bioactive agents such as growth factors.
Mount Sinai researchers bring us one step closer to universal influenza vaccine
The scourge of the influenza virus devastates health and claims many lives worldwide each year.
Blanket of light may give better quantum computers
Researchers from DTU Physics describe in an article in Science, how--by simple means -- they have created a 'carpet' of thousands of quantum-mechanically entangled light pulses.
Nature-based solutions can help protect us from climate-related natural hazards
Solutions found in nature should be our first line of defense against the increasing number of climate change-related natural disasters, say experts from the University of Surrey.
Dementia and eating disorders: it is a problem of (semantic) memory
Eating disorders shown by patients with dementia are characterised by a vast range of behaviours that span from preference for sugary foods, binges, increase in appetite, to changes in table manners or in food preferences.
Global biodiversity crisis is a large-scale reorganization, with greatest loss in tropical oceans
Local biodiversity of species -- the scale on which humans feel contributions from biodiversity -- is being rapidly reorganized, according to a new global analysis of biodiversity data from more than 200 studies, together representing all major biomes.
Health care intervention: Treating high-need, high-cost patients
Patients with complex needs -- serious mental and physical health problems and substance use disorders -- flock to emergency rooms costing the health care system billions every year.
Ants fight plant diseases
New research from Aarhus University shows that ants inhibit at least 14 different plant diseases.
Mapping global biodiversity change
A new study, published in Science, which focuses on mapping biodiversity change in marine and land ecosystems shows that loss of biodiversity is most prevalent in the tropic, with changes in marine ecosystems outpacing those on land.
Evidence of behavioral, biological similarities between compulsive overeating and addiction
Does yo-yo dieting drive compulsive eating? There may be a connection.
Next-generation sequencing used to identify cotton blue disease in the United States
Cotton blue disease, caused by Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), was first reported in 1949 in the Central African Republic and then not again until 2005, when it was reported from Brazil.
Researcher invents an easy-to-use technique to measure the hydrophobicity of micro- and nanoparticle
The technique may have a far-reaching implication for many scientific and industrial applications and disciplines that involve particulate matter.
A simpler way to make some medicines
Organic chemists have figured out how to synthesize the most common molecule arrangement in medicine, a scientific discovery that could change the way a number of drugs -- including one most commonly used to treat ovarian cancer -- are produced.
First demonstration of a 1 petabit per second network node
The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has demonstrated the first large-scale optical switching testbed capable of handling 1 Petabit per second optical signals.
Bad break-ups may not trigger weight gain from emotional eating
That pint of ice cream after a nasty breakup may not do as much damage as you think.
Newly discovered microbes band together, 'flip out'
Scientists have found a new species of choanoflagellate. This close relative of animals forms sheets of cells that 'flip' inside-out in response to light, alternating between a cup-shaped feeding form and a ball-like swimming form.
Researchers identify targeted therapy that can help children with deadly nerve cancer
Mount Sinai researchers have identified a targeted therapy for adolescent patients with neuroblastoma, a deadly pediatric nerve cancer, who would otherwise have no treatment options, according to a study published in October in Cancer Cell.
Frequent drinking is greater risk factor for heart rhythm disorder than binge drinking
Drinking small amounts of alcohol frequently is linked with a higher likelihood of atrial fibrillation than binge drinking, according to research published today in EP Europace, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Stormy cluster weather could unleash black hole power and explain lack of cosmic cooling
'Weather' in clusters of galaxies may explain a longstanding puzzle, according to a team of researchers at the University of Cambridge.
First scientific description of elusive bird illuminates plight of Borneo's forests
Scientists with the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and collaborators surveying the birdlife of Borneo have discovered a startling surprise: an undescribed species of bird, which has been named the spectacled flowerpecker.
Three research papers published in Nature series journals
Department of Applied Physics of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) contributed 3 research papers that were recently published in the Nature series journals, which are among the most authoritative and recognized scientific journals in the world that publish high-quality research in all fields of science and technology.
Fingerprints of Earth's original building blocks discovered in diamond-bearing rocks
Scientists have detected primordial chemical signatures preserved within modern kimberlites, according to new research by a multi-national team involving a University of Alberta scientist.
Foreign leaders generate more emotional response from Dublin voters than Irish politicians on Brexit
Among the 11 elected leaders studied, Irish Foreign Minister Simon Coveney evoked the weakest emotional response from the audience with a 29.5 rating.
Controlling ion recognition in reactive host-guest systems
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in the Journal of the American Chemical Society that in reactive host-guest systems, both the molecular recognition and the chemical reaction can happen first.
Young adults with PTSD may have a higher risk of stroke in middle age
Young adults who develop PTSD after a traumatic event (e.g., gun violence, sexual assault, military combat or natural disaster) may be more likely to experience a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or major stroke event by middle age.
Near misses on slot machines may not encourage continued gambling
For nearly 70 years, researchers believed that near-miss events like these would encourage you to continue gambling.
CNIO researchers obtain the first mice born with hyper-long telomeres
Mice with hyper-long telomeres live, on average, 13% longer and in better health, free from cancer and obesity The study has found for the first time ever a clear relationship between the length of telomeres and insulin and glucose metabolism, which are also crucial in ageing 'This finding opens the interesting hypothesis that genes are not the only thing to consider when it comes to determine species longevity,' indicates Maria Blasco, senior author of the paper.
How do ketogenic diets affect skin inflammation?
Not all fats are equal in how they affect our skin, according to a new study in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, published by Elsevier.
Image analysis to automatically quantify gender bias in movies
Many commercial films worldwide continue to express womanhood in a stereotypical manner, a recent study using image analysis showed.
Examining depression, postoperative regret after major head/neck surgery
Researchers investigated whether frail or elderly patients with head and neck cancer have worse depression or higher rates of regret after surgery.
Exoplanet interiors have Earth-like geochemistry
The interiors of some exoplanets have Earth-like geochemistry, according to a new study, which finds that extrasolar rocks share similar levels of oxidation, or oxygen fugacity, to those in the solar system.
Mathematical modelling vital to tackling disease outbreaks
Predicting and controlling disease outbreaks would be easier and more reliable with the wider application of mathematical modelling, according to a new study.
Parasite paralysis: A new way to fight schistosomiasis?
Scientists have isolated a natural chemical that acts as a potent kryptonite against parasitic worms that burrow through human skin and cause devastating health problems.
Green areas in cities promote wellbeing
Green areas in the inner city can directly improve the wellbeing of urban citizens.
New effective vaccines for Lyme disease are coming
There is no effective vaccine currently available to prevent Lyme disease in humans.
Future flash drought will increase over humid regions
proposed a new definition of flash drought based on rapid decline rate of soil moisture and the dry persistency.
Reforesting is a good idea, but it is necessary to know where and how
An international group of ecologists contests an article published in ''Science,'' which among other cardinal errors proposed ''reforestation'' of the Cerrado, Brazil's savanna biome.
High-risk patients benefit from undergoing surgery at teaching hospitals
Patients with a high risk of dying after surgery, including those with multiple chronic diseases, benefit from undergoing general or vascular procedures at a major teaching hospital as opposed to a non-teaching hospital, according to a study from researchers at Penn Medicine and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).
Old friends and new enemies: How evolutionary history can predict insect invader impacts
A team led by the University of Washington has developed a model that could help foresters predict which nonnative insect invasions will be most problematic.
Is there evidence of the 'immigrant health paradox' among Arab Americans?
In a study published in the Journal of American Public Health, researchers find little evidence of the 'immigrant health paradox' among Arab American immigrants living in California.
Tennessee researchers join call for responsible development of synthetic biology
Engineering biology is transforming technology and science. Researchers in the international Genome Project-write, including two authors from the UTIA Center for Agricultural Synthetic Biology, outline the technological advances needed to secure a safe, responsible future in the Oct.
Assigning workers to new networks boosts sustainability
Innovation comes from people in different units who have new knowledge, and a new study about conservation organizations suggests encouraging employees to think and act outside network boxes from time to time.
A new approach to reconstructing protein evolution
One angle scientists have taken to explore how protein functions arise is to trace family evolution and relatedness, which is difficult.
Online abortion medication demand highest in states with restrictive abortion policies
Demand for abortion medication through online telemedicine in the United States varies by state policy context, according to new peer-reviewed research from the LBJ School of Public Affairs at The University of Texas at Austin published in the American Journal of Public Health.
Scientists recalculate the optimum binding energy for heterogeneous catalysis
In a discovery that could lead to the development of novel catalysts that do not rely on expensive rare metals, scientists from the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science have shown that the optimal binding energy can deviate from traditional calculations, which are based on equilibrium thermodynamics, at high reaction rates.
Aspirin use after biliary tract cancer diagnosis
Researchers in this observational study examined if aspirin use after a diagnosis of a biliary tract cancer, which includes gallbladder cancer, was associated with reduced risk of death among nearly 3,000 patients.
Deet gives humans an 'invisibilty cloak' to fend off mosquito bites
Since its invention during the Second World War for soldiers stationed in countries where malaria transmission rates were high, researchers have worked to pinpoint precisely how DEET actually affects mosquitos.
Combination of AI & radiologists more accurately identified breast cancer
An artificial intelligence (AI) tool accurately identified breast cancer when combined with analysis by radiologists.
The composition of species is changing in ecosystems across the globe
While the identities of species in local assemblages are undergoing significant changes, their average number is relatively constant.
First report of cotton blue disease in the United States
Reported from six counties in coastal Alabama in 2017, cotton blue disease affected approximately 25% of the state's cotton crop and caused a 4% yield loss.
What happens under the Yellowstone Volcano
A recent study by Bernhard Steinberger of the German GeoForschungsZentrum and colleagues in the USA helps to better understand the processes in the Earth's interior beneath the Yellowstone supervolcano.
Study finds racial disparities in treatment of multiple myeloma patients
Among patients with multiple myeloma, African-Americans and Hispanics start treatment with a novel therapy significantly later than white patients, according to a new study published today in Blood Advances.
Research gauges neurodegeneration tied to FXTAS by measuring motor behavior
Research published in Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience by a team headquartered at the University of Kansas' Life Span Institute used a grip-force test to analyze sensorimotor function in people with the FMR1 premutation, with the aim of determining FXTAS risk and severity.
Region, age, and sex decide who gets arthritis-linked 'fabella' knee bone
The once-rare 'fabella' bone has made a dramatic resurgence in human knees, but who's likely to have a fabella or two -- and why?
An evolution in the understanding of evolution
In an open-source research paper, a UVA Engineering professor and her former Ph.D. student share a new, more accurate method for modeling evolutionary change.
Daily exposure to blue light may accelerate aging, even if it doesn't reach your eyes
Prolonged exposure to blue light, such as that which emanates from your phone, computer and household fixtures, could be affecting your longevity, even if it's not shining in your eyes.
Museums put ancient DNA to work for wildlife
Scientists who are trying to save species at the brink of extinction are finding help in an unexpected place.
Lessons from Ridgecrest
Geophysicists complete their analysis of a well-documented seismic event that held many surprises.
Study provides first evidence that fat accumulates in the lungs of overweight and obese people
Researchers have shown for the first time that fatty tissue accumulates in the airway walls, particularly in people who are overweight or obese.
E-cigarettes may help more than 50,000 smokers to stop smoking in England each year
A new study published today by the scientific journal Addiction found a positive link between the number of people in England giving up smoking when using e-cigarettes to try and quit.
The Lancet Haematology: First global estimates suggest around 100 million more blood units are needed in countries with low supplies each year
In the first analysis to estimate the gap between global supply and demand of blood, scientists have found that many countries are critically short of blood, according to a modelling study published in The Lancet Haematology journal.
Scientists unwind mystery behind DNA replication
The molecules of life are twisted. But how those familiar strands in DNA's double helix manage to replicate without being tangled up has been hard to decipher.
First generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from domestic cats
Researchers have reported for the first time producing feline induced pluripotent stem cells (fiPSCs) from adult cells of domestic cats.
Modern Melanesians harbor beneficial DNA from archaic hominins
Modern Melanesians harbor beneficial genetic variants that they inherited from archaic Neanderthal and Denisovan hominins, according to a new study.
Male and female mice have different brain cells
Scientists discover that a brain region known to control sex and violence contains rare cell types that differ in male versus female mice.
Weaving quantum processors out of laser light
Researchers open a new avenue to quantum computing with a breakthrough experiment: a large-scale quantum processor made entirely of light.
Big data technique reveals previously unknown capabilities of common materials
According to research published today by Nature Journal NPG Asia Materials, a group of researchers -- led by Edwin Fohtung, an associate professor of materials science and engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute -- have found a new way to optimize nickel by unlocking properties that could enable numerous applications, from biosensors to quantum computing.
Cystic fibrosis carriers at increased risk of digestive symptoms
Researchers have found that carriers of the most common genetic variant that causes cystic fibrosis experience some symptoms similar to those of people with cystic fibrosis.
Paleontology: 480-million-year-old arthropods formed orderly queues
Fossils of ancient arthropods discovered in linear formation may indicate a collective behavior either in response to environmental cues or as part of seasonal reproductive migration.
Scientists discover new species of wasp-mimicking praying mantis
Cleveland Museum of Natural History Director of Research and Collections Dr.
Bio-circuitry mimics synapses and neurons in a step toward sensory computing
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Tennessee and Texas A&M University demonstrated bio-inspired devices that accelerate routes to neuromorphic, or brain-like, computing.
Stranded whales detected from space
A new technique for analysing satellite images may help scientists detect and count stranded whales from space.
Study: First evidence of immune response targeting brain cells in autism
Post-mortem analysis of brains of people with autism revealed cellular features not previously linked to autism.
Drug treats inflammation associated with genetic heart disease
When young athletes experiences sudden cardiac death as they run down the playing field, it's usually due to arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), an inherited heart disease.
SUTD's breakthrough research allows for 3D printed chocolate without temperature control
SUTD's new approach to the 3D printing of chocolate using cold extrusion instead of conventional hot-melt extrusion method eliminates the need for stringent temperature controls, offering wider potential for 3D printing temperature-sensitive food.
Phylogenetic analysis forces rethink of termite evolution
Despite their important ecological role as decomposers, termites are often overlooked in research.
Stem cell study offers new way to study early development and pregnancy
For the first time, researchers at the Salk Institute and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have created mouse blastocyst-like structures, or 'blastoids,' from a single cultured cell.
Figuring out Alzheimer's
Alzheimer's disease and the accompanying personality breakdown frighten many of us.
How aerosols affect our climate
Greenhouse gases may get more attention, but aerosols -- from car exhaust to volcanic eruptions -- also have a major impact on the Earth's climate.
Darn you, R2! When can we blame robots?
A recent study finds that people are likely to blame robots for workplace accidents, but only if they believe the robots are autonomous.
Exposure to secondhand smoke associated with eye differences among children
About 1,400 young children in Hong Kong had eye exams to see if those exposed to secondhand smoke at home had differences in choroidal thickness, a layer of the eye that contains blood vessels and connective tissue, compared to children not exposed to smoke.
Industrial melanism linked to same gene in 3 moth species
The rise of dark forms of many species of moth in heavily polluted areas of 19th and 20th century Britain, known as industrial melanism, was a highly visible response to environmental change.
Study examines variation in transplant centers' use of less-than-ideal organs
In 2010-2016, many US transplant centers commonly accepted deceased donor kidneys with less desirable characteristics.
Treatment of metabolic dysfunction could be a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease
A team of researchers led by Yale-NUS College has found evidence that metabolic dysfunction is a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease.
Giving robots a faster grasp
MIT engineers have found a way to significantly speed up the planning process required for a robot to adjust its grasp on an object by pushing that object against a stationary surface.
Efficient synthesis of ginkgo compound could lead to new drugs, 'green' insecticides
Chemists at Scripps Research have invented an efficient method for making a synthetic version of the plant compound bilobalide, which is naturally produced by gingko trees.
New study uncovers 'magnetic' memory of European glass eels
A new study led by researchers at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and at the Institute of Marine Research in Norway found that European glass eels use their magnetic sense to 'imprint' a memory of the direction of water currents in the estuary where they become juveniles.
Federal proposals to limit Medicaid funding would hit community health centers hard
Most states that transition to block grant funding for Medicaid -- in which the federal government provides a fixed annual sum -- would see lower revenue for their community health centers that care for Medicaid beneficiaries and other residents.
Highest throughput 3D printer is the future of manufacturing
Northwestern University researchers have developed a new, futuristic 3D printer that is so big and so fast it can print an object the size of an adult human in just a couple of hours.
Study reveals fundamental insight into how memory changes with age
New research from King's College London and The Open University could help explain why memory in old age is much less flexible than in young adulthood.
Ancient stars shed light on Earth's similarities to other planets
Earth-like planets may be common in the universe, a new UCLA study implies.
Faulty signalling pathway linked to congenital heart condition
Faulty signalling pathway causes the heart to develop unnaturally while in the embryo stage, according to Duke-NUS Medical School researchers.
Always on beat: ultrashort flashes of light under optical control
Ultrashort laser pulses have enabled scientists and physicians to carry out high-precision material analyses and medical procedures.
When added to gene therapy, plant-based compound may enable faster, more effective treatments
Today's standard process for administering gene therapy is expensive and time-consuming--a result of the many steps required to deliver the healthy genes into the patients' blood stem cells to correct a genetic problem.
Adults with undiagnosed Celiac disease have lower bone density, says first study on topic
Research by George Mason University College of Health and Human Services found lower bone density in adults who are likely to have undiagnosed celiac disease, an autoimmune disease triggered by consuming gluten, despite this group consuming more calcium and phosphorous than the control group.
Communicating uncertainty about climate change
The ways climate scientists explain their predictions about the impact of global warming can either promote or limit their persuasiveness.
Embryo's early development revealed in a dish
Rice University bioscientists develop a method to observe patterns of early embryonic development, during which ectodermal cells diverge toward their fates as skin, organs and the nervous system.
Double layer of graphene helps to control spin currents
In order to make transistors that operate using the spin of electrons, rather than their charge, it is necessary to find a way of switching spin currents on and off.
Paleontologists discover complete Saurornitholestes langstoni specimen
The discovery of a nearly complete dromaeosaurid Saurornitholestes langstoni specimen is providing critical information for the evolution of theropod dinosaurs, according to new research by a University of Alberta paleontologist.
Changes in photochemical reflectance index can be used to monitor crop condition
Currently, agriculture remains one of the most labor-intensive and vital sectors of human activity.
Breaking water molecules apart to generate clean fuel: Investigating a promising material
Scientists at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) investigated a material that uses sunlight for splitting water molecules (H2O) to obtain dihydrogen (H2).
Collective behavior 480 million years ago
Researchers studied fossilized Moroccan Ampyx trilobites, which lived 480 million years ago and showed that the trilobites had probably been buried in their positions -- all oriented in the same direction.
BARseq builds a better brain map
A brain mapping technique called BARseq is capable of mapping thousands of neurons in a single mouse, at single neuron resolution, while also detailing which neuron expresses what genes.
HARP eclipses CLIP in continuous, rapid and large-scale SLA 3D printing
Objects can be continuously printed from a vat of photocurable resin at rates exceeding 430 millimeters per hour, thanks to a new approach to rapid and large-scale stereolithographic 3d printing (SLA).
A new approach to tackle superbugs
Scientists have uncovered a novel antibiotic-free approach that could help prevent and treat one of the most widespread bacterial pathogens, using nanocapsules made of natural ingredients.
Photosynthesis olympics: can the best wheat varieties be even better?
Scientists have put elite wheat varieties through a sort of 'Photosynthesis Olympics' to find which varieties have the best performing photosynthesis.
Researchers discover how left-right information is integrated to correct organ positioning
Scientists from the Instituto de Neurociencias CSIC-UMH in Alicante, Spain, under the supervision of Professor Angela Nieto, have discovered the molecular mechanism that ensures the right equilibrium needed in left-right signaling cascade during development for the correct leftward positioning of the heart.
Physicists develop fast and sensitive mechanical tool to measure light
Physicists at the University of Oregon developed a fast and sensitive mechanical tool to measure light, which is the subject of an Oct.
A higher resolution image of human lung development
Researchers at CHLA provide clearer picture of how lungs develop and discover novel markers to differentiate populations of lung cells implicated in lung diseases of premature babies.
New insights into the structure and function of Cdc34, a target for cancer therapeutics
Medical University of South Carolina researchers report in Nature Communications they have obtained 3D structural snapshots of Cdc34 in action.
Pitt study: Sexual selection alone could spark formation of new species
Because of imprinted preferences, strawberry poison frog females mate more with similar colored males, and less with differently colored males.

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