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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 22, 2019


Kallikrein 6 protease advances colon tumorigenesis via induction of the high mobility group A2 protein
In the CRC patients, KLK6 protein levels were elevated in the non-cancerous distant and adjacent tissues, compared to their paired tumor tissues.
Escapism: A powerful predictor of internet gaming disorder among video gamers
A new study in Comprehensive Psychiatry, published by Elsevier, is the first to compare professional electronic sport (esport) players with recreational video game players and explores the similarities and differences between what motivates each group.
Loosen up!
Generally, exercise is considered good for you. However, physicians and medical doctors previously prescribed bedrest to people with heart failure, fearing exercise could potentially lead to additional health problems.
Born premature, how common to be adult with no major health conditions?
This observational study looked at how common it was for people born premature to become adults without any major health conditions such as asthma, hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy, all of which have been associated with preterm birth.
Oncolytics Biotech® and PrECOG announce study in metastatic breast cancer
Oncolytics Biotech® Inc., developing pelareorep, an intravenously delivered immuno-oncolytic virus, and PrECOG LLC, today announced the BRACELET-1 (PrE0113) study, to evaluate the ability of pelareorep to make tumors immunologically visible to checkpoint inhibitors.
NUS innovation paves the way for sensor interfaces that are 30 times smaller
Researchers from the National University of Singapore have invented a novel class of Digital-to-Analog (DAC) and Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) that can be entirely designed with a fully-automated digital design methodology.
Rethinking the role of technology in the classroom
Introducing tablets and laptops to the classroom has certain educational virtues, according to Annahita Ball, an assistant professor in the University at Buffalo School of Social Work, but her research suggests that tech has its limitations as well.
On water sustainability, L.A. County earns C+ from UCLA environmental report card
Los Angeles County's grades are in, and UCLA's latest environmental report card gives the region an overall passing C+ mark for water sustainability.
Simple test predicts dangerous pregnancy disorder
Researchers have developed a simple, low-cost way to predict preeclampsia, a potentially deadly condition that kills 76,000 mothers and 500,000 babies every year.
Point-of-care diagnostic for detecting preterm birth on horizon
A new study provides a first step toward the development of an inexpensive point-of-care diagnostic test to assess the presence of known risk factors for preterm birth in resource-poor areas.
NREL publishes Science journal article posing three challenges to wind energy potential
Wind energy researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are among a team of authors inviting the scientific community to address three challenges that will drive the innovation needed for wind to become one of the world's primary sources of low-cost electricity generation.
New portable DNA sequencer quickly and accurately diagnoses wheat viruses
A group of scientists in Kansas have developed a new technology that makes it possible to rapidly identify viruses in wheat fields with a significantly higher accuracy.
In Alzheimer's research, MIT scientists reveal brain rhythm role
At the Society for Neuroscience 2019 annual meeting, MIT neuroscientist Li-Huei Tsai will present her lab's latest findings on sensory stimulation of gamma brain rhythms as a potential intervention for Alzheimer's disease.
UM student research tests ways to reduce errors in wildlife surveys
Research led by a University of Montana undergraduate student to identify less error-prone methods for performing wildlife surveys was published Oct.
Combination of more hospitalizations and brain pathologies linked to faster cognitive decline
Older people who experienced more hospitalizations and also had more Alzheimer's pathology in their brain experienced the fastest rates of cognitive decline, according to study results published in the October 15, 2019 online issue of the Annals of Neurology.
A blood factor involved in weight loss and aging
Aging can be delayed through lifestyle changes (physical exercise, restricting calorie intake, etc.).
Ionic channels in carbon electrodes for efficient electrochemical energy storage
Development towards high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices has evoked our effort on novel carbon electrodes, as certain nanocarbons are perceived to own advantages such as high specific surface areas and controllable structure.
Research worth 'bragging' about
A team of psychology researchers at the University of Missouri is providing one of the first comprehensive literature reviews on arrogance, as well as a way to classify the condition on different levels across a spectrum, similarly to how autism is diagnosed.
Rice study assesses college leadership training programs
A new study from psychologists at Rice University found they teach students about leadership, but additional measures are needed to evaluate how they impact students' real-life leadership skills.
Cochrane Review: Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan test to detect TB in people with HIV
TB causes more deaths in people living with HIV than any other disease, with more than 300,000 deaths in 2017.
Wake-up call: Cellular sleep isn't as harmless as once thought
New research into the mechanics of cellular sleep and shutdown could shed light on the aging process and how to potentially intervene.
BYU study shows overall time on social media is not related to teen anxiety and depression
New research led by Sarah Coyne, a professor of family life at Brigham Young University, found that the amount of time spent on social media is not directly increasing anxiety or depression in teenagers.
Stingless bee species depend on a complex fungal community to survive
A report published in PLOS ONE describes key roles of various microorganisms in the development of the larvae of Scaptotrigona depilis.
Poor toilet hygiene, not food, spreads antibiotic-resistant E. coli superbugs
New research shows that antibiotic-resistant E.coli superbugs are spread through poor toilet hygiene, not undercooked chicken or other food.
Exposure to environmental PCBs impairs brain function in mice
Human-made toxic chemicals that linger indefinitely in the environment disrupt the performance of critical helper cells in the mouse brain, leading to impaired function over long-term exposures.
Advances in precision oral health research proceedings published in Advances in Dental Research
On November 8-9, 2018 the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) held the '9th AADR Fall Focused Symposium: Advances in Precision Oral Health Research' meeting on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus in Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Are humans changing animal genetic diversity worldwide?
Human population density and land use is causing changes in animal genetic diversity, according to researchers at McGill University.
Fragmented magnetism
Spin-polarizing scanning tunneling microscopy allowed researchers to detect an elusive atomic-scale magnetic signal in a Mott insulator, reports a team of scientists from Boston College, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and University of California, Santa Barbara.
Fish more tolerant than expected to low oxygen events
Fish may be more tolerant than previously thought to periods of low oxygen in the oceans, new research shows.
Deuteron-like heavy dibaryons -- a step towards finding exotic nuclei
Using supercomputer, TIFR's physicists have predicted the existence of deuteron-like exotic nuclei for the first time as well as provided their masses precisely.
Bed time is the best time to take blood pressure medication
People with high blood pressure who take all their anti-hypertensive medication in one go at bedtime have better controlled blood pressure and a significantly lower risk of death or illness caused by heart or blood vessel problems, compared to those who take their medication in the morning, according to new research published in the European Heart Journal.
KU Leuven researchers use satellite data to calculate snow depth in mountain ranges
Bioscience engineers at KU Leuven (Belgium) have developed a method to measure the snow depth in all mountain ranges in the Northern Hemisphere using satellites.
UofSC scientists find solution to Gulf War Illness in FDA-approved antiviral drugs
A recent study led by scientists at the University of South Carolina's Arnold School of Public Health has shown that adjusting GI tract viruses by repurposing existing FDA-approved antiviral drugs offers a route for effective treatment for Gulf War Illness and its myriad of symptoms.
Ants: Jam-free traffic champions
Whether they occur on holiday routes or the daily commute, traffic jams affect cars as well as pedestrians.
Magnetics with a twist: Scientists find new way to image spins
Cornell researchers have put a new spin on measuring and controlling spins in nickel oxide, with an eye toward improving electronic devices' speed and memory capacity.
Poor water conditions drive invasive snakeheads onto land
In a new study published Oct. 21, 2019 in the peer-reviewed journal Integrative Organismal Biology, Wake Forest researcher Noah Bressman reported for the first time the water conditions that could drive snakeheads onto land.
Half of all commonly used drugs profoundly affecting the gut microbiome, warn experts
The drug categories found to have the biggest impact on the microbiome include, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), metformin, antibiotics and laxatives.
New treatment may reverse celiac disease
A phase 2 clinical trial using a new technology show it is possible to induce immune tolerance to gluten in individuals with celiac disease.
Aggressive form of breast cancer influenced by dual action of genes and RNA
Women with an aggressive, less-common type of breast cancer, known as triple-negative, versus a more common form of the disease, could be differentiated from each other by a panel of 17 small RNA molecules that are directly influenced by genetic alterations typically found in cancer cells.
Women less likely to receive Canadian federal research funding
Women are significantly less likely than men to be awarded grants and New Investigator personnel awards from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Karen Burns of the University of Toronto, Canada, and colleagues.
Regenstrief and IUPUI researchers use EHRs to identify cancer symptom clusters
Patients with chronic diseases such as cancer often experience fatigue, pain, depression and other symptoms which can lead to distress and functional impairment if left untreated.
Fullerene compounds will help in the fight against lung cancer
The team of scientists from Skoltech Center for Energy Science and Technology, the Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences and National Taiwan University have discovered that fullerene compounds can effectively kill non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells and found out the mechanisms behind their anti-tumor activity.
New flame retardants, old problems
New flame retardants escaping from our TVs, other electrical and electronic products, and children's car seats are just as toxic as the flame retardants they're intended to replace, according to a peer-reviewed study published today in Environmental Science & Technology Letters.
Scientists unpack how taste neurons control food intake
Using the common fruit fly as a model, a research team led by UC Riverside scientists, studied how taste neurons control feeding behaviors and found that flies genetically modified to have only these neurons can avoid many aversive chemicals, such as bitter compounds, acids, and high concentrations of salt.
Anorexia nervosa among young children in the UK and Ireland on the up
The annual number of new cases of anorexia nervosa among 8 to 12 year olds in the UK and Ireland is around double that of a previous estimate in 2006, indicates research published in the online journal BMJ Open.
360 degree virtual dive in Iceland shipwreck
October 16, 2019 marks 360 years since the Dutch merchant ship Melckmeyt (Milkmaid) was wrecked off a remote Icelandic island.
Oral implants -- The paradigm shift in restorative dentistry
The discovery of the phenomenon osseointegration has led to the development of oral implants with high clinical performance.
'Brain in a dish' models advance studies of neural development and disease
Experimental advances using lab-grown brain organoids are helping to clarify how best to use them as a model system to understand human brain development and diseases.
More electronic device use tied to more sugar and caffeine in teens
The study, published today in PLOS ONE, found that more than 27% of teens exceed recommended sugar intake and 21% exceed recommended caffeine from soda and energy drinks.
We must wake up to devastating impact of nitrogen, say scientists
More than 150 top international scientists are calling on the world to take urgent action on nitrogen pollution, to tackle the widespread harm it is causing to humans, wildlife and the planet.
Scientists tout ocean protection progress, give road map for more
World governments and other leadership bodies are taking vital steps to protect the ocean but more progress is urgently needed, scientists reported today at the Our Ocean Conference.
Novel study documents marked slowdown of cell division rates in old age
In a novel study comparing healthy cells from people in their 20s with cells from people in their 80s, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have documented that cell division rates appear to consistently and markedly slow down in humans at older ages.
New strategy for treating high blood pressure
The key to treating blood pressure might lie in people who are 'resistant' to developing high blood pressure even when they eat high salt diets, shows new research published today in Experimental Physiology.
Study: Tradeoffs between commute time, safety
Urban commuters may be less likely to encounter automobile accidents if they are willing to increase trip time, researchers report.
Scientists discovered mechanisms that protect tapeworms from being digested by their host
A team of scientists from Tyumen together with colleagues found and described previously unknown tapeworm proteins that suppress the activity of trypsin and efficiently protect the parasites from being digested inside a host's intestinal tract.
Lead isotopes a new tool for tracking coal ash
Duke University scientists have developed a forensic tracer that uses lead isotopes to detect and measure coal fly ash in dust, soil and sediments.
Biological material boosts solar cell performance
Next-generation solar cells that mimic photosynthesis with biological material may give new meaning to the term 'green technology.' Adding the protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) to perovskite solar cells boosted the efficiency of the devices in a series of laboratory tests, according to an international team of researchers.
Inadequate humanitarian funding increases refugees' risk of chronic poverty
The US has the largest refugee resettlement program in the world, contributing to the humanitarian efforts recognized by the global community.
New insights into how the brain perceives and processes odors
New research makes advances in understanding how smells are perceived and represented in the brain.
Astronomers discover 'monster' galaxy lurking in distant dust clouds
A team of astronomers including assistant professor Kate Whitaker at the University of Massachusetts Amherst reports today that they have by chance discovered faint traces of a huge galaxy never seen before, dating from the early universe.
Prescribing rates for anxiety and sleeping drugs highest in deprived areas
Prescriptions for drugs to treat anxiety, alcohol withdrawal and sleep problems are highest in the most deprived areas in England, according to a new study from the University of Warwick.
The joint climbing movement and threshold of the sustainable development in the urban agglomeration
The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is a world-class super-large urban agglomeration, which is the key construction in China, to alleviate Beijing's non-capital function and promote the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei.
Scientists discover link between unique brain cells and OCD and anxiety
In a new study, University of Utah scientists discovered a new lineage of specialized brain cells, called Hoxb8-lineage microglia, and established a link between the lineage and OCD and anxiety in mice.
English proficiency associated with hospital revisits, readmissions
Patients with limited English proficiency face barriers in health care settings.
Q-suite motor assessment tool promising for evaluating Huntington's disease
Amsterdam, NL, October 22, 2019 - In clinical trials of adults with Huntington's disease (HD) the Q-Suite Motor Assessment Tool (Q-Motor) has proven to be helpful to detect and quantitate subtle motor abnormalities.
Neural network technique identifies mechanisms of ferroelectric switching
AI reveals domain-geometry-driven differences in ferroelectric switching, important for next-generation computing; approach could be applied to electron microscopy, agriculture, astronomy and other systems mapped through hyperspectral imaging
New drug-delivery technology promises efficient, targeted cancer treatment
A precise and non-toxic treatment that targets lung cancer cells at the nanoscale is able to effectively kill the cells even at a low dose.
Optoacoustic imaging shows potential for noninvasive diagnostics for thyroid disorders
A novel, noninvasive imaging technique can provide new information about thyroid disorders that will help in evaluation and diagnosis, according to an article featured in the October 2019 issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
New way to wrap liquid drops could improve drug delivery
Researchers have developed a faster, cheaper way to coat liquid medication, an invention that could improve how drugs are delivered in the body.
Study shows metformin offers no strength training benefits for seniors
A clinical trial initiated by University of Kentucky researchers argues against the hypothesis that the diabetes drug metformin could help exercising seniors gain more muscle mass.
Dementia patients' adult kids diagnosed earlier than their parents
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
World first study with drone cameras now separates living from the dead
Autonomous drone cameras have been trialled for several years to detect signs of life in disaster zones.
Scientists enhance color and texture of cultured meat
A team of Tufts University-led researchers exploring the development of cultured meat found that the addition of the iron-carrying protein myoglobin improves the growth, texture and color of bovine muscle grown from cells in culture.
Novel agent flips on garbage disposal in neurons, eliminating toxic brain proteins in mice
Neuroscientists say they have developed and tested an agent that reduces the buildup of toxic proteins in animal models of both Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and improves cognitive and motor behavior.
Machine learning's next frontier: Epigenetic drug discovery
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have developed a machine-learning algorithm that gleans information from microscope images -- allowing for high-throughput epigenetic drug screens that could unlock new treatments for cancer, heart disease, mental illness and more.
IQSEC1 gene mutations cause new intellectual disability syndrome
Researchers identify gene causing intellectual disability syndrome that is common in countries where consanguineous marriages are prevalent.
Brain imaging reveals neural correlates of human social behavior
Advances in the study of human social behavior may lead to a better understanding of normal processes such as empathy and theory of mind, as well as dysregulated conditions including autism spectrum disorder.
3D printing, bioinks create implantable blood vessels
A biomimetic blood vessel was fabricated using a modified 3D cell printing technique and bioinks.
Looking inside the body with indirect light
Scientists at Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Japan, report an imaging technique that gives finer details of blood vessels in live patients in real time than current diagnostic machines used in the clinic.
NASA imagery reveals Neoguri now extra-tropical
Formerly a typhoon, now an extra-tropical storm, Neoguri has taken on more of a frontal system appearance in imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite.
Study shows how circulating tumor cells target distant organs
Most cancers kill because tumor cells spread beyond the primary site to invade other organs.
Trial compares SSRI vs. placebo for obsessive-compulsive behaviors in kids, teens with ASD
Researchers compared the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine with placebo for reducing the frequency and severity of obsessive-compulsive behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in this randomized clinical trial in Australia.
Scientists identify what may be a key mechanism of opioid addiction
Scientists at Scripps Research have discovered a molecular process in brain cells that may be a major driver of drug addiction, and thus may become a target for future addiction treatments.
Machine-learning analysis of X-ray data picks out key catalytic properties
Scientists seeking to design new catalysts to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) to methane have used a novel artificial intelligence (AI) approach to identify key catalytic properties.
Promising lessons learned from PROMISE
A special issue of the Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation (JVR), provides a comprehensive review of PROMISE (Promoting Readiness of Minors in Supplemental Security Income), a joint initiative of US federal agencies the Social Security Administration and Departments of Education, Health and Human Services, and Labor.
Kirigami inspires new method for wearable sensors
As wearable sensors become more prevalent, the need for a material resistant to damage from the stress and strains of the human body's natural movement becomes ever more crucial.
Identified a neural mechanism involved in the creation and consolidation of memories
The memory of specific episodes is the base of autobiographical memory, but we do not know how the brain structures the experience to remember it in the long run.
New study reveals that crabs can solve and remember their way around a maze
A new Swansea University study has revealed how common shore crabs can navigate their way around a complex maze and can even remember the route in order to find food.
Mix master: Modeling magnetic reconnection in partially ionized plasma
Many of the most dramatic events in the solar system--the spectacle of the Northern Lights, the explosiveness of solar flares, and the destructive impact of geomagnetic storms that can disrupt communication and electrical grids on Earth--are driven in part by a common phenomenon: fast magnetic reconnection.
Men with breast cancer face high mortality rates: Study
Men with breast cancer are more likely to die than their female counterparts, across all stages of disease, with the disparity persisting even when clinical characteristics, such as cancer types, treatment and access to care are considered, according to a study by Vanderbilt researchers published in JAMA Oncology.
New organelle that helps prevent cancer discovered in our cells
Scientists have discovered a strange structure inside our cells that helps to prevent cancer by ensuring genetic material is sorted correctly as cells divide.
Pushy robots learn the fundamentals of object manipulation
MIT researchers have compiled a dataset that captures the detailed behavior of a robotic system physically pushing hundreds of different objects.
Otago scientists' discovery leads to greater understanding of Alzheimer's disease
Otago scientists have made an important discovery in understanding the role a particular protein plays to impair memory in Alzheimer's disease, which could lead to more effective treatment in future.
When a freestanding emergency department comes to town, costs go up
Rather than functioning as substitutes for hospital-based emergency departments, freestanding emergency departments have increased local market spending on emergency care in three of four states' markets where they have entered, according to a new paper by experts at Rice University.
Farmer wages must be improved to prevent millions in India from malnutrition
A comprehensive study led by Colonel Divakaran Padma Kumar Pillay -- a former Indian Army officer, severely wounded in counter insurgency operations - calls for an overhaul of food security systems in India, with improved farmer wages, a greater use of technology, and improved management, to help better feed the millions of Indian people suffering with malnutrition.
Single mutation dramatically changes structure and function of bacteria's transporter proteins
Swapping a single amino acid in a simple bacterial protein changes its structure and function, revealing the effects of complex gene evolution, finds a new study published in the journal eLife.
Survey completeness of a global citizen-science database of bird occurrence
There are many shortfalls in knowledge of the world's biodiversity, and one of the most basic is the lack of knowledge about where species occur geographically.
Evolution of aesthetic dentistry
One of the main goals of dental treatment is to mimic teeth and design smiles in the most natural and aesthetic manner, based on the individual and specific needs of the patient.
NASA finds heavy rain potential in typhoon Bualoi over Marianas
Typhoon Bualoi was lashing the Marianas Islands in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean when NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead and analyzed the cloud top temperatures to give forecasters insight into the storm's rain potential.
Simple conversations can reduce opioid prescriptions after hysterectomy
Women who undergo a hysterectomy are often prescribed at least twice as many opioids as they use - but there may be a simple way to change that.
A 'shocking' new way to treat infections
New research from the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering introduces a revolutionary treatment for these infections.
Cosmic Yeti from the dawn of the universe found lurking in dust
The early universe is filled with monsters, a new study revealed.
Browser tool aims to help researchers ID malicious websites, code
Researchers have developed an open-source tool that allows users to track and record the behavior of JavaScript programs without alerting the websites that run those programs.
Mastering collaboration -- Educating tomorrow's roboticists
Hundreds of students -- from undergraduate to doctoral students -- have contributed to the Army's Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance by working in university laboratories on real Army problems to supplement and meet educational requirements.
Fish pass 'hot genes' onto their grandchildren
Fish that are able to survive and adjust to warming waters may pass heat-tolerant genes not just onto their children, but their grandchildren too.
New species take longer to arise in the Amazon
Amazonia is home to the greatest number of species on earth, many now threatened, but a new study published Oct.
Research identifies earlier origin of neural crest cells
Neural crest cells have been thought to originate in the ectoderm, the outermost of the three germ layers formed in the earliest stages of embryonic development.
3+ hours daily social media use linked to poor sleep patterns in UK teens
Spending three or more hours a day on social media is associated with poor sleep patterns, such as falling asleep after 11 pm on school nights and waking during the night, among UK teens, suggests research published in the online journal BMJ Open.
By cutting out one gene, researchers remove a tadpole's ability to regenerate
Tadpoles that can typically regrow amputated tails or limbs lost their ability to regenerate after researchers blocked the expression of a newly identified gene that is one of the drivers for this regrowth.
Underwater grandmothers reveal big population of lethal sea snakes
A group of snorkelling grandmothers is helping scientists better understand marine ecology by photographing venomous sea snakes in waters off the city of Noumea, New Caledonia.
Little evidence common antidepressant is effective in autism spectrum disorders
A new study has found there is little evidence that a widely used antidepressant is effective at reducing obsessive compulsive behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

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