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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 23, 2019


Bacterial lifestyle alters the evolution of antibiotic resistance
How bacteria live - whether as independent cells or in a communal biofilm - determines the course of their evolution, with implications for drug-resistant infections.
Building blocks of all life gain new understanding
New research on an enzyme that is essential for photosynthesis and all life on earth has uncovered a key finding in its structure which reveals how light can interact with matter to make an essential pigment for life.
Quantum supremacy milestone harnesses ORNL Summit supercomputer
A joint research team from Google Inc., NASA Ames Research Center, and the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that a quantum computer can outperform a classical computer at certain tasks, a feat known as quantum supremacy.
UTSA study warns of security gaps in smart light bulbs
Smart bulbs are expected to be a popular purchase this holiday season.
New Pd-based initiating systems for C1 polymerization of diazoacetates
Two new Pd-based initiating systems for C1 polymerization of diazoacetates were reported: Pd(nq)2/borate (nq = naphthoquinone, borate = NaBPh4) and [Pd(cod)(Cl-nq)Cl/borate] [cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene, Cl-nq = 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone].
Americans' interest in CBD eclipses nearly all other health products or topics
A new study published in JAMA Network Open led by UC San Diego health scientists finds that every month as many as 6.4 million Americans turn to Google to learn about or buy Cannabidiol (CBD), eclipsing or rivalling interest in most other health products or topics.
No defects found in reproductive ability of male mice returning from short stay in space
Male mice raised in space using specially developed cages were returned safely to Earth.
UCF researchers work to create infrared detectors for viper-like night vision
Much like some snakes use infrared to 'see' at night, University of Central Florida researchers are working to create similar viper vision to improve the sensitivity of night-vision cameras.
Revealing the nanostructure of wood could help raise height limits for wooden skyscrapers
Cambridge researchers have captured the visible nanostructure of living wood for the first time using an advanced low-temperature scanning electron microscope.
Rethinking the science of plastic recycling
A multi-institutional collaboration reports a catalytic method for selectively converting discarded plastics into higher quality products.
Increasing Google searches for marijuana chemical component CBD
Google searches from 2004 through April 2019 were used to measure US public interest in cannabidiol (CBD), a chemical component of marijuana.
Pathogenic tau and cognitive impairment are precipitated by a high-salt diet
High levels of dietary salt can activate a pathway in the brain to cause cognitive impairment, according to a new study.
Scientists sequence 1,100 plants, illuminating 1 billion years of evolution
Scientists have completed a nine-year quest to sequence active genes from more than 1,100 green plant species, revealing the plot twists and furious pace of the rise of this super group of organisms.
Strategies of a honey bee virus
Heidelberg, 23 October 2019 - The Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus is a pathogen that affects honey bees and has been linked to Colony Collapse Disorder, a key factor in decimating the bee population.
Even the fetus has gut bacteria, study shows
A study in humans and mice demonstrated that a fetus has its own microbiome, or communities of bacteria living in the gut, which are known to play important roles in the immune system and metabolism.
Rapid triage test sniffs out active tuberculosis infections in adults
A new triage test for human blood samples can distinguish active cases of tuberculosis (TB) from similar diseases in adults in less than an hour -- helping to meet an elusive goal for global health authorities.
Study identifies brain injury as a cause of dementia in some older adults
A UCLA-led study finds that, with the use of MRI scans, it is possible to distinguish between memory loss caused by Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury.
Scientists discover reasons why targeted immuno-oncology drugs sometimes fail
Researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G.
Mapping millet genetics
New DNA sequences will aid in the development of improved millet varieties
Researchers significantly extend Wi-Fi range for smart-home devices
A group of researchers has created a protocol that significantly extends the distance a Wi-Fi enabled device can send and receive signals.
Choosing the best embryos
Struggling with infertility? You are not alone. Infertility affects one out of every six Canadian couples.
Mapping international drug use through the world's largest wastewater study
A seven-year project monitoring illicit drug use in 37 countries via wastewater samples shows that cocaine use was skyrocketing in Europe in 2017 and Australia had a serious problem with methamphetamine.
New chemical weapon to combat cancer
Patients often suffer from side effects due to the doses used in the treatments for fighting cancer.
By popular demand
Computer scientists created a new algorithm to recommend tags for social media posts which should boost the popularity of the post in question.
Alcohol byproduct contributes to brain chemistry changes in specific brain regions
Study of mouse models provides clear implications for new targets to treat alcohol use disorder and fetal alcohol syndrome.
A timely triage test for TB
There's a large unmet need for accurate, fast, and inexpensive tests to identify patients who have active tuberculosis (ATB), which claims the lives over a million people per year.
Stressing cancer with spice
Curcumin is an anti-cancer agent found in turmeric, but at doses too high for health benefit.
Ground failure study shows deep landslides not reactivated by 2018 Anchorage Quake
Major landslides triggered by the 1964 magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska earthquake responded to, but were not reactivated by, the magnitude 7.1 Anchorage earthquake that took place 30 November 2018, researchers concluded in a new study published in Seismological Research Letters.
Magnets sustainably separate mixtures of rare earth metals
A new study describes a novel approach for purifying rare earth metals, crucial components of technology that require environmentally-damaging mining procedures.
Anti-arthritis drug also stops tuberculosis bacillus from multiplying in blood stem cells
Immunologist Johan Van Weyenbergh (KU Leuven) and his Belgian-Brazilian colleagues have shown that a drug used to fight arthritis also stops the process that allows the tuberculosis bacillus to infect and hijack blood stem cells.
With this new alpha-gel, the cream of all skin creams could be here
Mixtures called alpha-gels are thick, do not flow easily, and can hold much water.
Robotics: Teaming for future soldier combat
The US Army's investment for the 10 year, Army-led foundational research program has resulted in advanced science in four critical areas of ground combat robotics that affect the way US Warfighters see, think, move and team.
Marmoset monkeys can learn a new dialect
Monkeys and other animals communicate through calls that can differ depending on region.
Earthquakes in slow motion
A survey of slow-slip events in Cascadia reveals new insight into the recently discovered phenomenon.
Newly discovered protein is the permit to the powerhouse of cells
Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) researchers report in Science Advances the discovery of a protein, P17/PERMIT, that is key to recycling aging and damaged mitochondria.
Researchers find risk factors for unemployment with multiple sclerosis vary by age
'Our findings suggest that physical symptoms and how the individual manages them are greater issues for the youngest and oldest decades, while psychological issues predominate among the middle-aged,' said Dr.
A weapon to make a superbug to become more deadly
A recent research from City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has discovered an easily transmitted DNA piece that can make a new type of hyper-resistant and deadly superbug become hyper-virulent quickly, posing an unprecedented threat to human health.
Study provides framework for one billion years of green plant evolution
Gene sequences for more than 1100 plant species have been released by an international consortium of nearly 200 plant scientists who were involved in a nine-year research project, One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative (1KP), that examined the diversification of plant species, genes and genomes across the more than one-billion-year history of green plants dating back to the ancestors of flowering plants and green algae.
Earthquakes can be predicted five days ahead
An international team of researchers, which includes physicists from HSE University and the RAS Space Research Institute (IKI), have discovered that, with an impending earthquake, the parameters of internal gravity waves (IGWs) can change five days before a seismic event.
Study provides framework for 1 billion years of green plant evolution
Gene sequences for more than 1,100 plant species have been released by an international consortium of nearly 200 plant scientists, the culmination of a nine-year research project.
Turning plastic trash into treasure
Researchers have developed a new catalyst that can cleave plastic's strong carbon-carbon, converting it into higher value products.
University of Chicago scientists unveil the secret of cancer-associated Warburg effect
Research published in the Oct. 23 issue of Nature, shows that lactate, an end product of metabolism, changes the function of an immune cell known as a macrophage, thereby rewiring it to behave differently.
Polymerized estrogen shown to protect nervous system cells
In research published today in Nature Communications, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute demonstrated how estrogen -- a natural hormone produced in the body -- can be polymerized into a slow-releasing biomaterial and applied to nervous system cells to protect those cells and even promote regeneration.
Yeast study reveals how multiple genes interact to influence a surprising cellular outcome
The research lays ground for understanding how genes interact in higher order combinations as is the case with most diseases
Special cells contribute to regenerate the heart in Zebrafish
It is already known that zebrafish can flexibly regenerate their hearts after injury.
Study fingers new player in cancer immunity
Study in mice reveals new immune regulatory mechanism involved in cancer, viral infections.
Keep quiet or be eliminated: How cell competition modulates morphogen gradients
Tissue patterning is an important process during embryo formation, which ensures that groups of cells are arranged in an appropriate manner that allows them to function properly.
Drug combination reverses hypersensitivity to noise
MIT neuroscientists have identified two brain circuits that help to tune out distracting sensory information, and showed that enhancing the activity of those circuits in mice could reverse noise hypersensitivity, a common symptom of autism.
Creating a nanospace like no other
Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology, the University of Cambridge, and the University of Copenhagen have built a self-assembled nanocage with a very unusual nanospace: Its walls are made of antiaromatic molecules, which are generally considered too unstable to work with.
Researchers discover the 'KARAPPO' gene and illuminate vegetative reproduction
The mechanism by which liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) asexually reproduces via the development of clonal progenies (gemmae) has been revealed by a cross-institutional research group.
Sensing sweetness on a molecular level
Whether it's chocolate cake or pasta sauce, the sensation of sweetness plays a major role in the human diet and the perception of other flavors.
Young adult women abused as adolescents report higher levels of pain
Young adult women with a documented history of being maltreated as children report higher levels of pain than women not maltreated in childhood, according to a new study published in the journal Pain.
Most complete exploration of fly landing maneuvers to advance future robots
To inspire advanced robotic technology, researchers in the Penn State Department of Mechanical Engineering have published the most complete description of how flying insects land upside-down.
FEFU and FEB RAS scientists are close to Integrate Silicon Electronics and Spintronics
Scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS) developed the nanoheterostructure consisted of a nanocrystal magnetite film (Fe3O4) covering a silicon substrate with an additional layer of silicon oxide (SiO2/Si).
Pacifier biosensor could help monitor newborn health
Wearable biosensors that non-invasively monitor health and fitness are growing in popularity among adults.
Expecting the unexpected: A new model for cognition
Researchers in the Cognitive Neurorobotics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have developed a computer model inspired by known biological brain mechanisms, modeling how the brain learns and recognizes new information and then makes predictions about incoming sensory inputs.
Antibiotics with novel mechanism of action discovered
Many life-threatening bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antibiotics.
Emory researchers find college football players' weight gain leads to heart problems
Weight gain and high blood pressure in college football players leads to adverse changes in cardiac structure and function, indicating monitoring and early intervention is needed for this young and otherwise healthy athletic population, according to a new study by Emory University researchers.
Achieving quantum supremacy
Researchers in UC Santa Barbara/Google scientist John Martinis' group have made good on their claim to quantum supremacy.
Artificial intelligence system gives fashion advice
A University of Texas at Austin-led computer science team has developed an artificial intelligence system that can look at a photo of an outfit and suggest helpful tips to make it more fashionable.
Journal articles explore fatal consequences of immigrant detention policies, conditions
An analysis and related commentary published in Clinical Infectious Diseases today provide in-depth examination of the deplorable and dangerous conditions in US immigrant detention centers where seven children have died in the last 10 months.
Cracking the mystery of nature's toughest material
Nacre, the rainbow-sheened material that lines the insides of mussel and other mollusk shells, is known as nature's toughest material.
How to spot a wormhole (if they exist)
Whether wormholes exist is up for debate. But in a paper in Physical Review D, physicists describe a technique for detecting these pathways.
Pre-programmed microfluidic systems offer new control capabilities
Northwestern University researchers have discovered how to pre-program microfluidic systems in a way that controls how fluids flow and mix throughout the micropipes.
The long arm of childhood conditions
Available research on the impact of a person's socioeconomic status during childhood suggests that the circumstances one grows up in matter a great deal for adult health.
Chronic kidney disease patients at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes
Chronic kidney disease, which afflicts an estimated 6.4% of US adults 45 and older, is associated with an increased risk of heart attack and other adverse cardiovascular outcomes, according to new research from Mayo Clinic.
RUDN scientists proved a theorem that would help calculate water movement in porous rock
Mathematicians from RUDN University have proved the unique continuation theorem for a one dimensional solution to a fractional order diffusion problem.
NASA analysis shows heavy rain in Typhoon Bualoi
Typhoon Bualoi continues to move through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite measured rainfall rates throughout the storm.
Gut instincts: Researchers discover first clues on how gut health influences brain health
New cellular and molecular processes underlying communication between gut microbes and brain cells have been described for the first time by scientists at Weill Cornell Medicine and Cornell's Ithaca campus.
Upcycling polyethylene plastic waste into lubricant oils
Plastics pervade almost every aspect of modern life, but once they have served their purpose, it's tough to get rid of them.
A possible gut-brain connection to 'chemo brain'
To test the possible relationship between the gut and chemo brain, Leah Pyter's lab is examining chemo's effects on mice whose guts have been manipulated before treatment.
Biologists build proteins that avoid crosstalk with existing molecules
An MIT study sheds light on how cells prevent crosstalk between signaling proteins, and also shows that there remains a huge number of possible protein interactions that cells have not used for signaling.
New measurement of Hubble constant adds to cosmic mystery
New measurements of the rate of expansion of the universe, led by astronomers at UC Davis, add to a growing mystery: Estimates of a fundamental constant made with different methods keep giving different results.
Uncovering the pathway to colon cancer
The hidden world of genetic changes, or mutations, in healthy colon tissue has been uncovered by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators.
High-salt diet promotes cognitive impairment through the Alzheimer-linked protein tau
In the study, published Oct. 23 in Nature, the investigators sought to understand the series of events that occur between salt consumption and poor cognition and concluded that lowering salt intake and maintaining healthy blood vessels in the brain may 'stave off' dementia.
Protein movement in cells hints at greater mysteries
A new imaging technique that makes it possible to match motor proteins with the cargo they carry within a cell is upending a standard view of how cellular traffic reaches the correct destination.
Health in old age is a lifelong affair
Reduced food intake in old mice can no longer improve health.
Electrical stimulation aids in spinal fusion
Spine surgeons in the U.S. perform more than 400,000 spinal fusions each year as a way to ease back pain and prevent vertebrae in the spine from wiggling around and doing more damage.
Consuming alcohol leads to epigenetic changes in brain memory centers
New research, published in Nature, revealed a surprising pathway that shows alcohol byproducts travel to the brain to promote addiction memory.
Why, sometimes, we don't see what we actually saw
Georgetown University neuroscientists say they have identified how people can have a 'crash in visual processing' -- a bottleneck of feedforward and feedback signals that can cause us not to be consciously aware of stimuli that our brain recognized.
Australian honey abuzz with high-value antibacterial activity
Australia has at least seven Leptospermum species that produce honey with exceptionally high levels of antibacterial activity, providing the scientific basis to facilitate the entry of Australian honey producers into premium medicinal markets.
Consensus report shows burnout prevalent in health care community
Clinician burnout is affecting between one-third and one-half of all of US nurses and physicians, and 45 to 60% of medical students and residents, according to a National Academy of Medicine (NAM) report released today.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with poor muscle function in adults aged 60+
New research from Trinity College Dublin shows that vitamin D deficiency is an important determinant of poor skeletal muscle function in adults aged 60 years and over.
Women scientists author fewer invited commentaries in medical journals than men
Women scientists were 21% less likely to author invited commentaries in medical journals during a five-year period than men with similar scientific expertise, seniority, and publication metrics.
Neurotransmitters in an instant
Dopamine, serotonin, adrenalin... The smooth functioning of the human brain depends on their correct proportions.
Successful biological decontamination of an aquifer
Researchers at the UAB, in collaboration with the UB and the company Litoclean, have achieved the biological decontamination of an aquifer with a high concentration of organochlorine compounds bieostimulating bacteria capable of breaking down these compounds.
Mapping international drug use by looking at wastewater
Wastewater-based epidemiology is a rapidly developing scientific discipline with the potential for monitoring close to real-time, population-level trends in illicit drug use.
Why are bald eagles such great gliders? It's all in the wrist
Birds come in an astounding array of shapes and colours.
As large chains grow to dominate dialysis, patient outcomes decline
As large, for-profit dialysis chains acquired more than 1,200 smaller providers across the U.S. from 1998 to 2010, they cut skilled medical staff, increased patient volumes, altered drug regimens and adopted other practices that hurt patient health, according to new research from Duke University's Fuqua School of Business.
Flies that 'stick' upside down landings use different approach than thought
Researchers studying one of the least understood aerobatic maneuvers performed by flying insects, and who call their investigation the 'most complete exploration of fly landing maneuvers' to date, report that blue bottle flies that land upside down on ceilings use a more complex series of behaviors than thought.
Climate change could hasten deterioration of US bridge infrastructure
Hussam Mahmoud is studying the toll climate change may take on aging US infrastructure, which includes over 600,000 bridges.
UA Health Sciences study calls for forensic nursing exams to include concussion evaluation
TBIs often missed on routine forensic examination for domestic violence victims.
University of Minnesota researcher studies immune response to influenza
New research from the University of Minnesota Medical School provides insights into how the body can protect itself from immunopathology during flu.
Monitoring the corrosion of bioresorbable magnesium
ETH researchers have recently been able to monitor the corrosion of bioresorbable magnesium alloys at the nanoscale over a time scale of a few seconds to many hours.
Zebrafish discovery throws new light on human hearing disorders
A study of the genetic make-up of zebrafish has provided brand new insights into the cause of congenital hearing disorders in humans.
Central Valley workplaces can be hostile for minority doctors
Despite the dire need for primary health care providers in California's Central Valley, workplace discrimination and harassment can cause them to change practices or leave the region entirely.
Treatment for common vision disorder does not improve children's reading skills
Results from a clinical trial funded by the National Eye Institute (NEI) show that while vision therapy can successfully treat convergence insufficiency (CI) in children, it fails to improve their reading test scores.
Childhood obesity linked to structural differences in key brain regions
Obesity in children is associated with differences in brain structure in regions linked to cognitive control compared to the brains of children who are normal weight, according to new research from the University of Cambridge.
Young universities in Asia are strongly represented in rankings for high-quality research output
The first Nature Index Young universities tables and supplement, which rank universities aged 50 and under have just been published.
Lowest-paid workers have longest retirements
The study examined the length of time between stopping work and dying among people in England and Wales born before 1951.
Robots can learn how to support teachers in class sessions
New research conducted at the University of Plymouth shows that a robot can be programmed to progressively learn autonomous behaviour from human demonstrations and guidance.
Bio-inspired nano-catalyst guides chiral reactions
Many medicines are twisted molecules with two mirror image versions, but the body uses only one.
Embracing sustainable practices would help some winery tasting rooms stand out
Wineries in the mid-Atlantic region should consider recycling and encouraging their customers to bring bottles to their tasting rooms for refilling to distinguish their businesses from so many others, according to a team of wine-marketing researchers who surveyed consumers.
Is parental income during childhood associated with kids' later Schizophrenia risk?
Researchers analyzed data from everyone born in Denmark from 1980-2000 to look at associations between parental income until children are 15 and the risk of schizophrenia later in life for children.
Study examines first use of flavored tobacco products
Associations between the first use of flavored tobacco products and subsequent use of those products were examined in this observational study based on nationally representative survey data of more than 38,400 youth and adults in the United States.
Driverless cars could lead to more traffic congestion
New research has predicted that driverless cars could worsen traffic congestion in the coming decades, partly because of drivers' attitudes to the emerging technology and a lack of willingness to share their rides.
Evolving alongside other bacteria keeps hospital bug potent
Bacteria that evolve in natural environments -- rather than laboratory tests -- may become resistant to phage treatments without losing their virulence, new research shows.
First identification of a heavy element born from neutron star collision
For the first time, a freshly made heavy element, strontium, has been detected in space, in the aftermath of a merger of two neutron stars.
Accumulation of DNA mutations found in healthy liver leads to disease
New insights into the journey from health to disease in the human liver have been made by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, the University of Cambridge and their collaborators.
How much cardiovascular disease among black adults is attributable to hypertension?
Estimating the proportion of cardiovascular disease (CVD) cases among black adults associated with hypertension was the focus of this observational study.
The earliest well-preserved tetrapod may never have left the water
Superbly preserved fossils from Russia, excavated with support of a grant from the National Geographic Society and described today by an international team in the leading scientific journal Nature, cast new and surprising light on one of the earliest tetrapods -- the group of animals that made the evolutionary transition from water to land and ultimately became the ancestors not just of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, but of ourselves.
A single, master switch for sugar levels?
When a fly eats sugar, a single brain cell sends simultaneous messages to stimulate one hormone and inhibit another to control glucose levels in the body.
Clues to improve cancer immunotherapy revealed
A new study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Promising therapy for common form of eczema identified in early-stage trial
A therapy that targets the immune system showed promise for treating atopic dermatitis -- the most common form of eczema -- in a small proof-of-concept trial, led by scientists from the Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit at the University of Oxford.
A roadmap to make the land sector carbon neutral by 2040
Land is critical to human livelihoods and wellbeing, while actions related to land use also play an important role in the climate system.
Prisoner's dilemma game reveals cooperation leads to leadership
Game theory has historically studied cooperation and hierarchy, and has sought to explain why individuals cooperate, even though they might be better off not to do so.
Study looks at distribution of new cases of diabetes, density of specialists
Researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital analyzed national data on the prevalence of diabetes and the number of internal medicine specialists in each U.S. state.
Common chemical linked to rare birth defect in mice
New research reports that PBO interferes with the critical signaling pathway dubbed by scientists as sonic hedgehog, resulting in stunted forebrain development and signature facial abnormalities.
Pathogens from the sea
A marine pathogenic bacterium forms specialized cells for dissemination
Natural language interface for data visualization debuts at prestigious IEEE conference
A team at NYU Tandon developed FlowSense, which lets those who may not be experts in machine learning create highly flexible visualizations from almost any data.
Mayo Clinic studies patient privacy in MRI research
Though identifying data typically are removed from medical image files before they are shared for research, a Mayo Clinic study finds that this may not be enough to protect patient privacy.
Turning wood into pharmaceutical ingredients 
Production of hazardous waste during drug manufacturing is a serious concern for the pharmaceutical industry.
Too many older adults readmitted to hospitals with same infections they took home
About 15% of hospitalized older adults will be readmitted within a month of discharge.
Young mums more likely to have kids with ADHD
Young mothers have a greater chance of having a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to new research from the University of South Australia.

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