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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 24, 2019


Chemicals in consumer products during early pregnancy related to lower IQ
Exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy to mixtures of suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in consumer products is related to lower IQ in children by age 7, according to a study by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Karlstad University, Sweden, published in Environment International in October.
Food markets near Ethiopia's poor provide fewer choices at high price, impacting child health
The rural poor in Ethiopia tend to live near lower-quality markets that sell fewer food groups at high prices, adversely impacting the health of children in these communities, a new study from researchers at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has found.
Metacognitive therapy holds promise for treating depression
Fewer patients relapse after metacognitive therapy for depression, new research shows.
Ending HIV will require optimizing treatment and prevention tools, say NIH experts
Optimal implementation of existing HIV prevention and treatment tools and continued development of new interventions are essential to ending the HIV pandemic, National Institutes of Health experts write in a commentary in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
A tale of two cities: Impact of reducing teens' access to flavored tobacco products
Restricting youth access to flavored tobacco products holds the promise of reducing their overall tobacco use, according to a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier.
Xyphos and Gladstone Institutes publish data demonstrating reduction of HIV reservoir
Xyphos Biosciences and Gladstone Institutes today announced the publication of key preclinical data demonstrating that convertibleCAR® cells attack and significantly reduce latent reservoirs of diverse HIV strains.
Cancer treatment: A researcher makes breakthrough immunotherapy discovery
Dr Christopher E. Rudd has discovered a new cell therapy approach that boosts the immune response of T lymphocytes to malignant tumors.
Poverty may be more critical to cognitive function than trauma in adolescent refugees
For approximately a decade, research has examined whether trauma or poverty is the most powerful influence on children's cognitive abilities.
Athletes suspend morality to pursue sporting success -- study
Ruthless sportspeople often suspend their sense of right and wrong when they step onto the field of play -- viewing sport as a different world where they jettison responsibility to act in a moral way, according to a new study.
New intervention may help ease young children's biases against gender-nonconforming peers
Worldwide, gender nonconformity is on the rise. Children who don't conform to their birth sex are often perceived less positively, which may harm their well-being.
Lupus study illustrates the importance of diversity in genetic research
Scientists at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology have pinpointed epigenetic differences in the way lupus affects black women compared to other lupus patients, revealing important mechanics of the puzzling disease.
Iron availability in seawater, key to explaining the amount and distribution of fish
A new paper led by ICTA-UAB researchers Eric Galbraith and Priscilla Le Mézo and published in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science proposes that the available iron supply in large areas of the ocean is insufficient for most fish, and that -- as a result -- there are fewer fish in the ocean than there would be if iron were more plentiful.
Study shows shoppers reject offers made under time pressure
Giving consumers short time limits on offers means they are less likely to take them up, according to new research.
Scientists identify new signposts in blood and urine to reflect what we eat and drink
Researchers at McMaster University have identified several chemical signatures, detectable in blood and urine, that can accurately measure dietary intake, potentially offering a new tool for physicians, dieticians and researchers to assess eating habits, measure the value of fad diets and develop health policies.
New Colorado fossil record documents life's rebound after Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction
Nearly 66 million years ago, the reign of dinosaurs ended and the ascendency of mammals on Earth began.
Imperfect diamonds paved road to historic Deep Earth discoveries
Hundreds of scientists will celebrate in Washington, D.C., the many historic results of the 10-year, $300 million Deep Carbon Observatory, one of the largest-ever global Earth sciences research projects.
Spotting cutting-edge topics in scientific research using keyword analysis
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba conducted a quantitative keyword analysis of 30 million articles in the life sciences over a nearly fifty-year period (1970-2017) and found that 75% of total emerging keywords, at 1-year prior to becoming identified as emerging, co-appeared with other emerging keywords in the same article.
Finally, the answer to a 'burning' 40-year-old question
New research from Lehigh University describes the mechanism behind catalysis that neutralizes air-polluting NOx from power plant emissions.
For better research results, let mice be mice
Animal models can serve as gateways for understanding many human communication disorders, but a new study from the University at Buffalo suggests that the established practice of socially isolating mice for such purposes might actually make them poor research models for humans, and a simple shift to a more realistic social environment could greatly improve the utility of the future studies.
Saturday, Oct. 26: UVA Children's home monitoring experts present at AAP Conference
Two UVA Children's experts will make presentations Saturday at the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition on a breakthrough home monitoring program for children with complex health needs using an iPad app.
The pectin is protectin': Study uncovers a plant barrier against toxic aluminum
Aluminum toxicity is a major contributor to poor crop growth, especially in regions with acidic soils.
Kidney replacement therapy rates have remained higher in men vs. women for decades
Rates for all types of kidney replacement therapy in European countries were consistently higher in men than women from 1965 to 2015.
Schools have critical role to play in supporting adolescents fleeing armed conflict
Education is known to be highly important for migrant children, yet relatively little is known about the diversity of associated school-based programs and their likely value in supporting the mental health of children.
Through the FUBImethod, children engage in designing full-body interactive experiences
Developed by the team of Narcís Parés, a member of the Cognitive Media Technologies research group, with the participation of the University of Aarhus (Denmark), it describes the details of the project in an article published in the advanced online edition of International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.
Political affiliation may help drive and shape a person's morals
While it may seem intuitive that a person's beliefs or moral compass may steer them toward one political party over another, a new Penn State study suggests it may be the other way around.
Martian landslides not conclusive evidence of ice
Giant ridges on the surface of landslides on Mars could have formed without ice, challenging their use by some as unequivocal evidence of past ice on the red planet, finds a new UCL-led study using state-of-the-art satellite data.
Evolution is resetting the annual clock in migratory birds
The timing of spring migration is vital for birds. Returning too late comes at a cost.
Years of education may impact drinking behavior and risk of alcohol dependence
Higher educational attainment -- spending more years in education -- may impact people's drinking behavior and reduce their risk of alcohol dependence, according to a study published in Molecular Psychiatry.
Babies understand counting years earlier than believed
Babies who are years away from being able to say 'one,' 'two,' and 'three' actually already have a sense of what counting means, Johns Hopkins University researchers have discovered.
Women CEOs judged more harshly than men for corporate ethical failures
People are less likely to support an organization after an ethical failure if the business is led by a woman, according to a study published by the American Psychological Association.
York University vision scientists disprove 60-year-old perception theory
Vision researchers at York University have disproved a long-standing theory of how the human vision system processes images, using computational models and human experiments.
Global Health Security Index finds gaps in preparedness for epidemics and pandemics
A new Global Health Security Index released today, the first comprehensive assessment and benchmarking of health security and related capabilities across 195 countries, suggests that not a single country in the world is fully prepared to handle an epidemic or pandemic.
Extracting hidden quantum information from a light source
Researchers report on a technique to extract the quantum information hidden in an image that carries both classical and quantum information.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound predicts nodule transformation to hepatocellular carcinoma
An article published ahead-of-print in the January 2020 issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology has identified sonographic biomarkers that can predict eventual malignant transformation of pathologically confirmed cirrhotic nodules for patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
An evapotranspiration deficit drought index to detect drought impacts on ecosystems
The difference between actual and potential evapotranspiration, technically termed a standardized evapotranspiration deficit drought index (SEDI), can more sensitively capture the biological changes of ecosystems in response to the dynamics of drought intensity, compared with indices based on precipitation and temperature.
Not all plants are good for you
A new scientific review highlights a significant global health issue related to plants that sicken or kill undernourished people around the world, including those who depend upon these plants for sustenance.
Gladstone and Xyphos Partners adapt CAR-T immunotherapy to target the HIV latent reservoir
A team of Gladstone scientists and their partners at Xyphos Biosciences, Inc. describe a new way of attacking cells infected by HIV in this week's issue of the journal Cell.
A win-win for forests and small-holder dairy farming in East Africa
The native Napier grass could hold the key to improving diets, boosting farming yields and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in East Africa.
Researchers make neural networks successfully detect DNA damage caused by UV radiation
Researchers of Tomsk Polytechnic University jointly with the University of Chemistry and Technology (Prague) conducted a series of experiments, which proved that artificial neural networks can accurately identify DNA damages caused by UV radiation.
Strong winter dust storms may have caused the collapse of the Akkadian Empire
Fossil coral records provide new evidence that frequent winter shamals, or dust storms, and a prolonged cold winter season contributed to the collapse of the ancient Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia.
Global earthworm biodiversity patterns influenced by climate
Earthworm communities in soils worldwide -- and the critical ecosystem functions they provide -- could be substantially impacted by continued climate change, according to a new report that evaluated data from nearly 7,000 sampled sites in 57 countries across the globe.
Scientist confirm a new 'magic number' for neutrons
An international collaboration led by scientists from the University of Hong Kong, RIKEN (Japan), and CEA (France) have used the RI Beam Factory (RIBF) at the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-base Science to show that 34 is a ''magic number'' for neutrons, meaning that atomic nuclei with 34 neutrons are more stable than would normally be expected.
CRISPR-edited C. elegans identifies vulnerabilities in cancer
A group of researchers led by Dr Julián Cerón of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), has mimicked the SF3B1 mutations found in tumor in C. elegans,
The shelf life of pyrite
What exactly triggers the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations that causes the transition from a glacial stage to a warm stage is not fully understood.
81% of tuna catch comes from stocks at healthy levels, 15% require stronger management
Of the total commercial tuna catch worldwide, 81% came from stocks at 'healthy' levels of abundance, according to the October 2019 International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) Status of the Stocks report.
Obesity exacerbates many causes of death, but risks are different for men and women
People who carry around unhealthy amounts of weight don't just have heart disease and diabetes to worry about.
Starvation halts brain development, but hungry cells jump-start growth when food becomes available
In tadpole research that holds potential for prenatal health and brain injury, Scripps Research scientists identify cellular workings that stop and restart early brain development.
Schizophrenia risk gene linked to cognitive deficits in mice
Researchers have discovered in mice how one of the few genes definitively linked to schizophrenia, called SETD1A, likely confers risk for the illness.
Controlling the immune system's brakes to treat cancer, autoimmune disorders
Researchers at St. Jude have revealed the mechanism underlying the activation of regulatory T cells, which could spark new drug development.
Widely used health algorithm found to be racially biased; remedying in progress
A nationally deployed healthcare algorithm -- one of the largest commercial tools used by health insurers to inform health care decisions for millions of people each year -- shows significant racial bias in its predictions of the health risks of black patients, researchers report.
Climate science: 300-year thinning may have predisposed Antarctic ice shelves to collapse
Ice shelves in the eastern Antarctic Peninsula may have been predisposed to collapse by hundreds years of thinning according to a study in Scientific Reports.
Flu antibody protects against numerous and wide-ranging strains
A human antibody that protects mice against a wide range of lethal flu viruses could be the key to a universal vaccine and better treatments for severe flu disease, according to a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Novel approach identifies factors linked to poor treatment outcomes in ALL
Profiling the metabolites produced in the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis enabled researchers to identify high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients.
Entrepreneurs: Get the trademark to succeed, research says
Startups and entrepreneurs should spend the effort and money to obtain trademarks, because trademarks help them succeed in both product and financial markets, researchers say.
E-cigarette flavors decrease perception of harm among youth
As more and more youth use electronic cigarettes, combined with research showing the health consequences of vaping -- including nicotine addiction -- researchers at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill found that non-menthol flavors attract youth and adults to use e-cigarettes and that the use of flavored e-cigarettes contributes to multiple pathways linked to higher e-cigarette use among youth.
Genetic risk factor for laryngeal paralysis in miniature bull terriers identified
Laryngeal paralysis is a serious and sometimes deadly disease in some dog breeds that prevents proper opening of the larynx for breathing.
Mindfulness meditation enhances positive effects of psilocybin
Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the clinical application of classic psychedelics in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.
Researchers identify possible approach to block medulloblastoma growth
University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have identified a potential approach to stop the growth of the most common type of brain tumor in children.
Massive fangs and a death crush: How a 370 million year old tetrapod hunted and killed
The habits of a needle-toothed tetrapod which lived more than 370 million years ago have filled in a piece of the evolutionary puzzle after an international team of palaeontologists pieced together fossilised skeletons and found unusual characteristics such as a crocodile-like skull with high positioned eyes would have been used to 'keep an eye' on prey before it used its slender needle-like teeth and elastic jaw to snatch its kill and crush it to death.
Warming waters, local differences in oceanography affect Gulf of Maine lobster population
Two new studies point to the role of a warming ocean and local differences in oceanography in the rise and fall of lobster populations southern New England to Atlantic Canada.
Parents' behavior influences bonding hormone oxytocin in babies
A new epigenetic study suggests that mothers' behavior can also have a substantial impact on their children's developing oxytocin systems.
New research shows lower rates of cancer screening in women with diabetes
Cancer screening rates are up to a quarter lower in women with diabetes, varying by type of cancer, and putting them at risk of poorer cancer outcomes, concludes new research in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]).
Scientists identify British butterflies most threatened by climate change
Many British butterflies and moths have been responding to warmer temperatures by emerging earlier in the year and for the first time scientists have identified why this is creating winners and losers among species.
Subgroups of breast and ovarian cancers exhibit the same unique drug sensitivity
Although cancers are commonly classified and named by site of origin, and effective drugs are FDA-approved accordingly, a research team at Dartmouth's Norris Cotton Cancer Center has found that multiple organ sites share some of the same genetic features associated with vulnerability to drug therapies.
Sentinel lymph node biopsy has no benefits for stage zero breast cancer
Older women with a very early, non-invasive breast cancer known as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) gain no long-term benefit from undergoing a sentinel lymph node biopsy to see if the cancer has spread, new research by the Yale School of Public Health has found.
Rare diseases: Over 300 million patients affected worldwide
Rare diseases represent a global problem. Until now, the lack of data made it difficult to estimate their prevalence.
Most prescribed blood pressure drugs may be less effective than others
A new study of nearly 5 million patients shows the most-popular first-line treatment for hypertension is less effective and causes more side effects than thiazide diuretics.
Baby formula improved by ingredient often removed during homogenization
A clinical trial published today in the Journal of Pediatrics shows infants who consume formula containing milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) score higher in cognitive, language and motor development than infants consuming a milk-based formula that didn't contain MFGM.
Scientists reveal novel oncogenic driver gene in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors
A team led by Prof. WANG Yuexiang of the Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health (SINH) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, together with Prof.
The benefits that carnivorous animals bring to society are under-studied
For a period of 17 years, the scientific studies conducted around the world on the relationships between humans and carnivores focused excessively on the conflicts between them, overlooking the benefits that carnivores bring to society.
Researchers design tunable, self-recovering dyes for use in next-generation smart devices
Researchers are working to better control how the chemicals respond to treatment, as well as how to reverse the chemicals back to their original state with little to no interference.
Scientists uncover the process behind protein mutations that impact gut health
A new study led by researchers at St. Michael's Hospital and the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Canada and Zhejiang University School of Medicine in China has uncovered why a protein mutation that causes inflammatory bowel diseases is dysfunctional.
Researchers identify genetic variations linked to oxygen drops during sleep
Researchers have identified 57 genetic variations of a gene strongly associated with declines in blood oxygen levels during sleep.
Researchers discover 4 new strains of human adenovirus
Large-scale study to identify human adenovirus genotypes in Singapore leads to discovery of four new adenovirus strains and increase in strains linked to severe diseases.
Deleting a liver enzyme lowers the health risk of sweet treats (at least in mice)
Hepatic insulin resistance, caused by diets high in sugar and fat, can lead to type 2 diabetes.
A new drought-protective small molecule 'drug' for crops
Using a structure-guided approach to small molecule discovery and design, researchers have developed a drought-protective 'drug' for crops, according to a new study.
Widely used health care prediction algorithm found to be biased against blacks
A new study finds that a type of software program that determines who gets access to high-risk heath care management programs routinely lets healthier whites into the programs ahead of blacks who are less healthy.
Breakthrough in understanding rare genetic skin condition
A breakthrough has been made in understanding a rare genetic skin disease that causes progressively enlarging skin tumours over the scalp, face and body.
Where the sun doesn't shine? Skin UV exposure reflected in poop
The sun can indeed shine out of your backside, suggests research.
Higher local earthworm diversity in temperate regions than in the tropics
In any single location, there are typically more earthworms and more earthworm species found in temperate regions than in the tropics.
What's driving tropical deforestation? Scientists map 45 years of satellite images
Tropical forests are under increasing pressure from human activity such as agriculture.
Lassa fever: Vaccine set to be trialed
There is currently no vaccine for the Lassa arenavirus, which causes Lassa fever.
Deep inside the brain: Unraveling the dense networks in the cerebral cortex
Mammalian brains, with their unmatched number of nerve cells and density of communication, are the most complex networks known.
US corn yields get boost from a global warming 'hole'
The global average temperature has increased 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit over the last 100 years.
New survey shows link between comprehensive antibiotic stewardship programs and infection preventionist certification
Nearly half of all nursing homes do not have adequately trained infection prevention staff and their efforts to combat the over prescription of antibiotics are suffering as a result, according to a new study in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, published by Elsevier.
Researchers learn how Ebola virus disables the body's immune defenses
A new study by researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston uncovered new information on why the Ebola virus can exert such catastrophic effects on the infected person.
Using artificial intelligence to predict risk of thyroid cancer on ultrasound
New study uses machine learning on ultrasound images of thyroid nodules to predict risk of malignancy.
Structural protein essential for ciliary harmony in comb jellies
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba and the Japanese National Institute for Basic Biology identified a structural protein that is essential for the coordinated beating of millions of tiny cilia on the surface of comb jellies.
Satellite analysis reveals and asymmetric Typhoon Bualoi
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite and NASA's Aqua satellite both passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and both used infrared light to obtain temperature data and shape information on Typhoon Bualoi.
Gap in care found for patients with chronic kidney disease: study
Millions of Canadians living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be going without critical testing from their primary care practitioners that would give them a good idea of the severity of the disease so they could intervene earlier with more appropriate care, according to a new study.
GIS-based analysis of fault zone geometry and hazard in an urban environment
Typical geologic investigations of active earthquake fault zones require that the fault can be observed at or near the Earth's surface.

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