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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 25, 2019


Science reveals improvements in Roman building techniques
In research published in EPJ Plus, researchers have carried out scientific analysis of the materials used to build the Atrium Vestae in Rome.
MIT engineers develop a new way to remove carbon dioxide from air
A new way of removing carbon dioxide from a stream of air could provide a significant tool in the battle against climate change.
Game changer: New chemical keeps plants plump
A UC Riverside-led team has created a chemical to help plants hold onto water, which could stem the tide of massive annual crop losses from drought and help farmers grow food despite a changing climate.
Stanford study casts doubt on carbon capture
Current approaches to carbon capture can increase air pollution and are not efficient at reducing carbon in the atmosphere, according to research from Mark Z.
Pediatric cancer study shows usefulness of gene expression analysis
Analyzing gene expression in tumor cells from children with cancer is more likely to reveal targets for therapy than analysis of DNA mutations, according to a new study led by researchers at the UC Santa Cruz Genomics Institute.
Bariatric surgery is a safe option for young adolescents with morbid obesity
Bariatric surgery is safe for teens with morbid obesity and is beneficial for young patients who would otherwise face potential lifelong risks of death associated with obesity, according to new research.
NASA-NOAA satellite catches development of gulf Tropical Depression 17
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Gulf of Mexico and revealed that a low pressure area was developing into a depression.
Novel formulation of an injectable drug to treat joint inflammation acts for ten days
Tests in rats showed enhanced efficacy of the drug as well as the absence of side effects, such as stomach bleeding.
Experts in high-risk pregnancy respond to the published results of the PROLONG trial
The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine issues guidance for obstetric care providers who care for pregnant patients who have previously experienced a preterm birth.
A new theory of brain organization takes aim at the mystery of consciousness
Scientists combine classic thermodynamics with neural recording data into a new, cross-disciplinary principle of how the human brain organizes its activity.
Can solar technology kill cancer cells?
Michigan State University scientists have revealed a new way to detect and attack cancer cells using technology traditionally reserved for solar power.
Charta of Neurourbanism dedicated to mental health in cities
How can planners reduce the stress of city living and improve the mental health of city dwellers?
Only half of US children get enough sleep during the week
Only 48% of school age children in the United States get 9 hours of sleep most weeknights, according to new research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2019 National Conference & Exhibition in New Orleans.
Advance in search for new Clostridioides difficile vaccine
Scientists have made a breakthrough in the hunt for a new vaccine for killer hospital bug Clostridioides difficile (C. diff).
Research tests speed of drones in responding to medical emergency scenarios
Could drones be used someday to deliver life-saving medications or interventions in the case of a child's emergency, a drug overdose or in response to a mass casualty scene?
Insight-HXMT team releases new results on black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries
Scientists with the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (Insight-HXMT) team presented their new results on black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries during a press conference held Oct.
Skiing, snowboarding injuries more serious -- skull and face fractures -- in younger children
Winter sports like skiing and snowboarding are a great way to keep kids active in the winter, but they are also linked to injuries and for younger children those injuries are more likely to involve fractures to the head or face, according to new research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2019 National Conference & Exhibition.
China's carbon emissions growth slows during new phase of economic development
Scientists from from the Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, together with collaborators, recently revealed that China's annual carbon emissions growth declined significantly from 10% during the 2002-2012 period to 0.3% during the period from 2012-2017.
Informal sharing of breast milk gains popularity among women, despite safety risks
Women who are unable to produce enough breast milk for their children are increasingly turning to 'mother-to-mother' informal milk-sharing, a potentially unsafe practice that is discouraged by the pediatric medical community, according to new research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2019 National Conference & Exhibition.
Study finds functional medicine model is associated with improvements in health-related QOL
In the first retrospective cohort study of the functional medicine model, Cleveland Clinic researchers found that functional medicine was associated with improvements in health-related quality of life.
NASA observes Tropical Storm Kyarr form near southwest India coast
Tropical Storm Kyarr formed near the southwestern coast of India, and NASA's Aqua satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of the storm that revealed it organized quickly.
Antibiotics not necessary for most toothaches, according to new ADA guideline
The American Dental Association (ADA) announced today a new guideline indicating that in most cases, antibiotics are not recommended for toothaches.
Microscale rockets can travel through cellular landscapes with precision
A new study shows how micro-scale 'rockets,' powered by acoustic waves and an on-board bubble motor, can be maneuvered through 3D landscapes of cells and particles using magnets.
New study finds taxi drivers improve earnings through trip selection
A new research study published in the October edition of the INFORMS journal Marketing Science (Editor's note: The source of this research is INFORMS) has revealed how taxi drivers use mobile hailing technology to select longer, more profitable trips to optimize their earnings, rather than seeking to increase the number of trips or working hours to achieve higher earnings.
Study shows trampoline injuries have increased over the past decade
Between 2008 and 2017, the incidence of trampoline-related fractures increased by an average of 3.85% in the US, and the driver behind those increases are trampoline injuries outside of the home at places of recreation or sport , according to new research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2019 National Conference & Exhibition.
Super-strong magnetic supercrystals can assemble themselves
Materials scientists who work with nano-sized components have developed ways of working with their vanishingly small materials.
Detection of oral HPV DNA in teen, young adult females
Researchers tested for HPV DNA in oral rinse samples collected over 10 years from a group of sexually active females (ages 13 to 21) who were planning to or had received the vaccine that targets four types of HPV.
Determining the shapes of atomic clusters
In a new study published in EPJ B, researchers propose a new method of identifying the morphologies of atomic clusters.
Jurassic dinosaurs trotted between Africa and Europe
Dinosaur footprints found in several European countries, very similar to others in Morocco, suggest that they could have been dispersed between the two continents by land masses separated by a shallow sea more than 145 million years ago.
Yale researchers find cells linked to leading cause of blindness in elderly
Researchers from Yale University, the Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University report in the Oct.
Discovery in monkeys could lead to treatment for blindness-causing syndrome
A genetic mutation that leads to a rare, but devastating blindness-causing condition called Bardet-Biedl Syndrome has been discovered in monkeys for the first time.
Study finds youth suicide rates rise with community poverty levels
Research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2019 National Conference & Exhibition shows that US children living in counties with the highest poverty level are more than one-third more likely to die by suicide than those living in the least impoverished counties.
Deflating beach balls and drug delivery
Gwennou Coupier and his colleagues at Grenoble Alps University, Grenoble, France have shown that macroscopic-level models of the properties of microscopic hollow spheres agree very well with theoretical predictions.
Mentally ill die many years earlier than others
New research from Aarhus BSS confirms that people with mental disorders have an increased risk of premature mortality.
New procedure for obtaining a cheap ultra-hard material that is resistant to radioactivity
The material has been made using the technique of laser zone floating, which consists of fusion by means of the application of intense laser radiation and then rapid solidification.
Use of emergency CPR device rising despite lack of evidence
While its use is expanding, mechanical CPR has not been tested for effectiveness by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA).
Ultrastructure of focal adhesion scaffold unveiled in human pluripotent stem cells
Focal adhesions are known as signalling platforms broadcasting the information of the biochemical and physical qualities of the extracellular matrix into intracellular signalling cascades.
NASA-NOAA satellite shows wind shear affecting a changing Typhoon Bualoi
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean revealed that Typhoon Bualoi continued to look asymmetric because of ongoing wind shear.
First in-depth study of marine fungi and their cell-division cycles emerges from MBL
A first deep dive into the diversity of marine fungi and their cell division cycles has been published by a collaborative team at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Woods Hole, revealing unusual cell cycles, cell division patterns, and polarity.
Children's race may play role in treatment for acute gastroenteritis in emergency departments
New research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics 2019 National Conference & Exhibition suggests that the treatment children receive in US emergency departments for acute gastroenteritis with dehydration, a common childhood illness, may differ based on their race.
Insect evolution: Insect evolution
Scientists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have shown that the incidence of midge and fly larvae in amber is far higher than previously thought.
Dynamic images show rhomboid protease in action
Rhomboid proteases are clinically relevant membrane proteins that play a key role in various diseases.
New research on giant radio galaxies defies conventional wisdom
Astrophysicists discover a fundamental law of classical physics is reversed when we observe the distant universe.
At what age is it considered child neglect to leave a child home alone?
A majority of social workers surveyed believe children should be at least 12 before being left home alone four hours or longer, and they are more likely to consider a home-alone scenario as neglect if a child is injured while left unsupervised, according to research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2019 National Conference & Exhibition.
High fiber, yogurt diet associated with lower lung cancer risk
A diet high in fiber and yogurt is associated with a reduced risk for lung cancer, according to a study by Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers published in JAMA Oncology.
Heightened risk of adverse financial changes before Alzheimer's diagnosis
Prior to an Alzheimer's diagnosis, a person in the early stages of the disease faces a heightened risk of adverse financial outcomes -- a likely consequence of compromised decision making when managing money, in addition to exploitation and fraud by others.
Integrated solutions for the Indus Basin
New framework helps decision makers find science-based pathways to address water resources and connected sustainability challenges in the Indus River basin.
Small magnets reveal big secrets
An international research team led by a physicist at the University of California, Riverside, has identified a microscopic process of electron spin dynamics in nanoparticles that could impact the design of applications in medicine, quantum computation, and spintronics.
Researchers develop platform for scalable testing of autonomous vehicle safety
In the race to manufacture autonomous vehicles (AVs), safety is crucial yet sometimes overlooked as exemplified by recent headline-making accidents.
Energy regulation rollbacks threaten progress against harmful ozone
The fight against harmful ozone is under legal threat. Air quality and carbon emissions regulations are currently in limbo in courts and congress, from core legislation from the 1970s to rules from the last US administration.
Immune system upgrade
Theoretically, our immune system could detect and kill cancer cells.
Model predicts relaxed energy policies plus climate change could worsen US air quality
The Trump administration rolled back the Clean Power Plan in June 2019.
Broadly protective antibodies could lead to better flu treatments and vaccines
A newly-identified set of three antibodies could lead to better treatments and vaccines against influenza, according to a paper published in Science.
Study highlights power of family resilience to protect children from bullying
Studies show that children exposed to childhood trauma known as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk of being bullied or bullying others.
Scientists find molecular key to body making healthy T cells
In a finding that could help lead to new therapies for immune diseases like multiple sclerosis and IBD, scientists report in the Journal of Experimental Medicine identifying a gene and family of proteins critical to the formation of mature and fully functioning T cells in the immune system.
Algorithm identifies cancer patients in need of advance care planning conversations
A newly developed algorithm prioritizes patients to ensure that cancer doctors talk to them about their values and goals before it is too late.
Placing another piece in the dark matter puzzle
A team led by Prof Dmitry Budker has continued their search for dark matter within the framework of the 'Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment' (or 'CASPEr' for short).
Injuries related to lawn mowers affect young children in rural areas most severely
Each year, more than 9,000 children in the United States are treated in emergency departments for lawn mower-related injuries.
Empowering pediatricians to reduce preventable firearm injuries and deaths
A Children's National Hospital emergency room physician will participate in a symposium of surgeons, neurosurgeons and emergency medicine doctors during the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition -- the first time these groups have come together to help reduce the number of kids hurt or killed by firearms.
Tuberculous infection is not life-long in most people
A new analysis challenges the longstanding notion that tuberculous infection is a life-long infection that could strike at any time and cause tuberculosis
Link established between local action of stress factors and systemic response of higher plants
Recent achievements in the study of long-distance electrical signals in higher plants and the analysis of the relationship between the local action of stressors and the systemic physiological responses were summed up in a review article published in the journal Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology by Associate Professor Vladimir Sukhov and his colleagues from the Biophysics Department of Lobachevsky University.
How is physical activity associated with fracture risk in older women?
In this observational study of 77,206 postmenopausal women, researchers looked at how physical activity and sedentary behavior were associated with risk of fracture.
Bariatric surgery is safe for teens with morbid obesity
Bariatric surgery is safe and, in many cases, beneficial for teenagers with morbid obesity who would otherwise face a heightened risk of developing severe health problems, including heart disease and stroke, according to a new study from Penn Medicine and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).
Brown and white body fat speak different languages
Most adults have two types of body fat: white and brown.
Putting the 'bang' in the Big Bang
Physicists at MIT, Kenyon College, and elsewhere have simulated in detail an intermediary phase of the early universe that may have bridged cosmic inflation with the Big Bang.
Antihistamine use for anaphylaxis symptoms linked with delay seeking emergency treatment
New research suggests that giving antihistamine medicine to a child experiencing anaphylaxis -- a sudden and severe allergic reaction that can quickly be fatal -- usually does more harm than good by delaying emergency treatment.
Researchers uncover novel amyloidosis
A collaboration led by scientists at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT), Japan, has discovered a novel amyloid protein that induces amyloidosis in rats.
What use do teenagers make of YouTube?
An article published in the journal Information, Communication & Society by Fernanda Pires and Carlos A.
Electrospun fibers weave new medical innovations
The University of Cincinnati is developing new applications for a fabrication process called coaxial electrospinning, which combines two or more materials into a fine fiber for use in industry, textiles or even medicine.
Nerve cell protection free from side effects
The hormone erythropoietin (Epo) is a well-known doping substance that has a history of abuse in endurance sports.
Birds do not habituate to traffic noise
Traffic noise affects normal stress reactions in zebra finches and delays offspring growth
Did an extraterrestrial impact trigger the extinction of ice-age animals?
Based on research at White Pond near Elgin, South Carolina, University of South Carolina archaeologist Christopher Moore and 16 colleagues present new evidence of a controversial theory that suggests an extraterrestrial body crashing to Earth almost 13,000 years ago caused the extinction of many large animals and a probable population decline in early humans.
Researchers identify improved avenues to train plastic surgeons in microsurgery
Microsurgery is an intricate and challenging surgical technique that involves using miniature instruments and sutures as fine as a hair strand aided by sophisticated microscopes.
Memory training builds upon strategy use
Researchers from Åbo Akademi University, Finland, and Umeå University, Sweden, have for the first time obtained clear evidence of the important role strategies have in memory training.
'Swimmer's shoulder,' common in more than three-quarters of swimmers
The painful overuse injury called swimmer's shoulder, common in competitive swimmers, may be caused by excessive swimming distance during training along with a culture in competitive swimming that sublimates pain, according to new research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2019 National Conference & Exhibition.
Study finds risk factors tied to drowning-related hospitalizations and death
Approximately 1 in 10 children admitted for injuries related to drowning end up dying despite comprehensive medical care after being admitted to a hospital, according to new research being presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2019 National Conference & Exhibition.
Decision support tool reduces unneeded referrals of low-risk patients with chest pain
A simple evidence-based change to standard practice could avert needless referrals of low-risk patients to cardiac specialists, potentially saving nearly $4 million in annual health care spending while also easing worried parents' minds.
Reframing Antarctica's meltwater pond dangers to ice shelves and sea level
On Antarctica, meltwater ponds riddle a kilometer-thick, 10,000-year-old ice shelf, which shatters just weeks later.
Mountain streams emit a surprising amount of CO2
For the first time, an EPFL-led team of scientists has measured the total amount of CO2 emissions from mountain streams worldwide.
Length of time in US associated with immigrants' opioid use
The more time first-generation immigrants spend in the United States the more likely it appears they will use prescription opioids.
IKBFU researchers have discovered another natural antioxidant -- alder bark
An alder bark may become a great source of anti-aging and anti-disease natural antioxidants.
Not all hypertension drugs are created equal, reports big-data study
For those with extremely high blood pressure, or hypertension, there are many initial medication options -- so many that it can be hard to know which one to use.
Hydrogen boride nanosheets: A promising material for hydrogen carrier
Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology, University of Tsukuba, and colleagues in Japan report a promising hydrogen carrier in the form of hydrogen boride nanosheets.
Fighting the herpes virus
New insights into preventing herpes infections have been published in Nature Communications.
Fire-spawned forest fungi hide out in other organisms, study finds
When a wildfire obliterates a forest, the first life to rise from the ashes is usually a fungus - one of several species that cannot complete its life cycle in the absence of fire.
Retrieving physical properties from two-colour laser experiments
Analytical and numerical analysis gives the first indications of how physically useful information can be extracted from two-colour pump probe experiments, and how it can be distinguished from the signatures arising from the initial infrared laser, according to an article in EPJ D.
One step toward using insulating antiferromagnetic materials in future computers
Physicists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in collaboration with Tohoku University in Sendai in Japan, the synchrotron sources BESSY-II at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), and Diamond Light Source, the UK's national synchrotron, have demonstrated how information can be written and read electrically in insulating antiferromagnetic materials.
New study on early human fire acquisition squelches debate
'Fire was presumed to be the domain of Homo sapiens but now we know that other ancient humans like Neanderthals could create it,' says Daniel Adler of UConn.
Micromotors push around single cells and particles
A new type of micromotor -- powered by ultrasound and steered by magnets -- can move around individual cells and microscopic particles in crowded environments without damaging them.
Postcode lottery for NHS orthotics patients
Specialist orthotics care for patients with mobility issues varies significantly depending on where they live, new research by Staffordshire University reveals.
X-ray scout sees first light
Observations with eRosita promise a breakthrough in our understanding of the energetic universe.
Mysterious microproteins have major implications for human disease
As the tools to study biology improve, researchers are beginning to uncover details into microproteins, small components that appear to be key to some cellular processes.
Study identifies challenges to neonatal resuscitation outside of hospitals
With about 62,000 babies born outside of hospitals each year, and 1 in 10 newborns needing help to start breathing, emergency medical services (EMS) responders must be ready to give expert newborn resuscitation care.
What 26,000 books reveal when it comes to learning language
What can reading 26,000 books tell researchers about how language environment affects language behavior?
Daylight not rain most important for Africa 'green-up' phenomenon
Contrary to popular belief, seasonal rains are not the most important factor for starting the growth cycle of plants across Africa.
By targeting flu-enabling protein, antibody may protect against wide-ranging strains
A nationwide team of researchers has found an antibody that protects mice against a wide range of potentially lethal influenza viruses, advancing efforts to design of a universal vaccine that could either treat or protect people against all strains of the virus.

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