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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 06, 2019


Nature might be better than tech at reducing air pollution
Adding plants and trees to the landscapes near factories and other pollution sources could reduce air pollution by an average of 27 percent, new research suggests.
Autistic adults thought they were 'bad people'
Many over-50s who were diagnosed with autism late in life had grown up believing they were bad people, according to a new study published in the journal Health Psychology and Behavioural Medicine.
Horses blink less, twitch eyelids more when stressed
A horse will blink less and twitch its eyelids more when it's under mild stress, the research team found -- a new finding that could offer handlers a simple, easy-to-spot sign their animal is becoming agitated.
Flatland light
Harvard researchers have developed rewritable optical components for surface light waves.
Switching to solar and wind will reduce groundwater use
IIASA researchers explored optimal pathways for managing groundwater and hydropower trade-offs for different water availability conditions as solar and wind energy start to play a more prominent role in the state of California.
A new machine learning approach detects esophageal cancer better than current methods
Dartmouth scientists have proposed a new machine learning model for identification of esophageal cancer that could open new avenues for applying deep learning to digital pathology.
Solution of the high-resolution crystal structure of stress proteins from Staphylococcus
One of the main factors favoring a microorganism's survival in extreme conditions is preserving ribosomes -- a macromolecular complex comprising RNA and proteins
Preemies who develop chronic lung disease had more stem cells at birth
In the first large-scale clinical study to characterize stem cells from the umbilical cord blood and tissues of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia -- a severe, chronic lung disease -- researchers found that these babies had more stem cells at birth.
Breaking down controls to better control wind energy systems
Researchers based in Brazil have developed a way to better control wind energy systems in electrical generation.
Study examines depression in the last year of life
Depression impacts quality of life at all life stages, but little is known about the factors related to depression in the last year of life.
Study questions video games' effects on violent behavior
A new Contemporary Economic Policy study finds that there is not enough information to support the claim that violent video games lead to acts of violence.
Exceptional fossils may need a breath of air to form
New research led by The University of Texas at Austin has found that a long held belief by paleontologists about the fossilization process may be wrong.
Why did the turtles cross the highway? They didn't, but they still might be impacted
Ohio University researchers set out to determine the impact of the Route 33 bypass through Wayne National Forest on the local box turtle population.
The importance of Madagascar's lowland rainforest for lemur conservation
Throughout their evolutionary history, animals in regions with limited lowland habitat have evolved to adapt to higher elevations.
UN, other experts, present prescription to avoid dangerous water shortfall for 70 million Central Asians
Unless well-funded, coordinated efforts are stepped up, ongoing over-withdrawals compounded by climate change will cause dangerous water shortages for 70 million people in Central Asia's Aral Sea Basin, says a new book by 57 experts from 14 countries and the United Nations.
Intelligent metasurface imager and recognizer
Intelligent electromagnetic (EM) sensing by jointly manipulating wavefields and digital data flux is playing an ever more prominent role in modern society.
Analysis by surgical trainees examines recommendations for mastectomy across the UK
A woman's decision to undergo mastectomy for breast cancer relies on communication with her surgeon and, in addition, often draws on recommendations from a 'multidisciplinary team' (MDT) of doctors from different specialties such as oncology and radiology.
A solution to a hairy problem in forensic science
In an effort to make hair comparison a more useful technique for investigating crimes, scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a new way to dissolve hair proteins without destroying them.
New technology promises improved treatment of inflammatory diseases
A study led by researchers at Washington State University has uncovered a potential new treatment approach for diseases associated with inflammation, including sepsis and stroke.
Reassessing strategies to reduce phosphorus levels in the Detroit river watershed
In an effort to control the cyanobacteria blooms and dead zones that plague Lake Erie each summer, fueled by excess nutrients, the United States and Canada in 2016 called for a 40% reduction in the amount of phosphorus entering the lake's western and central basins, including the Detroit River's contribution.
Only-children more likely to be obese than children with siblings
Families with multiple children tend to make more healthy eating decisions than families with a single child.
How hot (and not-so-hot) compounds in chili peppers change during ripening
Anyone who has tasted a hot chili pepper has felt the burn of capsaicinoids, the compounds that give peppers their spiciness, as well as possible health benefits.
A game-changing test for Prion, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases is on the horizon
A new test agent can easily and efficiently detect the misfolded protein aggregates that cause devastating neurological diseases in blood samples.
Genetically modified mice can show which functional foods can heal kidney disease
Researchers at Hiroshima University used genetically engineered mice to show the severity and progression of kidney disease and recovery during treatment in a new paper published in Scientific Reports in October.
Time in host country -- a risk factor for substance abuse in migrants
Refugees and other migrants who move to Sweden are initially less likely to be diagnosed with alcohol or drug addiction than the native population but over time their rates of substance abuse begin to mirror that of the Swedish born population.
The cost of waiting in emergency departments
Wait times in US emergency departments are increasing. A new study published in Economic Inquiry indicates that prolonging the wait time in the emergency department for a patient who arrives with a serious condition by 10 minutes will increase the hospital's cost to care for the patient by an average of 6%, and it will increase the cost to care for moderately severe cases by an average of 3%.
Hospital disinfectants struggling to kill C. diff bacteria colonies
The deadly superbug, Clostridioides difficile (C. diff), is putting up a winning fight against hospital-grade disinfectants meant to kill it, reports UH pharmacy professor Kevin Garey in a study that helps explain why C. diff is so hard to eradicate.
Study examines theory on menopause age and symptom severity
A recent theory states that women enter menopause at different ages and have varying extents of symptoms due in part to residence patterns after marriage -- or whether couples disperse to live with paternal or maternal kin.
Neuron circuitry from brain signals
A research team led by Kyoto University has developed a machine learning model that allows scientists to reconstruct neuronal circuitry by measuring signals from the neurons themselves.
Cytoplasm of scrambled frog eggs organizes into cell-like structures, Stanford study finds
The cytoplasm of ruptured Xenopus frog eggs spontaneously reorganizes into cell-like compartments, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
How sweet it isn't: Diminished taste function affects cancer patients' food intake
In a review of 11 studies 'that psychophysically measured taste and smell function and assessed some aspect of food behavior,' a University of Massachusetts Amherst sensory scientist found a reduced taste function, particularly for sweet flavors, among people with cancer.
Black, Hispanic women report more pain postpartum but receive less opioid medication
Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women were significantly more likely to report higher pain scores compared to non-Hispanic white women during the postpartum period.
Many insured Americans go out of network, pay more for behavioral health
Americans are using more out-of-network care and paying more out of pocket for behavioral health care than for treatment of other conditions, despite efforts to increase coverage and access to mental health services, according to new research.
A mechanism capable of preserving muscle mass
By studying the young and aging muscles in mice, researchers from the Myology Research Center (Sorbonne Universite-Inserm) of the Institute of Myology identified a protein, CaVbeta1E that activates the factor GDF5.
The Lancet Psychiatry: Improved support after self-harm needed to reduce suicide risk
To reduce the high risk of suicide after hospital attendance for self-harm, improved clinical management is needed for all patients - including comprehensive assessment of the patients' mental state, needs, and risks, as well as implementation of risk reduction strategies, including safety planning.
Combatting air pollution with nature
Air pollution is composed of particles and gases that can have negative impacts on both the environment and human health.
Revealed a mechanism of beta-cells involved in the development of type-1 diabetes
Researchers reveal how beta cells in the pancreas respond to an inflammatory environment and how this response is implicated in the risk of developing Type 1 diabetes.
Newly formed tropical storm Nakri seen by NASA-NOAA satellite
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the South China Sea and captured a visible image of newly formed Tropical Storm Nakri while it remained quasi-stationary and as it slowly organized.
Liver-chip predicts the toxicity of drug candidates across species
Researchers have created a 'Liver-Chip' using Organs-on-Chips technology that can predict and characterize the liver toxicity of various drug candidates and compounds in rats, dogs, and humans.
Why have so many new diseases developed in the bagged salads sector?
Ready-to-eat salads, also known as fresh-cut or bagged salads, have steadily gained popularity since their introduction in Europe in the early 1980s.
Normal body weight can hide eating disorder in teens, study led by stanford, UCSF finds
Teens and young adults with atypical anorexia nervosa can have normal body weights and still be dangerously ill, according to a new study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the University of California-San Francisco.
'Super-grafts' that could treat diabetes
To save patients with a severe form of type 1 diabetes, pancreatic cell transplantation is the last resort.
Study: Rapamycin prevents age-related brain vascular deterioration
A newly released study found that rats of advanced age, treated with the drug rapamycin, maintained superior blood flow to the brain compared to younger, untreated rats.
Study: Actually, potted plants don't improve indoor air quality
Plants can help spruce up a home or office space, but claims about their ability to improve the air quality are vastly overstated, according to research out of Drexel University.
'I knew that was going to happen:' Déjà vu and the 'postdictive' bias
Memory researcher Anne Cleary has a new theory on why déjà vu is accompanied not only by feelings of prediction, but also an 'I knew that was going to happen' feeling.
Lab in hollow MOF capsules beyond integration of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
It remains significant challenges to ideally combine the strengths of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis without compromise in a single catalyst.
Determinants of employability of people living with HIV/AIDS
People living with HIV/AIDS may face discrimination in employers' hiring practices.
Electrochemistry amps up in pharma
Sparked by several high-profile reports, electrochemistry -- using electricity to perform chemical reactions like oxidation and reduction -- is gaining popularity in the pharmaceutical field.
VA investigates impact of opioids, sedatives on veterans
Nearly 20 veterans kill themselves each day in the United States, a statistic that has led the Department of Veterans Affairs to make suicide prevention its highest priority and to recognize the risks from the simultaneous use of opioids and benzodiazepines.
School-based sleep program may benefit adolescents
A recent Journal of Sleep Research study uncovered potential long-term benefits of a school-based sleep education program for adolescents.
AI learns to design
Trained AI agents can adopt human design strategies to solve problems, according to findings published in the ASME Journal of Mechanical Design.
Researchers model avalanches in two dimensions
There's a structural avalanche waiting inside that box of Rice Krispies on the supermarket shelf.
Researchers discover new toxin that impedes bacterial growth
The researchers determined that the rapid production of (p)ppApp by this enzyme toxin depletes cells of a molecule called ATP.
Not so quiet, please
A research team at the University of California, Riverside, has found exposure to sound -- not sound reduction -- during early development of mice engineered to have Fragile X Syndrome, or FXS, restores molecular, cellular, and functional properties in the auditory cortex, the area of the brain that processes sounds.
Medication use during pregnancy is common in women with preeclampsia
Use of medications during pregnancy is more common in women with preeclampsia than in those without, according to a British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology analysis of women who gave birth at a hospital in Finland in 2002-2016.
The reproductive function of the clitoris
A recent review published in Clinical Anatomy highlights evidence that the female clitoris is important for reproduction.
EduSense: Like a FitBit for your teaching skills
While training and feedback opportunities abound for K-12 educators, the same can't be said for instructors in higher education.
The first Cr-based nitrides superconductor Pr3Cr10-xN11
New novel Cr-based nitride superconductor is discovered in cubic nitrides Pr3Cr10-xN11 at 5.25 K.
Factors during pregnancy may affect early childhood weight
In a study published in Pediatric Obesity, a child's high and increasing body mass index between ages two and six years was strongly associated with pre-pregnancy obesity and overweight in the child's mother; modestly associated with maternal type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes that required medication, and excessive weight gain during pregnancy; and slightly associated with breastfeeding for six months or less.
Scientists can replace metal collimators with plastic analogs
Scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University conducted studies of plastic collimators, which can replace their metal analogs used in radiation therapy.
Is infection after surgery associated with increased long-term risk of infection, death?
Whether experiencing an infection within the first 30 days after surgery is associated with an increased risk of another infection and death within one year was the focus of this observational study that included about 660,000 veterans who underwent major surgery.
Extinct species rediscovered in Winterhoek mountains, South Africa, after 200 years
One of the first recorded species to have been lost to forestry and agriculture in the Western Cape in the 1800s, a type of fountain bush from the pea family that used to grow next to mountain streams in the Tulbagh region, have been rediscovered.
How Human Population came from our ability to cooperate
Humans' ability to cooperate during child-bearing years by sharing food, labor, and childcare duties is the story of population growth.
Randomized clinical trial focuses on mailed HPV self-sampling test kits
This randomized clinical trial compared mailed at-home HPV self-sampling test kits with the usual care reminders patients receive about in-clinic screening for increasing the detection and treatment of cervical precancers and screening.
Scientists should have sex and gender on the brain
Thinking about sex and gender would help scientists improve their research, a new article published today argues.
First-In-US trial of CRISPR-edited immune cells for cancer appears safe
Genetically editing a cancer patient's immune cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, then infusing those cells back into the patient appears safe and feasible based on early data from the first-ever clinical trial to test the approach in humans in the United States.
Imaging test may help predict the success of labor induction
When labor is induced in pregnant women, one in five women will require an emergency cesarean section.
NIH-funded study: Placenta imaging method may aid diagnosis of pregnancy complications
A new imaging technique to track maternal blood flow to the placenta has the potential to help diagnose several common complications in early pregnancy, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health.
Tiny transporters could deliver treatment to stroke patients
Swarms of nanoparticles which are 15,000 times smaller than a pinhead may be able to deliver vital drugs to the brain, offering new hope to patients in the early stages of a stroke.
Pharmacy in the jungle study reveals indigenous people's choice of medicinal plants
In one of the most diverse studies of the non-random medicinal plants selection by gender, age and exposure to outside influences from working with ecotourism projects, researchers worked with the Kichwa communities of Chichico Rumi and Kamak Maki in the Ecuadorian Amazon.
On the trail of pathogens in meat, eggs and raw milk
To make food even safer for humans, experts from scientific institutions, food regulatory authorities and the business community will discuss current developments and strategies at the 'Zoonoses and Food Safety' Symposium at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) on 4 and 5 November 2019, in Berlin-Marienfelde.
A new CRISPR-Cas9 protein to increase precision of gene editing
A team of researchers from City University of Hong Kong (CityU) and Karolinska Institutet has recently developed a new protein that can help increase the targeting accuracy in the genome editing process.
Women with HIV at increased risk of early onset menopause
Thanks to medical advancements, HIV-positive women now have a longer life expectancy, exposing them to numerous midlife health issues such as menopause.
Shortened sleep may negatively affect women's bone health
Getting too little sleep was linked with a higher risk of having low bone mineral density (BMD) and developing osteoporosis, as reported in a recent Journal of Bone and Mineral Research study of postmenopausal women.
Carbon dioxide capture and use could become big business
Capturing carbon dioxide and turning it into commercial products, such as fuels or construction materials, could become a new global industry, according to a study by researchers from UCLA, the University of Oxford and five other institutions.
Mount Sinai researchers develop novel method to identify patterns among patients with multiple chronic conditions
A study by researchers at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai proposes a novel method for identifying patterns in the frequency and cost of multiple chronic conditions (MCC).
The genetic imprint of Palaeolithic has been detected in North African populations
Researchers led by David Comas for the first time performed an analysis of the complete genome of the population of North Africa.
Head and neck cancer patients benefited from Affordable Care Act
The rate of uninsured patients with head and neck cancers was 'significantly reduced' following the implementation of the federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA).
New findings on gut microbiome's interactions with GI diseases
A study from the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences offers new insight on how the gut bacteria of dogs interact with a healthy vs. unhealthy GI tract, which could contribute to the development of new therapies for GI diseases in both dogs and humans.
Membrane intercalation enhances photodynamic bacteria inactivation
Recently, researchers from the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Utah reported their work on achieving enhanced membrane intercalation.
Prenatal exposure to pollution linked to brain changes related to behavioral problems
A new study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), a center supported by 'la Caixa', has found a link between air pollution and changes in the corpus callosum, a region of the brain associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Quantitative biology opens trail to ecological exploration, evolutionary prediction
Back-to-back papers published in Nature uncover surprising new findings on bacterial chemotaxis -- the movement of bacterial cells in response to chemical stimuli -- one of the most studied areas of molecular biology.
Study finds association between physical activity, lower risk of fracture
Regular physical activity, including lighter intensity activities such as walking, is associated with reduced risk of hip and total fracture in postmenopausal women.
New technique lays foundation for regenerative cardiac therapies
Scientists have devised a technique to sort out which heart cells can replicate and which cannot, a critical step toward treatments that may one day help the heart heal itself after injury.
Polyamide kitchen utensils: Keep contact with hot food as brief as possible
Cooking spoons, spatulas or whisks: polyamide (PA) kitchen utensils provide valuable baking, roasting and cooking assistance.
A novel method for analyzing marine sediments contributes to paleoclimate reconstitution
Researchers supported by FAPESP proposed a procedure based on analyses of quartz and feldspar grains transported to the Atlantic Ocean by the Parnaíba River in Brazil's Northeast region.
Typical olfactory bulbs might not be necessary for smell, case study suggests
A team of researchers have uncovered a sliver of the population who have no apparent olfactory bulbs yet can somehow still smell.
Huge gaps in research on microplastics in North America, PSU study finds
Amid increasing concern about the effects of plastic pollution on marine ecosystems, a new study led by Portland State University found that North America is lagging behind other continents when it comes to understanding the potential risks that microplastics and associated pollutants pose to both fisheries and the humans that consume the seafood
Researchers link specific protein mutations to ataxia disease symptoms
For the first time, the UNC School of Medicine lab of Jonathan Schisler, MS, Ph.D., linked the specific biochemical changes to a protein called CHIP to specific disease characteristics of patients with a wide range of rare disorders.
UK needs to act to prevent electric vehicle battery waste mountain -- new study
Recycling technologies for end-of-life lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are not keeping pace with the rapid rise of electric vehicles, storing up a potentially huge waste management problem for the future, according to a new study.
Virus characteristics predict HIV treatment efficacy with antibody treatment
Current HIV-1 therapies have been proven to be highly effective in slowing the progression of the virus in the body with only minimal side effects.
University of Oklahoma geoscientist hopes to make induced earthquakes predictable
University of Oklahoma Mewbourne College of Earth and Energy assistant professor Xiaowei Chen and a group of geoscientists from Arizona State University and the University of California, Berkeley, have created a model to forecast induced earthquake activity from the disposal of wastewater after oil and gas production.
Are oral medications for vaginal yeast infections safe during pregnancy?
Vaginal yeast infections may occur more commonly during pregnancy, and most are treated with topical medications, or creams.
Solar and wind energy preserve groundwater for drought, agriculture
A Princeton University-led study in Nature Communications is among the first to show that solar and wind energy not only enhance drought resilience, but also aid in groundwater sustainability.
Structural and biochemical studies clarify the methylation mechanism of anticodon in tRNA
Groups in Ehime University, Japan and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Japan have solved the crystal structure of the eukaryotic Trm7-TRm734 complex, which methylates the ribose at the first position of anticodon in tRNA.
Mailed self-sampling kits helped more women get screened for cervical cancer
Signaling a potential major change in cervical cancer screening options for American women, a new study found that mailed self-sampling kits that test for HPV -- the virus that can cause cervical cancer -- helped significantly more women get screened for the cancer.
Showing robots 'tough love' helps them succeed, finds new USC study
According to a new study by USC computer scientists, to help a robot succeed, you might need to show it some tough love.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds super typhoon Halong finally weakening
Super Typhoon Halong has finally peaked in intensity and is now on a weakening trend.
Anorexia nervosa comes in all sizes, including plus size
Adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa whose weight is in the healthy, overweight or obese ranges face similar cardiovascular and other health complications as their counterparts with low body mass index (BMI), according to a new study led by researchers at UCSF.
Vitamin D dials down the aggression in melanoma cells
Vitamin D influences the behaviour of melanoma cells in the lab by making them less aggressive, Cancer Research UK scientists have found.
Scientists crack structure of a novel enzyme linked to cell growth and cancer
A research team at the University of California, Riverside, has discovered the structure of a novel RNA-modifying enzyme, ZCCHC4, and identified the mechanism that controls how this enzyme recognizes its substrate.
New measurement yields smaller proton radius
Using the first new method in half a century for measuring the size of the proton via electron scattering, the PRad collaboration has produced a new value for the proton's radius in an experiment conducted at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.
Sleep and sleepiness 'a huge problem' for people with spinal cord injury
A new study led by a University of Calgary researcher at the Cumming School of Medicine (CSM) finds that fatigue and sleep may need more attention in order to prevent issues like stroke after spinal cord injury.
On the way to intelligent microrobots
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and ETH Zurich have developed a micromachine that can perform different actions.
Study finds most surfing injuries involve shoulder or knee, surgery usually not required
A study published in the journal Sports Health characterizes MRI patterns of acute surfing-related injuries in patients seeking care at HSS.
FOCUS may lower PE diagnosis in ED patients with suspected PE and abnormal vitals
Focused cardiac ultrasound (FOCUS) performed by emergency physicians with advanced training in emergency ultrasound may significantly lower the likelihood of the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in most patients who are suspected of PE and have abnormal vital signs.
Helping quinoa brave the heat
Scientists identify more efficient methods for evaluating heat tolerance.
Admitting patterns of junior doctors may be behind 'weekend effect' in hospitals, study suggests
A study links the 'weekend effect' of increased hospital mortality to junior doctors admitting a lower proportion of healthy patients at the weekend compared to weekdays.
PFASs from ski wax bioaccumulate at Nordic resort
With winter approaching in the Northern Hemisphere, many people are looking forward to hitting the slopes.
Earthquake impact can be affected by seasonal factors, historical study shows
The season that an earthquake occurs could affect the extent of ground failure and destruction that the event brings, according to a new look at two historical earthquakes that occurred about 100 years ago near Almaty, Kazakhstan.
CoP-electrocatalytic reduction of nitroarenes: a controllable way to azoxy-, azo- and amino-aromatic
The development of a green, efficient and highly controllable manner to azoxy-, azo- and amino-aromatics from nitro-reduction is extremely desirable both from academic and industrial points of view.
Liver-chip identifies drug toxicities in human, rat, and dog models
Liver toxicity is a big problem in the drug, food, and consumer products industries, especially because results in animal models fail to predict how chemicals will affect humans.
Chemists' surprising discovery of nanoconfined reactions could aid catalytic design
Georgia State University chemistry researchers have unlocked one of the mysteries of catalytic reactions on a microscopic scale, allowing for the design of more efficient industrial processes.
Water mold research leads to greater understanding of corn diseases
Corn is a staple feed and biofuel crop with a value close to $3.7 billion in the Michigan economy alone.
'Vaping': The BfR advises against self-mixing e-liquids
'Vapers' should avoid mixing e-liquids for their electronic (e-) cigarettes themselves.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds tropical Cyclone Maha weakening
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Northern Indian Ocean and provided forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center with a view of Tropical Cyclone Maha's eroding structure that helped confirm it is weakening.
Higher earning 'elite' political lobbyists overstate their own achievements, study shows
'Elite', high-earning political lobbyists are more likely to overstate their achievements, a new study shows.
Mobile phone data reveals non-market value of coastal tourism under climate change
Big data application is an emerging field in climate change adaptation.
Spiders and ants inspire a metallic structure that refuses to sink
University of Rochester researchers have created a metallic structure that is so hydrophobic, it refuses to sink - no matter how often it is forced into water or how much it is damaged or punctured.
Researchers explore neuromarkers for poor social outcomes after traumatic brain injury
'This study advances our understanding of the brain basis of post-TBI deficits in social functioning,' said Dr.

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