Nav: Home

Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 07, 2019


Increased exercise over the age of 60 reduces risk of heart disease and stroke
People over the age of 60 should do more exercise not less in order to prevent heart disease and stroke, according to findings from a study of over 1.1 million elderly people published in the European Heart Journal.
Go with the flow: Scientists design new grid batteries for renewable energy
Scientists at Berkeley Lab have designed an affordable 'flow battery' membrane that could accelerate renewable energy for the electrical grid.
Artificial intelligence technology may improve care for patients needing dialysis
A machine learning model boosted rates of patients who started dialysis under optimal conditions.
KIER Identified Ion Transfer Principles of Salinity Gradient Power Generation Technology
Dr. Kim Hanki of Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) developed a mathematical analysis model that can identify the ion transfer principle of salinity gradient power technology.
Predicting the response of HIV-infected individuals to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy
Scientists led by Andreas Meyerhans and Gennady Bocharov have designed a mathematical model to predict the response of HIV-infected individuals to a type of cancer immunotherapy.
Pesticide management is failing Australian and Great Barrier Reef waterways
Scientists say a failure of Australian management means excessive amounts of harmful chemicals -- many now banned in countries such as the EU, USA and Canada -- are damaging the country's waterways and the Great Barrier Reef.
Groundbreaking HIV vaccine design strategy shows promise in proof-of-principle tests
The new vaccine strategy centers on stimulating the immune system to produce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV.
Could home remote monitoring improve the health of patients on peritoneal dialysis?
A home remote monitoring system may help track the health of patients on dialysis.
Intended to help human, planetary health, EAT-Lancet diet too costly for 1.6 billion people
A new study estimates that the Eat-Lancet Commission reference diet -- meant to improve both human and planetary health -- would be unaffordable for at least 1.58 billion people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
Bloodlines may matter more than love when it comes to health
Strained relationships with parents, siblings or extended family members may be more harmful to people's health than a troubled relationship with a significant other, according to a study published by the American Psychological Association.
Eight tips for promoting men's health
With November comes Movember, putting the spotlight on men's health, and UBC nursing professor John Oliffe has a few tips that can help ensure the success of men's health programs.
NUS engineers invent smartphone device that detects harmful algae in 15 minutes
A team of engineers from the National University of Singapore has developed a highly sensitive system that uses a smartphone to rapidly detect the presence of toxin-producing algae in water within 15 minutes.
Electronic cigarettes are not worth the risk say scientists
There is growing evidence that electronic cigarettes have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, reports a paper published today in Cardiovascular Research, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Simulated sunlight reveals how 98% of plastics at sea go missing each year
A new study helps to solve the mystery of missing plastic fragments at sea.
Sugar-coating proteins can help understand brain disease
Researchers, led by Professor Daan van Aalten in the University's School of Life Sciences, have developed a new way to tag proteins in human cells with a small sugar molecule called O-GlcNAc.
Stem cell transplants used to grow fully functional lungs in mice
Researchers at Columbia University used transplanted stem cells to grow lungs in mice.
Research suggests fumigants have very low long-term impact on soil health
It started with curiosity. How does a fumigant, commonly used for nematode management in potato cropping systems, influence soil microbial communities?
Enjoyment of pop music classics linked to combination of uncertainty and surprise
Why is it that people find songs such as James Taylor's 'Country Roads,' UB40's 'Red, Red Wine,' or The Beatles' 'Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da' so irresistibly enjoyable?
Researchers find potential new target for treatment of inflammatory disease
Researchers led by the University of Birmingham have found a potential new target to treat inflammatory disease.
Targeted gene modification in animal pathogenic chlamydia
Researchers at Umeå University (Sweden), in collaboration with researchers at the University of Maryland and Duke University (USA), now for the first time successfully performed targeted gene mutation in the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia caviae.
What your friends' brains look like when they think of you
If you ever wondered what's going on in your friends' brains when they think about you, new research may provide a clue.
Research reveals potential dangers during skin-to-skin contact for mother and baby following cesarean section birth
Research in the latest edition of the European Journal of Anaesthesiology (the official journal of the European Society of Anaesthesiology) reports the potential dangers of allowing skin-to-skin contact for mother and baby in the operating room, following a cesarean section birth.
Biology: Artic sea ice loss may facilitate disease spread in marine mammals
Artic sea ice reduction due to climate change may allow pathogens infecting sea mammals to spread more regularly between the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans, according to a study published in Scientific Reports.
Plants and fungi together could slow climate change
A new global assessment shows that human impacts have greatly reduced plant-fungus symbioses, which play a key role in sequestering carbon in soils.
New X-ray technology could revolutionize how doctors identify abnormalities
Using ground-breaking technology, researchers at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) and University of Baltimore (UMB) are testing a new method of X-ray imaging that uses color to identify microfractures in bones.
Mammals' complex spines are linked to high metabolisms; we're learning how they evolved
Mammals' backbones are weird. They're much more complex than the spines of other land animals like reptiles.
Adverse reactions increase in children with use of common reflux aids: study
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) -- such as Prilosec, Protonix and Nexium, have long been one of the most prescribed medications in the country to aid in the reduction of stomach acid.
Debunking common misperceptions of Asian community health
Common misperceptions about Asian health issues contribute to a lack of health awareness and a reluctance to seek care, according to research published in Public Relations Review.
Investigation of oceanic 'black carbon' uncovers mystery in global carbon cycle
An unexpected finding published today in Nature Communications challenges a long-held assumption about the origin of oceanic black coal, and introduces a tantalizing new mystery: If oceanic black carbon is significantly different from the black carbon found in rivers, where did it come from?
Tailor-made for older adults, new tools improve doctor-patient relations
A Wilmot Cancer Institute-led study in JAMA Oncology shows that when physicians fully appreciate the concerns of older adults with cancer, such as function and forgetfulness, it elevates patient care and satisfaction.
Survival following switch from urgent in-center hemodialysis to home dialysis
Few patients who start urgent and unplanned dialysis in clinical centers switch to home dialysis.
Voters agree with polls that favor their candidates
With the presidential election a year away, pollsters will barrage the country with poll questions to get the pulse of the voters about the candidates.
Modified CRISPR gene editing tool could improve therapies for HIV, sickle cell disease
City of Hope researchers may have found a way to sharpen the fastest, cheapest and most accurate gene editing technique, CRISPR-Cas9, so that it can more successfully cut out undesirable genetic information.
Researchers discover how cells know their future and forget their past
All cells in the body contain the same genetic material.
Implantable artificial kidney achieves preclinical milestone
The Kidney Project, a national effort to develop an implantable bio-artificial kidney that could eliminate the need for dialysis, will announce a key milestone in a November 7, 2019 presentation at the American Society of Nephrology Kidney Week 2019 conference in Washington, DC.
Researchers take flight with unmanned aerial vehicles
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are getting smarter with the help of an international team of researchers.
AI could help diagnose dogs suffering from chronic pain and Chiari-like malformation
A new artificial intelligence (AI) technique developed by the University of Surrey could eventually help veterinarians quickly identify Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) dogs with a chronic disease that causes crippling pain.
Trapping versus dropping atoms expands 'interrogation' to 20 seconds
Trapped atoms, suspended aloft on a lattice of laser light for as long as 20 seconds, allow for highly sensitive measurements of gravity, according to a new study, which describes a new approach to atom interferometers.
Cervical cancer screening numbers drop off in women 45-65
Virtually all cervical cancers are caused by HPV, and much of the attention in recent years has focused on preventing infections in younger women through HPV vaccination.
One-third of reproductive age women have health conditions that may complicate pregnancy
One in three women of reproductive age have at least one chronic condition that could compromise their health or lead to adverse outcomes during pregnancy, according to University of Utah Health scientists.
Researchers challenge myth of the relationship between mental illness and incarceration
Researchers examined the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and future incarceration by merging data from psychiatric interviews that took place in the 1980s with 30 years of follow-up data.
Scientists take action to prevent sexual harassment and bias
In a policy paper published in the journal Science, scientists from a variety of fields highlight key ways institutions and funding agencies can help address sexual harassment and gender bias in the STEM workplace.
For first time, potential treatment path becomes clear for subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
An unexpected finding from the Scripps Research laboratory of Xiang-Lei Yang, PhD, has illuminated a potential strategy for treating the inherited neurological disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth, for which there is no approved medicine today.
New photonic liquid crystals could lead to next-generation displays
A new technique to change the structure of liquid crystals could lead to the development of fast-responding liquid crystals suitable for next generation displays -- 3D, augmented and virtual reality -- and advanced photonic applications such as mirrorless lasers, bio-sensors and fast/slow light generation, according to an international team of researchers from Penn State, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan.
Program improves short term nutritional outcomes in a conflict zone
A study led by a researcher at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health finds that a multidisciplinary program within a conflict zone in Armenia was successful in improving several measures of childhood nutrition.
NASA's NICER catches record-setting X-ray burst
On Aug. 20, 2019 NASA's NICER telescope saw a spike of X-rays from a massive explosion on a pulsar.
Melting arctic sea ice linked to emergence of deadly virus in marine mammals
Scientists have linked the decline in Arctic sea ice to the emergence of a deadly virus that could threaten marine mammals in the North Pacific, according to a study from the University of California, Davis.
Study: Conflict of interest disclosures don't alter the recommendations of peer reviewers
A new study suggests that such conflicts of interest disclosures have no impact on journal reviewers, even when the authors of submitted papers did, in fact, report conflicts.
Vaping not worth potential heart risk, researchers say
Science hasn't yet caught up with electronic cigarettes, leaving health care providers and users with many unknowns.
GP clinics could help bridge mental health treatment gap, study finds
Patients experiencing mild to moderate mental health issues could be managed effectively by GP practices, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.
Hubble captures a dozen sunburst arc doppelgangers
Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have observed a galaxy in the distant regions of the Universe which appears duplicated at least 12 times on the night sky.
UMass Amherst study updates impacts of Plainridge Park Casino
The Plainridge Park Casino has created job opportunities for the unemployed and underemployed, among other economic benefits, without an increase in problem gambling, according to University of Massachusetts Amherst researchers from the Social and Economic Impacts of Gambling in Massachusetts (SEIGMA) study.
Stanford scientists link Neanderthal extinction to human diseases
Complex disease transmission patterns could explain why it took tens of thousands of years after first contact for our ancestors to replace Neanderthals throughout Europe and Asia.
Nutrient supplements significantly reduce child deaths
A new study led by researchers at the University of California, Davis, finds that child mortality significantly drops when children receive nutritional supplements rich in vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids.
NUS researchers discover enzyme's role in 'natural killer T cell lymphoma'
Researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore uncovered an enzyme which could serve as a potential biomarker for 'natural killer T cell lymphoma' and could lead to new targeting routes for treatment.
Vitamin D and Omega 3 supplements do not reduce risk of systemic inflammation
An analysis of the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital indicates that neither vitamin D nor omega-3s were effective at reducing systemic inflammation.
Where does Parkinson's disease start? In the brain or gut? Or both?
Does Parkinson's disease (PD) start in the brain or the gut?
Poor sleep may affect cognitive abilities and behavior of children with kidney disease
Many children with chronic kidney disease report fatigue and problems with sleep.
Concordia research shows how climate change will affect hydropower production in Canada
Changing climate and weather patterns are going to have dramatic impacts on Canada's production potential of hydroelectricity, according to new Concordia research. hydropower giant Quebec will see its hydroelectricity output potential jump by as much as 15%.
Study finds sex bias in bird conservation plans
After pairing up and raising chicks, males and females of some bird species spend their winter break apart.
Community house hemodialysis offers many benefits to patients with kidney failure
Community house hemodialysis is a dialysis modality that overcomes many of the barriers to home hemodialysis.
Unless warming is slowed, emperor penguins will be marching towards extinction
Emperor penguins are some of the most striking and charismatic animals on Earth, but a new study from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) has found that a warming climate may render them extinct by the end of this century.
NASA observes Tropical Storm Matmo in North Central Bay of Bengal
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Bay of Bengal, Northern Indian Ocean and found that Tropical Storm Matmo was positioned in the center of that body of water.
CO biosynthesis required for the assembly of the active site in NiFe-hydrogenase
The research group including researchers of National Institutes of Natural Sciences (ExCELLS/IMS), and Osaka University have revealed the detail mechanism of the biosynthesis of carbon monoxide essential for the maturation of the active site of NiFe-hydrogenase.
The medieval Catholic church's influence on psychology of Western, industrialized societies
The Western Catholic church's influence on marriage and family structures during the Middle Ages shaped the cultural evolution of the beliefs and behaviors now common among Western Europeans and their cultural descendants, researchers report.
SDHI pesticides are toxic for human cells
French scientists led by a CNRS researcher have just revealed that eight succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor pesticide molecules do not just inhibit the SDH activity of fungi, but can also block that of earthworms, bees, and human cells in varying proportions.
Introducing GMpi: Affordable and adaptable remote monitoring for plant growth experiments
Growth chambers are essential for plant research, and it's necessary to be able to control and monitor environmental variables.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds Tropical Storm Nakri affecting Kalayaan
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Tropical Storm Nakri and captured a visible image of the storm in the South China Sea.
NASA satellite imagery finds Typhoon Halong resembles a boxing glove
Typhoon Halong has packed quite a punch and imagery from NASA's Terra satellite found that the storm resembled a boxing glove.
Minimizing post-harvest food losses
Research team from Graz, Austria, develops biological methods to improve the shelf life of fruit and vegetables.
Catalyst switching means four become one
Catalyst switch strategy is the key step in the production of a four-component crystalline tetrablock quarterpolymer.
Human heart cells are altered by spaceflight, but return to (mostly) normal on Earth
Heart muscle cells derived from stem cells show remarkable adaptability to their environment during and after spaceflight, according to a study publishing Nov.
Prevalence of hepatitis C rates in Ohio may indicate highest areas of opioid misuse
The Ohio Alliance for Innovation in Population Health (The Alliance) studied hepatitis C rates within the state and discovered consistently high rates in the southern Appalachia region over a five-year period.
The hidden ability of synchrotron radiation to perform coherent control
Researchers have discovered that synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons has a hitherto unremarked ability to manipulate populations and pathways in matters.
Flexible yet sturdy robot is designed to 'grow' like a plant
MIT engineers have developed a robot designed to extend a chain-like appendage flexible enough to twist and turn in any necessary configuration, yet rigid enough to support heavy loads or apply torque to assemble parts in tight spaces.
Study helps explain why exercise guards against heart disease
Researchers have identified a previously unknown biological pathway that promotes chronic inflammation and may help explain why sedentary people have an increased risk for heart disease and strokes.
The way of making memories
How does the brain translate information from the outside world into something we remember?
Thorium superconductivity: Scientists discover a new high-temperature superconductor
A group of scientists led by Artem Oganov, Professor at Skoltech and MIPT, and Dr.
Personalized gene networks enhance study of disease
Researchers at Penn State College of Medicine have developed a new method to model how genes interact with each other -- and it may someday contribute to the development of personalized treatments for patients.
Hubble captures a dozen galaxy doppelgangers
This NASA Hubble Space Telescope photo reveals a cosmic kaleidoscope of a remote galaxy that has been split into a dozen multiple images by the effect of gravitational lensing.
Neural network fills in data gaps for spatial analysis of chromosomes
Computational methods used to fill in missing pixels in low-quality images or video also can help scientists provide missing information for how DNA is organized in the cell, computational biologists at Carnegie Mellon University have shown.
Satellite observations show shifting trends in nitrogen oxide lifetimes over North American cities
For the first time, remote satellite observations are used to measure the lifetime of the urban air pollutants known as NOx above select major North American cities, showing how they've changed over time.
Study shows fewer American Indians getting heart disease
A first-of-its-kind study led by researchers at Washington State University shows that new cases of heart disease among American Indians in three US regions have gone down.
Protein decoy stymies lung cancer growth in mice, Stanford-UCSF study finds
Scientists at Stanford and UC-San Francisco have developed an experimental drug that targets a currently untreatable type of lung cancer responsible for generating roughly 500,000 newly diagnosed cases worldwide each year.
UCI-led study reveals non-image light sensing mechanism of circadian neurons
University of California, Irvine researchers reveal how an ancient flavoprotein response to ultra violet (UV), blue and red light informs internal circadian processes about the time of day.
Aviation emissions' impacts on air quality larger than on climate, study finds
New research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has quantified the climate and air quality impacts of aviation, broken down by emission type, altitude and location.
Study finds key Alzheimer's gene (APOE) acts differently in Caribbean Hispanics
Researchers looking to unlock the mysteries of Alzheimer's disease have revealed new insights from old variants.
Research brief: Origin of deadly wheat pathogen revealed
A team of researchers has uncovered the basis of stem rust pathogen Ug99's wide virulence, attacking a direct threat to the world wheat supply.
Skull features among Asian and Asian-derived groups differ significantly
Forensic anthropologists have now discovered that several skull features in Asian and Asian-derived groups differ significantly with regard to shape, such that they can be distinguished using statistical analyses.
Sounds of mosquito mating rituals could lead to quieter drones
Mosquitoes flap their wings not just to stay aloft but for two other critical purposes: to generate sound and to point that buzz in the direction of a potential mate, researchers at Johns Hopkins University have discovered.
Imagined movements can alter our brains
Brain-computer interfaces have a structural impact on brain substance.
Study provides insights on the effects of cannabidiol on severe form of epilepsy
Results from a study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology may help explain why cannabidiol -- a chemical component of marijuana with no psychoactive properties -- reduces the frequency of seizures in patients with a severe form of epilepsy.
Argonne collaborates to review current battery recycling processes for electric vehicles
Nature has published a new review co-authored by Argonne analyst Linda Gaines.
US economy to expand, but at a slower pace, reaching about 2% growth in 2020
The US economy will continue to expand for a 12th consecutive year in 2020, but by only about 2% and struggling to remain at that level by year's end.
Ancient roman DNA reveals genetic crossroads of Europe and Mediterranean
All roads may lead to Rome, and in ancient times, a great many European genetic lineages did too, according to a new study.
Stanford researchers lay out first genetic history of Rome
Despite extensive records of the history of Rome, little is known about the city's population over time.
Galactic fountains and carousels: order emerging from chaos
Scientists from Germany and the United States have unveiled the results of a newly-completed, state of the art simulation of the evolution of galaxies.
Thorium superconductivity: Scientists discover new high-temperature superconductor
A group of scientists led by Artem Oganov of Skoltech and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and Ivan Troyan of the Institute of Crystallography of RAS has succeeded in synthesizing thorium decahydride (ThH10), a new superconducting material with the very high critical temperature of 161 kelvins.
Why beta-blockers cause skin inflammation
Beta-blockers are often used to treat high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases.
Choosing most cost-effective practices for sites could save in bay cleanup
Using site-specific watershed data to determine the most cost-effective agricultural best management practices -- rather than requiring all the recommended practices be implemented across the entire watershed -- could make staying below the Chesapeake Bay's acceptable pollution load considerably less expensive.
Millions of seabirds rely on discarded fish
Millions of scavenging seabirds survive on fish discarded by North Sea fishing vessels, new research shows.
Self-cannibalizing mitochondria may set the stage for ALS development
Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered a new phenomenon in the brain that could explain the development of early stages of neurodegeneration that is seen in diseases such as ALS, which affects voluntary muscle movement such as walking and talking.  The discovery was so novel, the scientists needed to coin a new term to describe it: mitoautophagy, a collection of self-destructive mitochondria in diseased upper motor neurons of the brain that begin to disintegrate from within at a very early age.
New molecule reduces the aggressiveness of pediatric cancer
A microRNA inhibitor identified by researchers at the FAPESP-supported Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center reduced the sizes of aggressive tumors and improved survival in mice.
Heart attack modeled with human stem cells
A model of ischemic heart disease was developed using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC).
No more traffic blues for information transfer: decongesting wireless channels
The increasing number of devices connected over wireless networks is causing channels of information flow to be congested with heavy information traffic.
World's most comprehensive study of a deadly heart condition yields 1st results
Researchers have revealed the initial results from the world's largest comprehensive study of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an abnormal thickening of the heart that often goes undiagnosed and can prove deadly.
Can our thoughts alter our brains?
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) can measure changes in electrical brain activity that just by thinking about performing a task.
Learning to stop cancer at its roots
Leukemia stem cells initiate and sustain leukemia, but researchers have found a way to steer them toward a path of self-destruction.
Oxygen-starved tumor cells have survival advantage that promotes cancer spread
Using cells from human breast cancers and mouse breast cancer models, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have significant new evidence that tumor cells exposed to low-oxygen conditions have an advantage when it comes to invading and surviving in the bloodstream.
Mated female mosquitoes are more likely to transmit malaria parasites
Female mosquitoes that have mated are more likely to transmit malaria parasites than virgin females, according to a study published Nov.
Older adults find greater well-being in smaller social networks, study finds
Are younger adults who cultivate numerous connections with friends, families and acquaintances through online social networks any happier than older adults who have smaller circles of face-to-face relationships?
Study shows artificial intelligence can detect language problems tied to liver failure
Natural language processing, the technology that lets computers read, decipher, understand and make sense of human language, is the driving force behind internet search engines, email filters, digital assistants such as Amazon's Alexa and Apple's Siri, and language-to-language translation apps.
Lifelong medicare coverage of transplant drugs would save money
Extending Medicare coverage of anti-rejection medications beyond 36 months after a kidney transplant would lead to lower costs and an improvement in patients' quality of life.
Giving billions of live bacteria to boost the gut health of premature babies
Boosting the milk of premature babies with healthy bacteria may have helped half the number of serious gut problems and infections, according to new research.

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Risk
Why do we revere risk-takers, even when their actions terrify us? Why are some better at taking risks than others? This hour, TED speakers explore the alluring, dangerous, and calculated sides of risk. Guests include professional rock climber Alex Honnold, economist Mariana Mazzucato, psychology researcher Kashfia Rahman, structural engineer and bridge designer Ian Firth, and risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#540 Specialize? Or Generalize?
Ever been called a "jack of all trades, master of none"? The world loves to elevate specialists, people who drill deep into a single topic. Those people are great. But there's a place for generalists too, argues David Epstein. Jacks of all trades are often more successful than specialists. And he's got science to back it up. We talk with Epstein about his latest book, "Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World".
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dolly Parton's America: Neon Moss
Today on Radiolab, we're bringing you the fourth episode of Jad's special series, Dolly Parton's America. In this episode, Jad goes back up the mountain to visit Dolly's actual Tennessee mountain home, where she tells stories about her first trips out of the holler. Back on the mountaintop, standing under the rain by the Little Pigeon River, the trip triggers memories of Jad's first visit to his father's childhood home, and opens the gateway to dizzying stories of music and migration. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.