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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 08, 2019


DNA technology as a novel strategy for delivery of anti-HIV antibodies
Wistar scientists applied synthetic DNA-based technology to drive in vivo production of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies in small and large-animal models, providing proof of concept for a simple and effective next generation approach to HIV prevention and therapy.
Ancient Rome: a 12,000-year history of genetic flux, migrations and diversity
Scholars have been all over Rome for hundreds of years, but it still holds some secrets - for instance, relatively little is known about where the city's denizens actually came from.
University of Cincinnati finds new option for liver transplant patients
Budesonide, a drug commonly used to treat Crohn's Disease, may offer fewer side effects and work at least as well as prednisone as an anti-organ rejection medication in liver transplant patients.
Supplements don't preserve kidney health in Type 2 diabetes
Supplements of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids (often sold as fish oil) do not help people with type 2 diabetes stave off chronic kidney disease, according to findings from the largest clinical study to date of the supplements in this patient population.
Oral health for older adults
Practicing good oral hygiene, using fluoride treatments, and getting regular dental care reduces oral infections and their complications.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds a weaker, transitioning Tropical Storm Halong
Halong continued to weaken and is transitioning into an extra-tropical cyclone.
Breaking news on penicillin allergy
Three new studies being presented at the ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting in Houston present new information on penicillin allergy.
Bushfires on east coast of Australia out of control
An unprecedented number of bushfires have erupted on the east coast of Australia due to hot, dry, windy weather.
Beyond borders: Geographers link formation of international laws to refugee crisis
West Virginia University geographers are linking the political and human rights issues at borders today to the legacies of foreign and domestic policy across the globe since World War I.
Air pollution in India is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease
The CHAI Project explores the association between exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of atherosclerosis.
New tool facilitates genetic mapping of polyploid plants
Available online for free, polyploid mapping system developed in Brazil helps breeders of sugarcane, kiwi, blueberry, sweet potato and forages, among other crops.
Scientists take strides towards entirely renewable energy
Researchers have made a major discovery that will make it immeasurably easier for people (or super-computers) to search for an elusive 'green bullet' catalyst that could ultimately provide entirely renewable energy.
Researchers report new insights into Parkinson's disease-related mortality
By following a group of newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) for a decade or more, researchers have been able to identify several factors never before reported that appear to be associated with higher mortality rates in PD patients compared to the general population.
Creating fake rhino horn with horse hair to help in saving the endangered rhino
Scientists from the University of Oxford and Fudan University, Shanghai, have invented a way to create fake rhino horn using horse hair.
TTUHSC researchers publish preclinical data on new drug combination to treat neuroblastoma
Neuroblastoma, the most common cancer outside of the brain in infants and young children, often fails to respond to therapy.
Investigators build a better targeted drug therapy using the power of computation
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital set out to design more stable and predictable ADCs by using computer simulations to predict and plan out how the drug payload and antibody can stay linked to each other.
Kidney disease outcomes differ between severely obese kids vs. adults after bariatric surgery
Adolescents with Type 2 diabetes experienced more hyperfiltration and earlier attenuation of their elevated urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio after gastric bypass surgery compared with adults, according to research presented during the American Society of Nephrology's Kidney Week 2019.
Photosynthesis seen in a new light by rapid X-ray pulses
In a new study, led by Petra Fromme and Nadia Zatsepin at the Biodesign Center for Applied Structural Discovery, the School of Molecular Sciences and the Department of Physics at ASU, researchers investigated the structure of Photosystem I (PSI) with ultrashort X-ray pulses at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL), located in Hamburg, Germany.
What and how much we eat might change our internal clocks and hormone responses
For the first time, a study led by researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) shows how glucocorticoid hormones, such as cortisol, control sugar and fat levels differently during day and night, feeding and fasting, rest and activity, over the course of 24 hours.
A new quantum data classification protocol brings us nearer to a future 'quantum internet'
A new protocol created by researchers at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona sorts and classifies quantum data by the state in which they were prepared, with more efficiency than the equivalent classical algorithm.
Researchers find new potential approach to type 2 diabetes treatment
The protein adipsin, which is produced in body fat, helps protect insulin-secreting cells called pancreatic beta cells from destruction in type 2 diabetes, according to a new study by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine andNewYork-Presbyterian.
Predicting risk of chronic kidney disease
Data from about 5 million people (with and without diabetes) in 28 countries were used to develop equations to help identify people at increased five-year risk of chronic kidney disease, defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
NASA sees Nakri strengthen into a Typhoon
Former Tropical Storm Nakri strengthened into a Typhoon in the South China Sea on Nov.
Family history of cancer associated with asthma diagnosis in children
New study being presented at the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) Annual Scientific Meeting in Houston shows an association between a family history of cancer and a childhood asthma diagnosis.
Study vaccine protects monkeys against four types of hemorrhagic fever viruses
Scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health have developed an investigational vaccine that protected cynomolgus macaques against four types of hemorrhagic fever viruses endemic to overlapping regions in Africa.
Conservation scientists call for reverse to biodiversity loss
A group of international conservationists is urging governments across the globe to adopt a new approach to address the impact of economic development on the natural world.
Automated wearable artificial kidney may improve peritoneal dialysis
Peritoneal dialysis performed with an automated wearable artificial kidney was safe and effective for removing toxins from the blood of patients with kidney failure.
New study suggests 'Pac-Man-like' mergers could explain massive, spinning black holes
Scientists have reported detecting gravitational waves from 10 black hole mergers to date, but they are still trying to explain the origins of those mergers.
A distinct spin on atomic transport
Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate simultaneous control over transport and spin properties of cold atoms, and thus establish a framework for exploring concepts in spintronics and solid-state physics.
Breaking news on oral food challenges
Two medically challenging cases being presented at the ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting contain new information on the benefits of oral food challenges when diagnosing food allergies.
Ancient gas cloud reveals universe's first stars formed quickly
The discovery of a 13 billion-year-old cosmic cloud of gas enabled a team of Carnegie astronomers to perform the earliest-ever measurement of how the universe was enriched with a diversity of chemical elements.
Study shows biomarker accurately diagnoses deadly infant disease
A diagnostic study of 136 premature infants found that a protein involved in managing harmful bacteria in the human intestine is a reliable biomarker for the noninvasive detection of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
Stress hormone helps control the circadian rhythm of brain cells
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have shown how the brain's circadian rhythm in rats is, among other things, controlled by the stress hormone corticosterone -- in humans called cortisol.
Leading risk factors, causes of death underrepresented in NIH-supported prevention research
A study by National Institutes of Health scientists in the Office of Disease Prevention (ODP) examined NIH grants and cooperative agreements during fiscal years 2012 through 2017 to determine the alignment of prevention research across NIH institutes and centers with leading risk factors and causes of death and disability in the United States.
Arctic shifts to a carbon source due to winter soil emissions
A NASA-funded study suggests winter carbon emissions in the Arctic may be adding more carbon into the atmosphere each year than is taken up by Arctic vegetation, marking a stark reversal for a region that has captured and stored carbon for tens of thousands of years.
Scientists develop method to standardize genetic data analysis
MIPT researchers have collaborated with Atlas Biomedical Holding and developed a new bioinformatics data analysis method.
Allergy patients equally satisfied with telemedicine and in-person appointments
A new study being presented at the ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting in Houston showed most parents of pediatric patients were more or equally satisfied with the treatment their children received during telemedicine visits for allergies and asthma.
How prenatal diet, delivery mode and infant feeding relate to pediatric allergies
Two new studies being presented at the ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting contain new information on how prenatal diet, the way the baby is delivered, and infant feeding practices can affect the risk of allergy.
Social media alternative facts on food allergies can negatively impact medical decisions
Social media misinformation has a negative impact on medical decisions made by people with food allergies.
New tool predicts five-year risk of chronic kidney disease
A new risk calculator tool that uses a mix of variables including age, hypertension, and diabetes status can be used to predict accurately whether someone is likely to develop chronic kidney disease within five years.
Using AI to predict where and when lightning will strike
Researchers at EPFL have developed a novel way of predicting lightning strikes to the nearest 10 to 30 minutes and within a radius of 30 kilometers.
Allergy shots may be an effective treatment for pediatric pollen food allergy syndrome
A new study being presented at the ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting in Houston shows allergy shots (subcutaneous immunotherapy) can be effective in reducing PFAS symptoms for pediatric patients.
High numbers of youth report using prescription opioids in the past year
A new analysis of US data finds an unexpectedly high prevalence of prescription opioid use among youth.
Study finds brains of girls and boys are similar, producing equal math ability
Jessica Cantlon at Carnegie Mellon University led a research team that comprehensively examined the brain development of young boys and girls.
Many teens have low iron, B12 levels years after bariatric surgery
Five years after bariatric surgery, many teens develop nutritional deficiencies, according to new research from Cincinnati Children's.
Century-old food testing method updated to include complex fluid dynamics
The texture of food is an important part of enjoying foods.
A 'worker' that flies: Chinese researchers design novel flying robot
Recently, Chinese researchers at the Shenyang Institute of Automation (SIA) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the development of a contact aerial manipulator system that shows high flexibility and strong mission adaptability.
Genetic diversity facilitates cancer therapy
Cancer patients with more different HLA genes respond better to treatment.
New sphenisciform fossil further resolves bauplan of extinct giant penguins
New Zealand is a key area for understanding the diversity of the extinct penguins and has even revealed the existence of 'giant' penguin species (larger than living penguins).
Hurricanes affecting Puerto Rico reveal the serious crisis the country is experiencing
An article led by Joan Benach, a researcher with the Department of Political and Social Sciences at UPF, published in the journal 'Social Science & Medicine', shows how the underlying causes of the crisis in Puerto Rico stem from colonialism and the lack of political sovereignty.
Doctors don't realize hair care prevents many African-American women from exercise
African-American women face a unique challenge to regular exercise -- their hair.
Best practice treatment guidelines help doctors identify, treat vaping-associated lung injuries
As the outbreak of lung injuries and deaths associated with e-cigarettes, or vaping, continues to spread across the US, researchers at Intermountain Healthcare in Salt Lake City have effectively developed a best practice treatment guide to quickly identify and treat patients who develop the new and potentially fatal respiratory injury, according to a new study.
Machine learning enhances light-beam performance at the advanced light source
A team of researchers at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley has successfully demonstrated how machine-learning tools can improve the stability of light beams' size for science experiments at a synchrotron light source via adjustments that largely cancel out unwanted fluctuations.
Immersion in virtual reality scenes of the Arctic helps to ease people's pain
Watching immersive 360 videos of icy Arctic scenes helps to relieve intense burning pain and could hold hope for treating chronic pain, a small study has found.
Scientists' panel urges vigorous prevention of sexual harassment and bias in labs
A diverse group of scientists including Nilanjana Dasgupta, professor of social psychology at UMass Amherst and the campus's director of faculty equity and inclusion, report their findings recently and recommendations on how institutions and funding agencies can address and prevent sexual harassment and gender bias in the STEM workforce.
Did vitamin D, Omega-3 supplements help prevent development, progression of CKD in adults with type 2 diabetes?
Researchers in this randomized clinical trial investigated if supplementation with vitamin D or omega-3 fatty acids compared with placebo over five years helped prevent the development or progression of chronic kidney disease among adults with type 2 diabetes.
Superfood for Mesozoic herbivores? Emerging data on extreme digestibility of equisetum and implications for young, growing herbivorous sauropods
The long-necked, big bodied sauropod dinosaurs comprise some of the largest terrestrial vertebrates to walk the earth.
From plants, UVA extracts a better way to determine what our genes do
The improved technique will help explore genetic diseases and benefit drug development.
New Jersey researchers study social communication in pediatric traumatic brain injury
'These findings support our hypothesis that children with TBI who have problems with social communication also have problems with social cognition and social functioning,' said Dr.
Coastlines' contribution to climate change might have been underestimated
Permafrost coasts make up about one third of the Earth's total coastline.
Clemson scientists further refine how quickly the universe is expanding
In a paper published in The Astrophysical Journal, Clemson scientists Marco Ajello, Abhishek Desai, Lea Marcotulli and Dieter Hartmann have collaborated with six other scientists around the world to devise a new measurement of the Hubble Constant.
Physicians create guide for identifying, treating vaping lung illness
As lung injuries from vaping continue to rise across the United States, physicians developed a new tool to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI).
Early dispersal for quadrupedal cetaceans: amphibious whale from middle Eocene
Lead author, Olivier Lambert, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Bruxelles, Belgium, presented the team's findings at this year's annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology held this year in Brisbane, Australia.
PERL concludes reduced uric acid has no impact on kidney disease in type 1 diabetes
Three years of sustained reductions of blood levels of uric acid with the generic drug allopurinol did not benefit type 1 diabetes patients with mild to moderate kidney disease.
Study finds glutamates such as MSG can help reduce Americans' sodium intake
A new study indicates that the substitution of glutamates such as MSG for salt can reduce Americans' sodium intake by up to 7-8 percent.
New technique to identify a common cause to TMA diseases for which there is a treatment
Researchers have developed a technique that allows detecting an anomaly in the alternative pathway of the complement system, a part of our immune system that if deregulated can attack the patient's own endothelial cells and cause thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), a severe injury common to a diversity of diseases.
NASA finds a stronger Matmo headed for landfall
Matmo strengthened from a tropical storm to a storm with hurricane-force in the overnight hours of Nov.
Chimera formation could favor the expansion of invasive species in the marine environment
A new article published in the journal Scientific Reports reveals 44% of the colonies of Didemnum vexillum -a marine invertebrate tagged as invasive species- in the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) are formed by gene chimera, that is, cells with different gene pool.
Glutamine-blocking drug slows tumor growth and strengthens anti-tumor response
A compound developed by Johns Hopkins researchers that blocks glutamine metabolism can slow tumor growth, alter the tumor microenvironment and promote the production of durable and highly active anti-tumor T cells.
Fossil suggests apes, old world monkeys moved in opposite directions from shared ancestor
In terms of their body plan, Old World monkeys -- a group that includes primates like baboons and macaques -- are generally considered more similar to ancestral species than apes are.
Turbulence creates ice in clouds
Vertical air motions increase ice formation in mixed-phase clouds. This correlation was predicted theoretically for a long time, but could now be observed for the first time in nature.
Depressed MS-patients suffer debilitating symptoms earlier
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) who also have depression are more likely to suffer debilitating symptoms early than people with MS who are not depressed, according to a study at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden that is published in the journal Neurology.
Copper hospital beds kill bacteria, save lives
A new study has found that copper hospital beds in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) harbored an average of 95% fewer bacteria than conventional hospital beds, and maintained these low-risk levels throughout patients' stay in hospital.
New study first to reveal growth rates of deep-sea coral communities
Researchers from the University of Hawai'i, Hawai'i Pacific University and NOAA revealed for the first time growth rates of deep-sea coral communities and the pattern of colonization by various species over time scales of centuries to millennia.
For older adults, new hepatitis C treatments are safe and effective
Thankfully, newer treatments known as interferon-free direct-acting antivirals offer a promising approach to addressing hepatitis C.

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2019.
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Risk
Why do we revere risk-takers, even when their actions terrify us? Why are some better at taking risks than others? This hour, TED speakers explore the alluring, dangerous, and calculated sides of risk. Guests include professional rock climber Alex Honnold, economist Mariana Mazzucato, psychology researcher Kashfia Rahman, structural engineer and bridge designer Ian Firth, and risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans.
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#540 Specialize? Or Generalize?
Ever been called a "jack of all trades, master of none"? The world loves to elevate specialists, people who drill deep into a single topic. Those people are great. But there's a place for generalists too, argues David Epstein. Jacks of all trades are often more successful than specialists. And he's got science to back it up. We talk with Epstein about his latest book, "Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized World".
Now Playing: Radiolab

Dolly Parton's America: Neon Moss
Today on Radiolab, we're bringing you the fourth episode of Jad's special series, Dolly Parton's America. In this episode, Jad goes back up the mountain to visit Dolly's actual Tennessee mountain home, where she tells stories about her first trips out of the holler. Back on the mountaintop, standing under the rain by the Little Pigeon River, the trip triggers memories of Jad's first visit to his father's childhood home, and opens the gateway to dizzying stories of music and migration. Support Radiolab today at Radiolab.org/donate.