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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 15, 2019


Life experience critical for managing Type 2 diabetes
A team of researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that age plays a critical role in the well-being of people newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, with younger patients more susceptible to psychological distress resulting in worse health outcomes.
The global distribution of freshwater plants is controlled by catchment characteristics
Unlike land plants, photosynthesis in many aquatic plants relies on bicarbonate in addition to CO2 to compensate for the low availability of CO2 in water.
Uninfected individuals born to mothers living with HIV at risk of obesity and asthma
Adolescents and young adults who were born to mothers with HIV but remained uninfected themselves still face a greatly heightened risk of obesity and asthma-like symptoms.
Mild Zika infection in fetuses may cause brain abnormalities in young despite no symptoms
Using a relevant animal model (pigs), University of Saskatchewan researchers have shown that mild Zika virus infection in fetuses can cause abnormal brain development in apparently healthy young animals.
eDNA reveals where endangered birds of a feather flock together
For the first time, Australian scientists have shown that environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to detect the presence of an endangered bird species simply by collecting a cupful of water from the pools where they drink.
Mapping disease outbreaks in urban settings using mobile phone data
A new EPFL and MIT study into the interplay between mobility and the 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks in Singapore has uncovered a legal void around access to mobile phone data -- information that can prove vital in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.
Fecal transplantation to treat patients with Parkinson's disease: Hope or hype?
Amsterdam, NL, November 15, 2019 - Constipation is a common complaint in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
NASA gets an eyeful of Typhoon Fengshen
NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of Typhoon Fengshen after its eye opened as Fengshen had strengthened from a tropical storm to a typhoon and developed an eye.
Older Mexican American adults experiencing pain are at risk of developing frailty
Researchers funded by NIH have found that older Mexican Americans who suffer from pain were 1.7 times likelier to become frail, compared to study participants who did not report pain.
Images from NJIT's big bear solar observatory peel away layers of a stellar mystery
An international team of scientists, including three researchers from NJIT, has shed new light on one of the central mysteries of solar physics: how energy from the Sun is transferred to the star's upper atmosphere, heating it to 1 million degrees Fahrenheit and higher in some regions, temperatures that are vastly hotter than the Sun's surface.
Nudge increases cancer screening orders, but patient-facing nudge needed, too
By nudging doctors to OK a screening for breast or colorectal cancer, order rates jumped significantly, but patient completion rates didn't change.
Vaping less harmful than smoking for vascular health, major study finds
Study finds significant improvements in vascular health of chronic smokers who transition to e-cigarettes.
NASA looks at Tropical Depression Kalmaegi's water vapor concentration
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Philippine Sea, water vapor data provided information about the intensity of Tropical Depression Kalmaegi.
How nematodes outsmart the defenses of pests
The western corn rootworm, one of the world's most damaging maize pests, can use plant defense compounds to defend itself against its own natural enemies, so-called entomopathogenic nematodes.
Study shows digital media has damaging impact on reintegration of 'white collar' criminals
Offenders convicted of occupational crime and corruption are having their rehabilitation negatively affected by long term 'labels' attached to them on digital media, according to new research by the University of Portsmouth.
A marvelous molecular machine
Squids, octopuses and cuttlefish are undisputed masters of deception and camouflage.
Relevant social stimuli may reduce interest in drugs
Researchers of the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Malaga (UMA), specialized in addictive disorders, have demonstrated in an animal model that the presence of a relevant social stimulus reduces interest in cocaine.
Pesticides: Improved effect prediction of low toxicant concentrations
Toxic substances such as pesticides can cause effects on sensitive individuals in concentrations up to ten thousand times lower than previously assumed.
Atomically dispersed Ni is coke-resistant for dry reforming of methane
Scientists at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have now developed completely coke-resistant Ni-based single-atom catalyst (SAC).
Perimenopause often signals beginning of sexual dysfunction
For some women, sex becomes less satisfying with age, with a pronounced decline during perimenopause.
Opioid overdose deaths among younger medicare patients with disability
This observational study estimated the rate of opioid overdose deaths among Medicare enrollees younger than 65 who qualified for Medicare because of a disability.
Middle-aged Americans and dementia risk: Lots of worry, not enough proven prevention
Nearly half of Americans in their 50s and early 60s think they're likely to develop dementia as they grow older, but only 5% of them have actually talked with a doctor about what they could do to reduce their risk, a new study finds.
15,000 Spaniards may unknowingly have hypophosphatasia bone disease
In adults, hypophosphatasia causes recurrent fractures and chronic pain. In the child population this disease can be much more serious and can even cause premature death, neurological disorders, and respiratory problems.
Yale study provides insights into how fibrosis progresses in the human lung
A Yale-led collaborative study boosts scientific understanding of how the lung disease idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) progresses, providing a roadmap for researchers to discover new treatment targets for the disease.
New cell therapy improves memory and stops seizures following TBI
Researchers from the University of California, Irvine developed a breakthrough cell therapy to improve memory and prevent seizures in mice following traumatic brain injury.
New finding offers possibility for preventing age-related metabolic disease
A study by researchers at Yale has uncovered why belly fat surrounding organs increases as people age, a finding that could offer new treatment possibilities for improving metabolic health, thereby reducing the likelihood for diseases like diabetes and atherosclerosis that stem from inflammation.
Hot electrons harvested without tricks
Semiconductors convert energy from photons into an electron current. However, some photons carry too much energy for the material to absorb.
New candidate cancer genes identified using math models
Computational modeling is the use of computers to simulate and study the behavior of complex systems.
Link between inflammation and mental sluggishness shown in new study
Scientists at the University of Birmingham in collaboration with the University of Amsterdam have uncovered a possible explanation for the mental sluggishness that often accompanies illness.
Nearly extreme black holes which attempt to regrow hair become bald again
Black holes 'have no hair': no attributes that can be used to tell them apart.
The forests of the Amazon are an important carbon sink
The world's tropical forests store huge quantities of carbon in their biomass and thus constitute an important carbon sink.
NASA identifies new eastern pacific tropical storm
NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of developing Tropical Storm Raymond in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
Lichens are way younger than scientists thought
Lichens -- a combo of fungus and algae -- can grow on bare rocks, so scientists thought that lichens were some of the first organisms to make their way onto land from the water, changing the planet's atmosphere and paving the way for modern plants.
Amazon deforestation and number of fires show summer of 2019 not a 'normal' year
The perceived scale of the Amazon blazes received global attention this summer.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension targeted for new treatment by Sheffield scientists
Scientists at the University of Sheffield, working in collaboration with drug and vaccine developer Kymab Ltd, Cambridge, have identified a novel antibody that has the potential to become a new treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
Many patients with iNPH develop Alzheimer's disease, too
Up to one in five patients treated for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, iNPH, also develop Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital.
A better understanding of soft artificial muscles
Artificial muscles will power the soft robots and wearable devices of the future.
How to build a chloroplast
When a plant begins growing its first leaves, it is in a race for survival to build its chloroplasts.
Popular electronic cigarette may deliver nicotine more effectively than others
When it comes to nicotine delivery, not all electronic cigarettes are created equally, according to Penn State researchers.
Ketogenic diet helps tame flu virus
A high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet like the Keto regimen has its fans, but influenza apparently isn't one of them.
First research results from the Estonian-Finnish FinEstBeAMS beamline
Recently, the first research paper was published based on experiments conducted on the new Estonian-Finnish beamline FinEstBeAMS, which has been constructed at the MAX IV synchrotron radiation centre located in Lund, Sweden.
How do MAIT cells identify and attack foreign invaders?
Melbourne researchers have identified what makes a specialized immune cell, known as mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), cells boost their numbers and attack foreign invaders at the site of the infection.
Jackdaw mobs flip from chaos to order as they grow
Chaotic mobs of jackdaws suddenly get organised once enough birds join in, new research shows.
Scientists discover how the molecule-sorting station in our cells is formed and maintained
A recent study by a group of scientists from Japan and Austria has revealed that a different mechanism is responsible for the formation and maintenance of the cell organelle called endosome that sorts and distributes substances entering a cell.
Early DNA lineages shed light on the diverse origins of the contemporary population
A new genetic study carried out at the University of Helsinki and the University of Turku demonstrates that, at the end of the Iron Age, Finland was inhabited by separate and differing populations, all of them influencing the gene pool of modern Finns.
Bacterial protein impairs important cellular processes
Researchers have discovered a new function of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
How likely do you think you are to develop dementia?
A poll suggests almost half of adults ages 50 to 64 believe they're likely to develop dementia.
Volcanoes under pressure
When will the next eruption take place? Examination of samples from Indonesia's Mount Merapi show that the explosivity of stratovolcanoes rises when mineral-rich gases seal the pores and microcracks in the uppermost layers of stone.

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