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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 19, 2019


Study: Sepsis survivors require follow-up support
Survivors of sepsis -- a life-threatening response to an infection -- have expressed a need for advocacy and follow-up support, according to a study authored by professors at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis, and published in Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing.
Receiving care in a multidisciplinary prostate cancer clinic increases discussion about treatment options and adherence to national guidelines
Newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients have multiple standard-of-care treatment options available, but many are not fully informed of their choices.
Oligomerix and Feinstein Institutes publish in vivo Alzheimer's disease treatment data
Results published in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease show Tau Oligomer Inhibitor prevents downstream Alzheimer's disease events.
Technique identifies T cells primed for certain allergies or infections
MIT researchers can now identify T cells reactive to a particular target from a patient's cells, and to perform high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing of those cells.
New statistical model improves the predictive power of standardized test scores
A study from Arizona State University and the University of Denver has validated a new statistical model that uses multiple standardized test scores over time to predict future academic performance.
Trinity scientists engineer 'Venus flytrap' bio-sensors to snare pollutants
The biological sensors change color once they have successfully snared a target molecule, and will soon have a host of important environmental, medical and security applications.
Anal cancer rates and mortality have risen dramatically among Americans
Rates of new anal cancer diagnoses and deaths related to human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection, have increased dramatically over the last 15 years, according to researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
Cell death or cancer growth: A question of cohesion
Activation of CD95, a receptor found on all cancer cells, triggers programmed cell death -- or does the opposite, namely stimulates cancer cell growth.
Digital sepsis monitoring system helps save lives and improves care
The introduction of a digital alert system to monitor patients with sepsis has led to a reduction in deaths and hospital stays.
Radiation from CT scans associated with increased risk for cancer
A new study in JNCI Cancer Spectrum finds that exposure to radiation from CT scans is associated with higher risks of developing thyroid cancer and leukemia.
New analytical screening tools for the detection of cardiovascular disease
Presented in a study published in the journal Medical Image Analysis by Mariana Nogueira and Mathieu De Craene, first authors, within the framework of the CardioFunxion project, led by Bart Bijnens (ICREA) and Gemma Piella, members of the Physense and SiMBioSys research groups at BCN MedTech, experts in Machine Learning for clinical decision-making.
Husbands' stress increases if wives earn more than 40 per cent of household income
Husbands are least stressed when their wives earn up to 40% of household income but they become increasingly uncomfortable as their spouse's wages rise beyond that point.
People with type 1 diabetes struggle with blood sugar control despite CGMs
Some continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) alarm features and settings may achieve better blood sugar control for people with type 1 diabetes, according to a study published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society.
Chronic opioid therapy can disrupt sleep, increase risk of sleep disorders
Patients and medical providers should be aware that chronic opioid use can interfere with sleep by reducing sleep efficiency and increasing the risk of sleep-disordered breathing, according to a position statement from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Study identifies barriers high schools face when implementing, enforcing concussion laws
A new study conducted by researchers at the Center for Injury Research and Policy in the Abigail Wexner Research Institute (AWRI) at Nationwide Children's Hospital investigated the barriers high schools across the country face when implementing state concussion laws.
Yoga and physical therapy as treatment for chronic lower back pain also improves sleep
Yoga and physical therapy (PT) are effective approaches to treating co-occurring sleep disturbance and back pain while reducing the need for medication, according to a new study from Boston Medical Center.
Predicting Alzheimer's disease-like memory loss before it strikes
Researchers at Gladstone Institutes are approaching Alzheimer's from a different angle.
Access to food and nutrition more limited in sub-Saharan Africa than previously estimated
Chronic and hidden hunger (nutritional deficiency) affect nearly half of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, suggests a recent survey.
Trash talk hurts, even when it comes from a robot
Trash talking has a long and colorful history of flustering game opponents, and now researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have demonstrated that discouraging words can be perturbing even when uttered by a robot.
Researchers find striking variation in mechanisms that drive sex selection in frogs
Researchers from McMaster University have discovered striking variation in the underlying genetic machinery that orchestrates sexual differentiation in frogs, demonstrating that evolution of this crucial biological system has moved at a dramatic pace.
Decarbonizing the power sector
Electricity supply is one of the biggest CO2 emitters globally.
Daily cannabis use lowers odds of using illicit opioids among people who have chronic pain
For those using illicit opioids to manage their chronic pain, cannabis may be a beneficial -- and a less dangerous -- alternative, according to new research from the BC Centre on Substance Use (BCCSU).
NASA's TESS helps astronomers study red-giant stars, examine a too-close planet
Iowa State astronomers are part of an international team that has been analyzing data from NASA's TESS Mission.
Improving the odds for patients with heart pumps
A new Yale study shows that some patients being treated for severe heart failure with a battery-operated pump saw significant improvement after additionally using neurohormonal blockade (NHB) drug therapy.
Milestone reached in new leukemia drug
Using a chemical compound called YKL-05-099, a team of cancer researchers from CSHL and the Dana Farber Institute was able to target the Salt-Inducible Kinase 3 (SIK3) pathway and extend survival in mice with MLL leukemia.
Beyond Moore's Law: Taking transistor arrays into the third dimension
Silicon integrated circuits, which are used in computer processors, are approaching the maximum feasible density of transistors on a single chip -- at least, in two-dimensional arrays.
Exoplanet axis study boosts hopes of complex life, just not next door
There's new hope that we aren't alone in the universe, that advanced beings may exist on exoplanets.
Ayahuasca compound changes brainwaves to vivid 'waking-dream' state
Scientists have peered inside the brain to show how taking DMT affects human consciousness by significantly altering the brain's electrical activity.
Avoidance of apoptotic death via a hyperploid salvage survival pathway after platinum treatment in high grade serous carcinoma cell line models
The cover for issue 62 of Oncotarget features Figure 7, 'Proposed model of the hyperploid pathway as a salvage survival strategy regulated by the G2-M checkpoint,' by Yeung, et al.
Atoms don't like jumping rope
Nanooptical traps are a promising building block for quantum technologies.
E-meditation: A new tool for an ancient technique
E-meditation combines meditation with a low-level electrical stimulation that activates areas of the brain associated with meditation.
Consuming cholera toxin counteracts age-associated obesity
Here the research team tested a safe and well-established microbe-based immune adjuvant to restore immune homeostasis and counteract inflammation-associated obesity in animal models.
Deep-sea bacteria copy their neighbors' diet
A new group of symbiotic bacteria in deep-sea mussels surprises with the way they fix carbon: They use the Calvin cycle to turn carbon into tasty food.
RNA regulation is crucial for embryonic stem cell differentiation
Nuclear RNA levels are kept in check by RNA decay factors.
A remote control for everything small
Special light beams can be used to manipulate molecules or small biological particles.
Malaria discovery could lead to better HIV and lupus treatments
A discovery about how the immune system responds to malaria infection could lead to better treatments for hepatitis C, HIV and lupus, say Melbourne researchers.
Scientists develop a new method to detect light in the brain
The study marks the first instance of successfully using light to decode the activity of specific neuronal populations as well as manipulation of different brain regions with the use of an optical probe.
NIST's light-sensing camera may help detect extraterrestrial life, dark matter
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made one of the highest-performance cameras ever composed of sensors that count single photons, or particles of light.
Patients treated outside NCI centers less likely to receive high-cost lung cancer drugs
University of Colorado Cancer Center study shows that while the use of new, high-cost lung cancer drugs rose 27 percent from 2007 to 2015, they are not used equally in all places, with all patients.
Laying out directions for future of reliable blood clotting molecule models
Blood clots have long been implicated in heart attacks and strokes.
Brain scans reveal how the human brain compensates when one hemisphere is removed
Researchers studying six adults who had one of their brain hemispheres removed during childhood to reduce epileptic seizures found that the remaining half of the brain formed unusually strong connections between different functional brain networks, which potentially help the body to function as if the brain were intact.
Chewing sugar-free gum could help reduce tooth decay, a new review finds
A systematic review by King's College London has found some evidence that chewing sugar-free gum could help to reduce the further development of dental caries (cavities) in adults and children.
Scientists use modern technology to understand how ochre paint was created in pictographs
Ochre was often used as a vivid red paint in ancient rock art known as pictographs.
'Face blindness' may involve a failed brain network, and could shed light on autism
Face blindness often becomes apparent in early childhood, but people occasionally acquire it from a brain injury later in life.
Ohio University entomologist: Photos show evidence of life on Mars
As scientists scramble to determine whether there is life on Mars, Ohio University Professor Emeritus William Romoser's research shows that we already have the evidence.
Cannabis found not to be a substitute for opioids
The research team looked at all research on the effects of cannabis use on illicit opioid use during methadone maintenance therapy, which is a common treatment for opioid use disorder, and found six studies involving more than 3,600 participants.
New pulsed electric field technology could lead to less invasive tumor molecular profiling
New technology devised by Tel Aviv University (TAU), Herzliyah Interdisciplinary (IDC) and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology researchers may soon offer an alternative to invasive and risky biopsies as a means of profiling tumor tissues.
MU researchers describe catatonia in Down syndrome
Down syndrome, due to an extra chromosome 21, occurs in 250,000 children and adults in the United States, making it the country's most common chromosomal disorder.
Clean carbon nanotubes with superb properties
Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, and Nagoya University, Japan, have found a new way to make ultra-clean carbon nanotube transistors with superior semiconducting properties.
Bats in attics might be necessary for conservation
Researchers investigate and describe the conservation importance of buildings relative to natural, alternative roosts for little brown bats in Yellowstone National Park.
Scientists use catalysts to destroy cancerous cells from within
Researchers from the Universities of Granada and Zaragoza and the Edinburgh Cancer Research Center have developed a new tool in the fight against cancer.
Birds of a feather flock together, but how do they decide where to go?
Coordinated behavior is common in a variety of biological systems, such as insect swarms, fish schools and bacterial colonies.
Endangered whales react to environmental changes
Some 'canaries' are 50 feet long, weigh 70 tons, and are nowhere near a coal mine.
Researchers develop a database to aid in identifying key genes for bacterial infections
A team of scientists from the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona and the Centre de Regulació Genomica have created the BacFITBase database, which characterises bacterial genes relevant to the infection process in live organisms.
NASA tracks Typhoon Kalmaegi affecting Northern Philippines
NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of Typhoon Kalmaegi as it moved into the Luzon Strait and continued to affect the northern Philippines.
New advances in the treatment of advanced lung cancer
The University of Barcelona (UB) and Hospital Clínic de Barcelona collaborate with Boehringer Ingelheim Inc. to improve the efficiency of nintedanib, an antiangiogenic and antifibrotic drug, for the treatment of lung cancer.
New species of seaweed uncovered by genetic analyses
Genetic analyses have revealed remarkably higher species diversity in common red seaweed than previously assumed.
Complex organ models grown in the lab
Scientists at the University of Würzburg have successfully produced human tissues from stem cells.
Ammonia levels do not aid management of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible complication of liver cirrhosis thought to be caused by ammonia and is typically treated with lactulose.
Mapping the pathway to gut health in HIV and SIV infections
A UC Davis study found that Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria rapidly repaired damaged gut lining (known as leaky gut) in monkeys infected with chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an HIV-like virus.
Light-to-moderate exercise may bring benefits for sickle cell disease
While exercise offers benefits for a wide range of health conditions, it has historically been considered too dangerous for people living with sickle cell disease (SCD).
Artificial intelligence algorithm can learn the laws of quantum mechanics
Artificial intelligence can be used to predict molecular wave functions and the electronic properties of molecules.
NASA identifies new Atlantic Tropical Storm Sebastien
NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of newly formed Tropical Storm Sebastien, located northeast of the Leeward Islands in the Atlantic Ocean.
Majority of childhood sex-abuse survivors achieve complete mental health
Two-thirds of the childhood sexual-abuse survivors met the criteria for complete mental health, this study found.
Studies continue to highlight benefits of bariatric surgery in teens
Children's Colorado researchers and their colleagues found that musculoskeletal pain, physical function and quality of life in adolescents significantly improves and is maintained three years after bariatric surgery.
Robotic transplants safe for kidney disease patients with obesity
Researchers report that among patients with obesity, robotic kidney transplants produce survival outcomes comparable to those seen among nonobese patients.
Evidence of two quakes extends rupture history in Grand Tetons National Park
Hand-dug trenches around Leigh Lake in Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming reveal evidence for a previously unknown surface-faulting earthquake in along the Teton Fault -- one occurring about 10,000 years ago.
When do alcohol-dependent mothers parent harshly?
While parents with substance use disorders are more likely to treat their children harshly, they don't do so all the time.
Rare gas find solves puzzle of Southern Africa's soaring landscape
The discovery of gases released from deep beneath the Earth's crust could help to explain Southern Africa's unusual landscape, a study suggests.
Study finds US policies could have negative implications for Africa
A new study finds that while the current United States administration's policies in Africa may appear undeveloped, there are distinct trends and tendencies that have the potential to negatively impact Africa's economic growth.
Families of youth with autism face big barriers to care, gaps in services
New research at Case Western Reserve University found big gaps in services and continued care for children with autism -- and their families -- as they transition from adolescence to adulthood.
Beauty in the biased eye of the beholder
When looking at paintings, we don't assess each one on its own merits.
Depression puts South African girls at higher risk of contracting HIV
By the time they reach adulthood, one in four South African girls will have contracted the HIV virus.
Deep brain stimulation safer for patients with new MRI compatible electrode
Carbon electrodes will last longer than metal when embedded in the brain of patients with Parkinson's and tremors, and won't be affected by MRI.
UBCO researcher examines traumatic brain injury in survivors of intimate partner violence
While the diagnoses and treatment of sport-related concussion have well-established guidelines and protocols, a new study from UBC's Okanagan campus is looking at what has previously been an understudied group -- women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV).
Reservoir management could help prevent toxic algal blooms in Great Lakes
Managing reservoirs for water quality, not just flood control, could be part of the solution to the growth of toxic algal blooms in the Great Lakes, especially Lake Erie, every summer.
Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications, Volume 4, Supplement 1 publishes
Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications, Volume 4, Supplement 1 publishes selected abstracts from the 30th Great Wall International Cardiology (GW-ICC) Conference, Beijing, China, October 10 - 13, 2019 Beijing, November 19, 2019: Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA), in its role as the official journal of the Great Wall International Cardiology Conference (GW-ICC), has published selected abstracts from the 30th GW-ICC.
Omega-3 fish oil as effective for attention as ADHD drugs for some children
Researchers from King's College London and China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan, have found omega-3 fish oil supplements improve attention among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but only among those with low levels of omega-3 in their blood.
Study on surface damage to vehicles traveling at hypersonic speeds
Vehicles moving at hypersonic speeds are bombarded with ice crystals and dust particles in the surrounding atmosphere, making the surface material vulnerable to damage such as erosion and sputtering with each tiny collision.
CUHK Faculty of Engineering develops browser-based analysis framework observer
Malicious third-party advertisers or hackers expose web users to a security threat by injecting malicious JavaScript code to intercept user clicks and trick them into visiting untrusted web content.
FSU research: Ketamine could help men suffering from alcohol use disorder
Research from Florida State University is giving physicians a better understanding of ketamine, a potentially useful tool in treating depression that still has unanswered questions.
Trying to help parents decide to vaccinate kids against HPV? Consider storytelling
Health campaigns on social media aimed at increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may see greater success, according to Drexel University researchers, if they inject a narrative into information-based posts.
BU and BMC find pediatric behavioral health care integration shows promise
A new study published in Health Services Research and led by a Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researcher finds that, in the first year and a half of the program, children with mental health diagnoses who were served by the TEAM UP sites went for more primary care visits than similar children served by nearby non-participating community health centers.
New danger for corals in warming oceans: Metal pollution
Metal copper from agricultural runoff and marine paint leaching from boat hulls poses an emerging threat to soft coral sea fans in the waters around Puerto Rico.
Olivine-norite rock detected by Yutu-2 likely crystallized from the SPA impact melt pool
Chang'E-4 research team lead by Prof. Yangting Lin from Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, suggested that olivine-norite rock detected by the lunar rover Yutu-2 likely crystallized from the SPA impact melt pool.
Demographic shifts, voter fears, and presidential voting
New research from University of Pennsylvania, University of California, San Diego and Yale University shows Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign didn't benefit from voters' fears of immigrants in communities experiencing greater demographic change, a finding that surprised even the political scientists who conducted the study, including Penn political scientist Daniel J.
Unlocking the secrets of badger dispersal to minimize the spread of bovine TB
By understanding how, when, and why badgers move from one social group to another, researchers hope information gleaned from GPS devices will help them tailor vaccination programs to reduce the spread of bovine tuberculosis.
Umbilical cord milking may be linked to higher risk of brain bleeding in preterm infants
Milking the umbilical cord -- gently squeezing the cord and pushing the contents into the newborn's abdomen before clamping the cord -- could increase the risk for severe intraventricular hemorrhage, or bleeding into the brain's fluid-filled cavities, in extremely preterm infants, according to results of a study funded by the National Institutes of Health that was halted for safety concerns.
25 years of learning to combat cervical cancer
A recent paper from the lab of Professor Sudhir Krishna at the National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, reviews the progress made in cervical cancer research over the past 25 years.
Huge tsunami hit Oman 1,000 years ago
15-meter high waves that pushed boulders the weight of a Leopard tank inland: This is more or less how one can imagine the tsunami that hit the coast of today's Sultanate of Oman about 1,000 years ago, as concluded by a recent study by the universities of Bonn, Jena, Freiburg and RWTH Aachen.
Trial compares maternal blood loss with immediate vs. delayed umbilical cord clamping
This randomized clinical trial compared maternal blood loss with immediate umbilical cord clamping (within 15 seconds after birth) versus delayed clamping (60 seconds after birth) in 113 women who had a scheduled cesarean delivery at term of 37 weeks or more.
A new pathway to 'reprogram' killer cells
Killer cells of the immune system detect and kill infected cells or cancer cells.
State abortion conscience laws
This study examined state laws that grant individuals and institutions rights to refuse participation in abortion based on their beliefs, that grant immunity from liability for such refusals, and that limit conscience rights when patient safety is at risk.
Loyola researchers recommend increased medical sideline coverage for HS football
Researchers at Loyola Medicine recently completed a follow-up study to reassess the state of medical sideline coverage during football games and practices at the 99 Chicago public high schools.
The Lancet Psychiatry: Abortion does not increase a woman's risk of attempting suicide
Policies based on the notion that undergoing an abortion causes or increases women's risk of suicide attempts are misinformed, according to the results of a 17-year-long observational study including more than half a million 18 to 36-year-old Danish women who had a first, first-trimester abortion, published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal.
Be aware of potential complications following tongue-tie surgery in babies
Complications following a procedure to treat tongue-tie in babies are occurring that can result in admission to hospital, something a University of Otago paediatrician says needs to be better understood by both health practitioners and parents.
Evidence in mice that childhood asthma is influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine
Neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine communicate with T cells to enhance allergic inflammation in the lungs of young mice but not older mice, researchers report Nov.
Research shows boredom is on the rise for adolescents, especially girls
New research at Washington State University has found that boredom is rising year after year for teens in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades, with greater increases for girls than boys.
Scientists find evidence of missing neutron star
The leftovers from a spectacular supernova that revolutionized our understanding of how stars end their lives have finally been spotted by astronomers at Cardiff University.
Tiny filters help detect cancerous blood cells
Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer in which malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow, and recent studies have shown that some can leave the marrow and enter the blood stream.
The first high-speed straight motion of magnetic skyrmion at room temperature demonstrated
Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated a formation and current-induced motion of synthetic antiferromagnetic magnetic skyrmions.
Beyond the green revolution
There has been a substantial increase in food production over the last 50 years, but it has been accompanied by a narrowing in the diversity of cultivated crops.
Computer model described the dynamic instability of microtubules
Researchers of Sechenov University together with their colleagues from several Russian institutes studied the dynamics of microtubules that form the basis of the cytoskeleton and take part in the transfer of particles within a cell and its division.
Simultaneous measurement of biophysical properties and position of single cells in a microdevice
SUTD researchers developed an N-shaped electrode-based microfluidic impedance cytometry device for the simultaneous measurement of the lateral position and physical properties of single cells and particles in continuous flows.
Steep momentum gradients play a major role in coastal precipitation
Steep gradients of wind stress and potential temperature enable sustainable nearshore precipitation systems along the western coastal region of Korea.
Treatment of migraine pain in randomized clinical trial
Adults experiencing a migraine of moderate or severe severity took the drug ubrogepant or placebo and reported if after two hours they were free of pain and of their most bothersome migraine-associated symptom in this randomized clinical trial.
Bursting the bubble: Revealing tasty genetic secrets of gigantic single-celled creatures
Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) recently unveiled key information about gene expression in sea grapes, which could help shed light on the evolution of sea grape morphology and help Okinawan farmers improve cultivation of umi-budo.

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