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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 25, 2019


The heat is on
Climate change is reorganizing the life in our oceans in a big way: as waters warm, cold-loving species, from plankton to fish, leave the area and warm water species become more successful.
Meeting the challenges facing fisheries climate risk insurance
Insurance schemes with the potential to improve the resilience of global fisheries face a host of future challenges, researchers say.
Fluid dynamics taught through dance
A collaboration at University of Michigan is taking a unique approach to fluid mechanics by teaching it through dance.
The nature of salmonella is changing -- and it's meaner
Salmonella is acting up in Michigan, and it could be a model for what's happening in other states, according to a new Michigan State University study.
High expression of apoptosis protein (Api-5) in chemoresistant triple-negative breast cancers: an innovative target
78 TNBC biopsies from patients with different responses to chemotherapy were analysed for API-5 expression before any treatment.
Study examines women's ability to adapt effectively to climate change
New research led by the University of East Anglia (UEA) suggests that male migration and poor working conditions for women combine with institutional failure or poverty to hamper women's ability to adapt to climate variability and change in Asia and Africa.
New study looks to biological enzymes as source of hydrogen fuel
Research from the University of Illinois and the University of California, Davis has chemists one step closer to recreating nature's most efficient machinery for generating hydrogen gas.
Study tracks genomic changes that reinforce darter speciation
When they share habitat, orangethroat and rainbow darters tend to avoid one another, even though they are closely related and can produce 'hybrid' offspring.
Progressive gender views may protect health of financially dependent men
Men who were financially dependent on their wives and who also had more traditional beliefs about gender roles tended to have higher 'allostatic loads,' or wear and tear on the body as the result of stress.
Carbon soccer ball with extra proton probably most abundant form in space
It is one of the most common forms of carbon in space: C60, a soccer ball-shaped carbon molecule, but one that has an extra proton attached to it.
Study reveals lower rates of cancer and early death in Adventists, including among black individuals
A recent study published in CANCER found lower rates of premature death and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists, a Protestant denomination long known for health promotion, compared with individuals in the general US population.
Encouraging normal liver cells to fight cancer
A study conducted at the VIB-KU Leuven Center for Cancer Biology discovered that healthy liver tissue surrounding a tumor activates a defence mechanism that restrains tumor growth.
Safety evaluation of conditionally immortalized cells for renal replacement therapy
Here, the research team assessed the safety of conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells for bioartificial kidney application, by using in vitro assays and athymic nude rats.
High amounts of screen time begin as early as infancy, NIH study suggests
Children's average daily time spent watching television or using a computer or mobile device increased from 53 minutes at age 12 months to more than 150 minutes at 3 years, according to an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health, the University at Albany and the New York University Langone Medical Center.
Approaching the perception of touch in the brain
More than ten percent of the cerebral cortex are involved in processing information about our sense of touch -- a larger area than previously thought.
Ultrafast quantum simulations: A new twist to an old approach
Billions of tiny interactions occur between thousands of particles in every piece of matter in the blink of an eye.
Hops compounds help with metabolic syndrome while reducing microbiome diversity
Compounds from hops may combat metabolic syndrome by changing the gut microbiome and altering the metabolism of acids produced in the liver, new research suggests.
Thermal cameras effective in detecting rheumatoid arthritis
A new study, published today in Scientific Reports, highlights that thermal imaging has the potential to become an important method to assess Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Air pollution linked to higher glaucoma risk
Living in a more polluted area is associated with a greater likelihood of having glaucoma, a debilitating eye condition that can cause blindness, finds a new UCL-led study in the UK.
A new world map rates food sustainability for countries across the globe
A global food system sustainability study builds the first map of its kind to score the sustainability of food systems, country-by-country.
US public views on climate and energy
Majorities of Americans say the federal government is doing too little for key aspects of the environment.
Global health viewpoint: Poor data prevent accurate measurement of UN goals
The lack of data, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, combined with the absence of international standards for data management, is hindering efforts in measuring progress toward meeting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) according to a viewpoint published in the international medical journal The Lancet.
One third of UK doctors may suffer from workplace 'burnout'
One in three UK doctors working in obstetrics and gynecology may suffer from workplace burnout, which could affect their wellbeing and how they treat patients.
Cannabis reduces headache and migraine pain by nearly half
Inhaled cannabis reduces self-reported headache severity by 47.3% and migraine severity by 49.6%, according to a recent study by Washington State University researchers published in the Journal of Pain.
NF decline but stable QOL in 1st year after temozolomide-based chemoradiotherapy
A secondary analysis of the NRG Oncology clinical trial NRG-RTOG 0424, which initially reported a 73.1% 3-year overall survival rate, shows a decline in neurocognitive function (NCF) for half of the trial participants with high risk, low-grade gliomas (HR-LGGs) up to a year after receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide.
Wearable sweat sensor detects gout-causing compounds
Caltech's Wei Gao has developed an easier way to mass-produce highly sensitive sweat sensors that can detect a variety of low-concentration compounds related to health conditions
Study reframes the history of LGBT mental health care
New research reveals that community-based clinics and clinicians play an essential role in reshaping both mental health care for LGBT people and broader attitudes about sexuality and gender.
NASA spots first tropical cyclone of Southern Pacific season
The tropical cyclone season in the Southern Pacific Ocean has kicked off with Tropical Cyclone Rita, and NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the storm and analyzed it in infrared light for temperature data.
Intestinal stem cell genes may link dietary fat and colon cancer
Two genes that appear to help stem cells in the intestine burn dietary fat may play a role in colon cancer, according to a Rutgers study.
Unravelling the venomous bite of an endangered mammal
Highly similar venom toxins found in shrews and endangered Caribbean mammals, despite common ancestor over 70 million years ago.
New research identifies neurodevelopment-related gene deficiency
Researchers at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have identified that a gene critical to clearing up unnecessary proteins plays a role in brain development and contributes to the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia.
Scientists develop electrochemical platform for cell-free synthetic biology
Scientists at the University of Toronto (U of T) and Arizona State University (ASU) have developed the first direct gene circuit to electrode interface by combining cell-free synthetic biology with state-of-the-art nanostructured electrodes.
Pro-meat campaign may have turned some social media users against planetary health diet
In the months following the launch of a major health report, tweets attacking its findings surpassed balanced communications from research institutions, media and others.
Rapamycin may slow skin aging, Drexel study reports
The search for youthfulness typically turns to lotions, supplements, serums and diets, but there may soon be a new option joining the fray.
Breakthrough in understanding common childhood cancer
Scientists studying one of the most common forms of childhood cancer have made an important breakthrough in understanding how the disease progresses.
Dinosaur skull turns paleontology assumptions on their head
A team of researchers at the University of Alberta has unearthed a well-preserved Styracosaurus skull -- and its facial imperfections have implications for how paleontologists identify new species of dinosaurs.
Forest farms could create market for ginseng, other herbs
A transition from wild collection of herbs to forest farming needs to occur in Appalachia to make the opaque, unstable and unjust supply chain for forest medicinal plants such as ginseng sustainable, according to a team of researchers who have studied the market for more than a decade.
Tendon stem cells could revolutionize injury recovery
The buildup of scar tissue makes recovery from torn rotator cuffs, jumper's knee, and other tendon injuries a painful, challenging process, often leading to secondary tendon ruptures.
Consistent gene changes in Alzheimer's disease across studies
A comparison of mouse Alzheimer's disease models shows changes in the number of cells and the genes they express remain consistent throughout all stages of the disease.
Using gene scissors to detect diseases
Researchers present sensor prototype that can rapidly, precisely, and cost-effectively measure molecular signals for cancer.
Potent antimicrobial found that shows promise in fighting staph infections
After screening thousands of small molecules, the research team discovered a potent new antimicrobial they are calling MAC-545496 that is active against MRSA.
A monkey's balancing act
Endangered monkeys living in the wild are intelligently adapting their lifestyle to fit with their human neighbors, learning to avoid manmade risks and exploiting increased contact with people, new research has revealed.
Income inequality fuels status anxiety and sexualisation, research shows
Researchers at the universities of Melbourne and New South Wales have examined the relationship between income inequality, status anxiety and sexualisation of women.
Researchers report first recording of a blue whale's heart rate
With a lot of ingenuity and a little luck, researchers monitored the heart rate of a blue whale in the wild.
Critical pediatric heart deaths drop by 24% at PC4 hospitals
Eighteen pediatric heart centers were able to significantly reduce deaths and improve care for children with critical heart conditions after committing to transparent data sharing between one another, a new study suggests.
Elucidation of the atomic-level mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria uptake iron ions
Researchers determined the structures of 'heme uptake system' that is used to uptake essential iron ions, and revealed the detail mechanism of the heme uptake in Corynebacteria such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Aquatic microorganisms offer important window on the history of life
Jeremy Wideman and his colleagues, including Prof. Thomas Richards at the University of Exeter describe a new method for investigating the genomes of eukaryotic flagellate organisms.
Neuroscientists develop models to identify internal states of the brain
A team of Princeton neuroscientists used a machine learning model to link a male Drosophila's songs to its observable behaviors and its internal states.
WSU's One Health approach is a two-for-one stop for health care in Tanzania
Promoting healthcare strategies that target both human and animal populations at the same time can save money, participant time and result in a two-for-one stop for health care services.
Effective method for correcting various CNS pathologies developing under oxygen deficiency
Hypoxia is a key factor that accompanies most brain pathologies, including ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases.
Ammonia synthesis made easy with 2D catalyst
Rice University researchers use their knowledge of 2D nanomaterials and develop a 'green' method for the small-scale synthesis of ammonia.
Cells study helping to crack the code to Alzheimer's disease
A study led by researchers at Monash University has opened up new hope for diagnosing and treating Alzheimer's disease.
Fertility treatment, not maternal age, causes epigenetic changes in mouse offspring
Epigenetic disorders are more common among children born through assisted reproductive technology.
Smoker-survivor genes may have long ancestral history of fighting toxins
Longevity genes that helped humans survive ancient airborne toxins may be the same genes that make humans resilient to pollution from fossil fuels and cigarette smoke today, according to a study published in the December 2019 issue of The Quarterly Review of Biology.
NASA tracking Extra-Tropical Storm Sebastien towards the UK
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over eastern North Atlantic Ocean and captured an infrared view of what is now Extra-tropical cyclone Sebastien.
New flu drug drives drug resistance in influenza viruses
University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers examined the effects of baloxavir treatment on influenza virus samples collected from patients before and after treatment.
Novel tactile display using computer-controlled surface adhesion
Touch surfaces have become ubiquitous and enable users to intuitively manipulate the displayed contents with their fingers.
Study paves way to better understanding, treatment of arthritis
Oregon State University research has provided the first complete, cellular-level look at what's going on in joints afflicted by osteoarthritis, a debilitating and costly condition that affects nearly one-quarter of adults in the United States.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria more prevalent in device-related infections
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) related to the use of medical devices are more likely to be antibiotic resistant than HAIs that result from surgical procedures, according to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
Examining work schedules of hospitalists, patient outcomes
This observational study investigated whether the continuity of hospitalists' work schedules, such as working more days consecutively compared to intermittently, was associated with outcomes for patients admitted to Texas hospitals.
Drag can lift birds to new heights, Stanford researchers find
Recordings of birds taking off and landing have revealed that conventional ideas about the role of lift and drag during flight might need revisiting.
A study compares how water is managed in Spain, California and Australia
Legislative changes in these three regions always come about due to drought crises but they show important differences.
Temple study shows extra virgin olive oil staves off multiple forms of dementia in mice
New Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University research findings in mice are the first to suggest that extra virgin olive oil can defend against a specific type of mental decline linked to tauopathy known as frontotemporal dementia.
Liquid-liquid transitions crystallize new ideas for molecular liquids
Researchers from The University of Tokyo, Institute of Industrial Science, and Tokyo Metropolitan University experimentally demonstrated that liquid-liquid transitions of a molecular liquid were coupled to crystallization behavior.
Geriatricians, internists, and cardiologists surveyed about deprescribing
In order to learn more about physicians' attitudes and approaches to deprescribing medications for older adults, a team of researchers designed a survey.
Using artificial intelligence to analyze placentas
A team of researchers has developed a novel solution that could produce accurate, automated and near-immediate placental diagnostic reports through computerized photographic image analysis.
pinMOS: Novel memory device can be written on and read out optically or electrically
pinMOS: Scientists of the Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP) and the Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed) at TU Dresden have developed a novel storage technology based on the combination of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and an insulator.
Mechanized harvesting has not reduced atmospheric pollution in the sugarcane region
Data presented by a researcher from UNESP at FAPESP Week France indicate that aerosol and ozone particle concentrations in 2018 were equivalent to those of the period prior to the prohibition of burning; the causes are still to be investigated.
Wastewater leak in West Texas revealed
Geophysicists at SMU say that evidence of leak occurring in a West Texas wastewater disposal well between 2007 and 2011 should raise concerns about the current potential for contaminated groundwater and damage to surrounding infrastructure.
Is cyberbullying common among adults?
A new nationwide study examined the prevalence of negative behaviors that occur via digital communication, encompassing a broad definition of cyberbullying that includes both cyber-aggression and cyberbullying.
Environmental enrichment corrects errors in brain development
Environmental enrichment can partially correct miswired neurons in the visual pathway, according to research in mice recently published in eNeuro.
Study suggests women may be undertreated for obstructive sleep apnea
Here, we begin to drill down to understand how sleep apnea may differ and how common scoring approaches may underestimate sleep apnea in women.''
Industry executives: Profits drive rising prices for MS drugs
Pharmaceutical industry executives, speaking confidentially, paint a frank picture of the rationale behind the price of medication available to people with multiple sclerosis.
Newly discovered immune cells contribute to toxic shock
Recently discovered immune cells called MAIT cells play a key role in group A streptococcal toxic shock, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report.
New discovery in C. difficile biology could lead to treatments for dangerous infections
A process called sporulation that helps the dangerous bacterium Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) to survive inhospitable conditions and spread is regulated by epigenetics, factors that affect gene expression beyond the DNA genetic code, researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai report.
New approach to treating incurable leukemia in children discovered
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common form of cancer affecting children in Switzerland and, unfortunately, is often incurable.
Climate change is reshaping communities of ocean organisms
Climate change is reshaping communities of fish and other sea life, according to a pioneering study on how ocean warming is affecting the mix of species.
Discovery increases chance of improving iron content in plants
With over 2 billion people suffering from iron deficiency around the world, this discovery could be the key to increasing the iron potency of crops such as rice, wheat and cassava that form the staple diets of more than half the world's population.
How our dreams prepare us to face our fears
Do bad dreams serve a purpose? Researchers (UNIGE/HUG) analysed the dreams of people and identified which areas of the brain were activated when they experienced fear in their dreams.
Search for the source of antibodies would help treat allergies
Researchers of Sechenov University together with their colleagues from Russia and Austria summarised everything known about cells producing group E antibodies.
Researchers reach milestone in quantum standardization
Researchers at the University of Waterloo have developed a method that could pave the way to establishing universal standards for measuring the performance of quantum computers.
New hospital tech disrupts doctors' and nurses' jobs, forces improvisation to ensure patient safety
Doctors and nurses must adapt their routines and improvise their actions to ensure continued patient safety, and for their roles to be effective and to matter as new technology disrupts their working practices.
Forests face climate change tug of war
Increased carbon dioxide allows plants to photosynthesize more and use less water.
Marine community composition shifts in predictable ways in warming oceans
Global simulations suggest plankton and fish species are showing resilience to climate change by going deeper underwater or moving to higher latitudes.
Living at the edge of an active volcano: Risk from lava flows on Mount Etna
On Mt. Etna volcano, inhabited areas have been inundated repeatedly by lava flows in historical times.
All the feels
Researchers find that people who experience higher 'felt love' -- brief experiences of love and connection in everyday life -- also have significantly higher levels of psychological well-being, which includes feelings of purpose and optimism, compared to those who had lower felt love scores.
Airline food study 2019-20
Knowing the 'best' and 'worst' choices is a valuable tool for any traveler, so Dr.
Anchored by a dense neighborhood: What stops cells from going astray
Researchers from the Mechanobiology Institute at the National University of Singapore have shown that cells can attach to the fibrous protein meshwork that surrounds them only if the fibres are spaced close enough.
Structurally designed DNA star creates ultra-sensitive test for dengue virus
By folding snippets of DNA into the shape of a five-pointed star using structural DNA nanotechnology, researchers have created a trap that captures Dengue virus as it floats in the bloodstream.
Light-trapping nanocubes drive inexpensive multispectral camera
Researchers at Duke University have demonstrated photodetectors that could span an unprecedented range of light frequencies through on-chip spectral filters created by tailored electromagnetic materials.
Concussions in high school athletes may be a risk factor for suicide
Concussion, the most common form of traumatic brain injury, has been linked to an increased risk of depression and suicide in adults.
How diversity of respiratory quinones affects microbial physiology
A new study provides a fundamental understanding of the diversification of small molecules called respiratory quinones and its adaptive consequences in bacterial species.
The 'Signal Cell' relaying microbiota signals discovered
Prof. Seung-Woo Lee and his research team from POSTECH revealed the microbiota signal mechanism.
Ontario physicians do not need consent to withhold CPR that they feel will not benefit patients
In August, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice dismissed a malpractice lawsuit filed against two physicians who refused to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to an 88-year-old man with multiple comorbidities and multiorgan failure.
MRI reveals brain damage in obese teens
Researchers using MRI have found signs of damage that may be related to inflammation in the brains of obese adolescents, according to a new study.
High out-of-pocket costs can make lifesaving medications out of reach for millions of Americans with cardiovascular disease
One in eight adults with common heart diseases skip medications, delay filling prescriptions or take less medication than prescribed because of concerns about cost.
Screen time patterns of kids
Screen time data for nearly 3,900 children were used to examine patterns of screen time use and the association with sociodemographic characteristics such as parental education levels and sex of the child.
LANL news: Drought impact study shows new issues for plants and carbon dioxide
Extreme drought's impact on plants will become more dominant under future climate change, as noted in a paper out today in the journal Nature Climate Change.
Why cigarettes initially feel disgusting and how this could help smokers quit
Scientists have pinpointed the cells responsible for nicotine aversion in the mouse brain in a finding that could help the development of better treatments to help smokers quit.
16-million-year-old fossil shows springtails hitchhiking on winged termite
A newly reported, 16-million-year-old fossil is shedding light on how a group of tiny arthropods may have traversed the globe -- by hitchhiking.
Study finds increase in pediatric eye injuries from nonpowder firearms
A new study conducted by researchers at the Center for Injury Research and Policy of the Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital investigated nonpowder firearm injuries treated in US emergency departments (EDs) among children younger than 18 years from 1990 through 2016.
Are toddlers meeting screen-time guidelines?
Most 2- and 3-year-old children don't meet screen time guidelines and moms' screen usage was one of the associated factors reported in this observational study.
Prayers can crowd out donations for disaster victims
A new study finds that people who prayed for hurricane victims before donating gave less than they would have otherwise: Because those who prayed believed that prayers improved the victims' well-being, they donated less.
Prenatal opioid exposure may alter brain function in babies
Connectivity in an area of the brain that regulates emotion may be altered in infants exposed to opioids while in utero, according to a new study.
Downstream signaling: Cilia release ectosomes to deliver important messages in the kidney
Primary cilia are found on nearly all cell types and serve an important role in sensing external mechanical and chemical signals, likely through extracellular vesicles (EV) called ectosomes.
Prostate cancer: radiation therapy effective in patients with no further treatment options
Prostate cancer accounts for 26 percent of male cancer cases diagnosed in Germany.
Cardiac events in First Nations people with diabetes have decreased, but still higher than in non-First Nations people
A new study provides insight into the cardiovascular health and health care services accessed by First Nations people with diabetes over a 20-year period in Ontario.
The mechanism of programmed aging: The way to creation a real remedy for senescence
The mechanism of programed aging points the way to achieving unlimited healthy life: it is necessary to develop a means for managing bioenergetics.
Periodontal disease: Patent for new treatment method
New biodegradable rods promise to provide better treatment for periodontal disease.
Cellular origins of pediatric brain tumors identified
A research team has discovered that several types of highly aggressive and, ultimately, fatal pediatric brain tumors originate during brain development.
Scientists suggest new solution to the rare-disease problem
In a new commentary, an international team of data scientists and rare disease specialists write that they've come up with a way to characterize and define diseases so that they eventually would be sharable among physicians across the globe.
Planets around a black hole?
Theoreticians in two different fields defied the common knowledge that planets orbit stars like the Sun.
Locking up fats in CAGEs to reduce obesity
When fresh foods aren't available, how can people with obesity achieve a healthy weight?
Fish size affects snake river salmon returns more than route through dams
The survival and eventual return of juvenile Snake River salmon and steelhead to spawning streams as adults depends more on their size than the way they pass through hydroelectric dams on their migration to the ocean, new research shows.
How mantis shrimp make sense of the world
A new study provides insight into how the small brains of mantis shrimp - fierce predators with keen vision that are among the fastest strikers in the animal kingdom - are able to make sense of a breathtaking amount of visual input.
Self-assembling system uses magnets to mimic specific binding in DNA
A team led by Cornell University physics professors Itai Cohen and Paul McEuen is using the binding power of magnets to design self-assembling systems that potentially can be created in nanoscale form.
Gut microbes alter characteristics of norovirus infection
The highly contagious norovirus causes diarrhea and vomiting and is notorious for spreading rapidly through densely populated spaces, such as cruise ships, nursing homes, schools and day care centers.
Coated seeds may enable agriculture on marginal lands
Providing seeds with a protective coating that also supplies essential nutrients to the germinating plant could make it possible to grow crops in otherwise unproductive soils, according to new research at MIT.
Flour power: How shoppers choose which bread to buy
What drives our decision-making when products have multiple features and benefits?
A missing link in haze formation
Hazy days don't just block the view; they mean the air contains particulate matter that can compromise human health.
Babies in the womb may see more than we thought
Light-sensitive cells active in the retina even before the fetus can distinguish images may play a larger role in the developing eye and brain than previously thought.
Why women select college majors with lower earnings potential
Even when both male and female college students say they want to pursue a major with the best earnings prospects, the majors men choose are higher paying than the majors women choose.
Agroecology is emerging as a new market for peasant farming
In a lecture given at FAPESP Week France, UNESP professor Bernardo Mançano Fernandes reports that socioterritorial movements are creating alternatives to agribusiness based on sustainable development and healthy food.
People, climate, and water played a role in the extinction of Australia's megafauna
For the first time, the research suggests a combination of climate change and the impact of people sealed the fate of megafauna, at least in south-eastern Australia.

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