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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 27, 2019


Nearly 40% of species are very rare and are vulnerable to climate change
Almost 40 percent of global flora is categorized as 'exceedingly rare,' and these species are most at risk of extinction by human development and as the climate continues to change, according to new University of Arizona-led research.
Study: Student attitudes toward cheating may spill over into their careers
A study co-authored by an SF State marketing professor finds that students who tolerate cheating in the classroom may also turn a blind eye to unethical behavior in the workplace.
Artificial intelligence-based algorithm for intensive care of traumatic brain injury
A recent Finnish study, published in Scientific Reports, presents the first artificial intelligence (AI) based algorithm that may be utilized in the intensive care unit for treating patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
Bad news for Nemo
The beloved anemone fish popularized by the movies 'Finding Nemo' and 'Finding Dory' don't have the genetic capacity to adapt to rapid changes in their environment, according to a new study.
Biodiversity and wind energy
The location and operation of wind energy plants are often in direct conflict with the legal protection of endangered species.
Artificial intelligence: Towards a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms
The automatic identification of complex features in images has already become reality thanks to artificial neural networks.
UBC research highlights need to safeguard drones and robotic cars against cyber attacks
UBC researchers executed successful stealth attacks on real and simulated robotic vehicles, revealing vulnerabilities in the attack detection system most commonly used by such vehicles.
Thermo-chemical power generation integrated with forced convection cooling
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology combine forced convection cooling with thermo-electrochemical energy conversion to create a self-sustaining liquid cooling system.
Beware of swimming if you use deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's
Researchers have identified nine cases of people who lost their ability to swim after having a deep brain stimulation device implanted to control symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Molecular eraser enables better data storage and computers for AI
Scientists have added a crucial tool to the atomic-scale manufacturing toolkit with major implications for today's data driven -- carbon-intensive -- world, according to new research from the University of Alberta in Canada.
Humans co-evolved with immune-related diseases -- and it's still happening
Some of the same mutations allowing humans to fend off deadly infections also make us more prone to certain inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease.
Exploring drug repurposing to treat glioblastoma
MALT1 blockers have long been in clinical use for the treatment of blood cancers.
Prostate cancer 'super responders' live for 2 years on immunotherapy
Some men with advanced prostate cancer who have exhausted all other treatment options could live for two years or more on immunotherapy, a major clinical trial has shown.
Air pollution linked with new causes of hospital admissions
Several diseases have been linked for the first time with exposure to short-term air pollution.
COP25 special collection: Keep climate change impacts under control by making biodiversity a focus
Under a 2°Celsius warming scenario, 80 to 83% of language areas in New Guinea -- home to the greatest biological and linguistic diversity of any tropical island on Earth -- will experience decreases in the diversity of useful plant species by 2070, according to a new study.
Material for safer football helmets may reduce head injuries
Scientists at the University of California Santa Barbara, HRL Laboratories LLC, and the US Army Research Laboratory have developed elastic microlattice pads that can withstand both single hits and a series of impacts better than existing state-of-the-art foams used in football helmets.
Not seeing the trees for the wood
Researchers from the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience have shown how it is possible that objects stand out less when they are surrounded by similar objects.
Comprehensive reviews by leading experts focus on challenging areas of vitamin D research
Although much is known about the important role of vitamin D in bone metabolism and in certain areas of non-skeletal health, there are many open questions and topics of debate.
Study finds three anti-seizure drugs equally effective for severe form of epilepsy
There are three treatment options commonly used by doctors in the emergency room to treat patients with refractory status epilepticus, severe seizures that continue even after benzodiazepine medications, which are effective in controlling seizures in more than two-thirds of patients.
Habitat restoration alone not enough to support threatened caribou: UBC study
New UBC research suggests restoring habitat may not be enough to save threatened woodland caribou--an iconic animal that's a major part of boreal forests in North America and a key part of the culture and economy of many Indigenous peoples in Canada.
Air pollution linked to several new causes of hospital admissions
Short term exposure to fine particulate matter in the air (known as PM2.5) is associated with several newly identified causes of hospital admissions, even at levels below international air quality guidelines, finds a US study published by The BMJ today.
Inadequacies in current early-stage lung cancer treatment revealed
Researchers from Tohoku University and Tohoku University Hospital have revealed why some existing cancer treatments are ineffective in tackling the early-stages of lung cancer.
FDA-approved drug shows promise against ALS in mice
Investigators find treatment with an anti-inflammatory drug delayed the onset of disease in a mouse model of ALS.
Immediate treatment with antiretroviral therapy helps infants with HIV
As part of an international collaborative effort, investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital conducted immunological and virological testing on newborns in Botswana, finding that initiating antiretroviral therapy immediately, rather than waiting a few weeks, provided measurable benefits for infants born with HIV.
Scientists find new way to identify, manipulate topological metals for spintronics
A recent study gives researchers an easier way of finding Weyl semimetals and manipulating them for potential spintronic devices.
NASA-NOAA satellite finds tropical storm Kammuri strengthening
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Tropical Storm Kammuri in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and found several areas of very strong thunderstorms.
Stem cell therapy helps broken hearts heal in unexpected way
A study in Nature shows stem cell therapy helps hearts recover from a heart attack, although not for the biological reasons originally proposed two decades ago that today are the basis of ongoing clinical trials.
Deportation worries may increase high blood pressure risk
The fear of deportation was associated with double the risk of developing high blood pressure over a four-year period, in a study of Mexican-born women who reside in an agricultural area of California.
New high-resolution images show how malaria parasites evade frontline drugs
The first-ever detailed images of a malaria protein, a known key modulator of drug resistance, show how the parasite evades antimalarials -- and may help scientists find ways to restore the drugs' potency.
Better way to interpret blood tests to diagnose pulmonary embolism
A study led by Hamilton researchers has found a new way to interpret blood test results in patients who are investigated for blood clots in their lungs, a condition known as pulmonary embolism.
On balance, some neonicotinoid pesticides could benefit bees
The story of neonicotinoids is growing more nuanced. Europe has banned outdoor use of three of these insecticides to protect bee populations.
USC researchers show how feathers propel birds through air and history
A comparison of flight feathers shows key functional and structural differences that propelled birds through evolution and across the planet.
Unique sled dogs helped the inuit thrive in the North American Arctic
The legacy of these Inuit dogs survives today in Arctic sled dogs, making them one of the last remaining descendant populations of indigenous, pre-European dog lineages in the Americas.
Adelphi, OHIO researchers determine dinosaur replaced teeth as fast as sharks
A meat-eating dinosaur species that lived in Madagascar some 70 million years ago replaced all its teeth every couple of months or so, as reported in a new study published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE.
Clown fish survival depends on environment more than genetics
Clown fish are unable to genetically adapt to changes in their environment.
A new theory for how black holes and neutron stars shine bright
Columbia astrophysicists employed massive super-computer simulations to calculate the mechanisms that accelerate charged particles in extreme environments.
First measures of Earth's ionosphere found with the largest atmospheric radar in the Antarctic
Using the Program of the Antarctic Syowa Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (PANSY) radar, the largest and fine-resolution atmospheric radar in the Antarctic, researchers performed the first incoherent scatter radar observations in the southern hemisphere.
New method accelerates development of protein therapeutics
Northwestern Engineering researchers have developed a quick, cell-free system to create biosynthetic pathways to build and study sugar structures.
UK health service 'lagging behind' other high income countries
The UK National Health Service (NHS) shows pockets of good performance, but spending, patient safety, and population health are all below average to average relative to ten other high income countries, according to a study published by The BMJ today.
Mental practice may improve golfers' putting performance
Researchers from Lero, the Science Foundation Ireland Research Centre for Software, hosted at University of Limerick (UL), are lending support to Arnold Palmer's famous assertion that golf is predominantly played in 'the six inches between the ears'.
Discovery by Hebrew University scientists could revolutionize chemotherapy
Hebrew University Professor Alexander Binshtok has developed a method to limit the delivery of chemotherapy drugs to malignant cells, leaving healthy ones alone.
Experts call for more active prevention of tooth decay for children's teeth
Three-year trial comparing three treatment strategies for tooth decay in children's teeth finds no evidence to suggest that conventional fillings are more successful than sealing decay into teeth, or using preventive methods alone.
A method with roots in AI uncovers how humans make choices in groups and social media
Using a mathematical framework with roots in artificial intelligence and robotics, UW researchers were able to uncover the process for how a person makes choices in groups.
Solving fossil mystery could aid quest for ancient life on Mars
The search for evidence of life on Mars could be helped by fresh insights into ancient rocks on Earth.
New study shows a minimum dose of hydromethylthionine could slow cognitive decline
In a paper published in today's online issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, TauRx has reported unexpected results of a pharmacokinetic analysis of the relationship between treatment dose, blood levels and pharmacological activity of the drug hydromethylthionine on the brain in over 1,000 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
Breast milk could help prevent heart disease caused by premature birth, RCSI study
Early use of breast milk could play a vital role in preventing heart disease in prematurely born infants, according to a paper led by researchers at RCSI (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland) and the Rotunda Hospital.
Contagious cancer in shellfish is spreading across the Atlantic Ocean
By learning how contagious cancer spread among shellfish, scientists hope to better understand how cancer metastasizes in people.
Head-to-head comparison finds three anti-seizure drugs equally effective for severe form of epilepsy
A new clinical trial in the emergency department finds no difference in efficacy or adverse effects of three commonly used treatments for patients with refractory status epilepticus.
Early antiretroviral treatment shrinks the HIV reservoir in infected infants
Starting antiretroviral therapy within hours of birth drastically shrinks the reservoir of HIV virus -- an important step in efforts to cure infections -- and improves antiviral immune responses in newborns with HIV, shows a two-year study of a unique cohort of ten infants in Botswana.
Researchers create 'smart' surfaces to help blood-vessel grafts knit better, more safely
Researchers at McMaster University have created a new coating to prevent clotting and infection in synthetic vascular grafts, while also accelerating the body's own process for integrating the grafted vessels.
Gunshot injuries have long-term medical consequences
Researchers are trying to identify injury patterns and predict future outcomes for victims of gun violence who are seen in the emergency room and later readmitted to the hospital, according to new research.
What protects killer immune cells from harming themselves?
White blood cells, which release a toxic potion of proteins to kill cancerous and virus-infected cells, are protected from any harm by the physical properties of their cell envelopes, find scientists from UCL and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne.
New Cretaceous mammal fossil sheds light on evolution of middle ear
Researchers from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) have reported a new species of multituberculate -- a type of extinct Mesozoic rodent -- with well-preserved middle ear bones from the Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China.
Ultrahigh temperature superfluidity made possible in atomic gases via mixed dimensions
Seeking higher transition temperature has been a major theme of superconductivity and superfluidity research.
Scientists develop first implantable magnet resonance detector
A new miniature NMR implant measures neuronal activity.
Glass from a 3D printer
ETH researchers used a 3D printing process to produce complex and highly porous glass objects.
Most shoppers unaware of major risk factor for most common form of glaucoma in UK
New study suggests that less than a fifth of shoppers were aware of the need for tests of the pressure inside their eyes (intraocular pressure), when measured at a Pop-Up health check station set up across eight shopping centers in England.
Scientists now know what DNA's chaperone looks like
Researchers have discovered the structure of the FACT protein -- a mysterious protein central to the functioning of DNA.
Research affirms imaging technique's ability to characterize healthy and non-healthy tissue
In an article published in the peer-reviewed SPIE publication Journal of Biomedical Optics (JBO), 'Influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on diffuse reflectance spectra of tissue in breast surgery specimens,' research observed across 92 ex vivo breast specimens suggests that there is little to no impact on the optical signatures of breast tissue after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Scholars find that irregularly shaped parks reduce mortality risk
Some community parks are square, a reflection of the city block where they're located -- but irregularly shaped parks reduce the mortality risk of residents who live near them, concluded a study by Huaquing Wang, a Ph.D.
Physiotherapy 'postcode lottery' uncovered
New research finds that the amount of physiotherapy available following hip and knee replacements comes down to a 'postcode lottery.' Those living in London and the North of England are more likely to receive physiotherapy, patients in the South West are the least likely to receive physiotherapy.
Animals could help humans monitor oceans
Sharks, penguins, turtles and other seagoing species could help humans monitor the oceans by transmitting oceanographic information from electronic tags.
The molecule that can AUTAC bad proteins
Tohoku University researchers have developed a strategy that could help cells get rid of disease-related debris.
Can obesity limit antiarrhythmic drug effectiveness?
New study shows that some antiarrhythmic medications used to treat AFib are less effective in patients who are obese.
How do scars form? Fascia function as a repository of mobile scar tissue
In the riddle about the origin of scar tissue, researchers have reached an important next step.
Molière most likely did write his own plays
Two French researchers from the CNRS and Ecole nationale des chartes disprove the theory according to which Corneille was Molière's ghostwriter -- a popular and century-old theory, defended by some academics and writers.
Silencing retroviruses to awaken cell potential
Silencing of retroviruses in the human genome is a crucial step in the production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells.
Researchers finally grasp the work week of enzymes
Scientists have found a novel way of monitoring individual enzymes as they chomp through fat.
Neonicotinoids: Despite EU moratorium, bees still at risk
Since 2013, a European Union moratorium has restricted the application of three neonicotinoids to crops that attract bees because of the harmful effects they are deemed to have on these insects.
Puffins stay cool thanks to their large beak
Tufted puffins regulate their body temperature thanks to their large bills, an evolutionary trait that might explain their capacity to fly for long periods in search for food.
Carbon intensity of power sector down in 2019
Engineers from Carnegie Mellon University's Scott Institute for Energy Innovation have compiled carbon emissions for the US electric power sector for the second quarter (Q2) of 2019 as part of the CMU Power Sector Carbon Index.
Photosynthesis -- living laboratories
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich biologists Marcel Dann and Dario Leister have demonstrated for the first time that cyanobacteria and plants employ similar mechanisms and key proteins to regulate cyclic electron flow during photosynthesis.
Dance of the RNases: Coordinating the removal of RNA-DNA hybrids
Two research teams led by Professors Brian Luke and Helle Ulrich at the Institute of Molecular Biology have deciphered how two enzymes, RNase H2 and RNase H1, are coordinated to remove RNA-DNA hybrid structures from chromosomes.
Ostrich eggshell beads reveal 10,000 years of cultural interaction across Africa
In a new study published in PLOS ONE, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History's Department of Archaeology present an expanded analysis of African ostrich eggshell beads, testing the hypothesis that larger beads signal the arrival of herders.
Nine climate tipping points now 'active,' warn scientists
More than half of the climate tipping points identified a decade ago are now 'active,' a group of leading scientists have warned.
Cutting nanoparticles down to size -- new study
A new technique in chemistry could pave the way for producing uniform nanoparticles for use in drug delivery systems.
CMU algorithm rapidly finds anomalies in gene expression data
Computational biologists at Carnegie Mellon University have devised an algorithm to rapidly sort through mountains of gene expression data to find unexpected phenomena that might merit further study.
Barbequed clams on the menu for ancient Puerto Ricans
Scientists have reconstructed the cooking techniques of the early inhabitants of Puerto Rico by analysing the remains of clams.
Researchers study chickens, ostriches, penguins to learn how flight feathers evolved
If you took a careful look at the feathers on a chicken, you'd find many different forms within the same bird -- even within a single feather.
Beads made from ostrich eggshell track cultural change in ancient Africa
Researchers can track cultural changes across ancient Africa by tracking the sizes of ostrich eggshell beads, according to a study published Nov.
National group publishes approach to improve pediatric sepsis surveillance
Sepsis is a major public health problem, contributing to substantial disability, death, and healthcare costs in the United States among both adults and children.
Black silicon can help detect explosives
Scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, and Melbourne Center for Nanofabrication developed an ultrasensitive detector based on black silicon.
Activation of opioid receptor uncovered
Together with colleagues from Shanghai, Brussels, Canada and the USA, researchers from the University of Bonn have uncovered the binding mechanism of an important pain receptor.
Quantum dot lasers move a step closer with electric-pumping development at NTU Singapore
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a way to make Colloidal Quantum Dots produce laser light with the help of an electric field.
Laboratory-evolved bacteria switch to consuming CO2 for growth
Over the course of several months, researchers in Israel created Escherichia coli strains that consume CO2 for energy instead of organic compounds.
Researchers say animal-like embryos preceded animal appearance
Animals evolved from single-celled ancestors before diversifying into 30-40 distinct anatomical designs.
Guidebooks or grandmas? Where most moms get their pregnancy advice
UC study says pregnant women still rely on their mothers despite what many self-help guidebooks recommend.
Helper protein worsens diabetic eye disease
In a recent study using mice, lab-grown human retinal cells and patient samples, Johns Hopkins Medicine scientists say they found evidence of a new pathway that may contribute to degeneration of the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye.
Chinese Academy of Sciences leads discovery of unpredicted stellar black hole
An international team, headed by Professor LIU Jifeng of the National Astronomical Observatory of China of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), spotted a stellar black hole with a mass 70 times greater than the Sun.
Gene discovery in fruit flies could help search for new treatments for mitochondrial disease
Scientists have identified a protein in fruit flies that can be targeted to reverse the effects of disease-causing mutations in mitochondrial genes.
Concordia researcher hopes to use big data to make pipelines safer
In a recent paper in the Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice, researchers at Concordia and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University look at the methodologies currently used by industry and academics to predict pipeline failure and their limitations.
Shrewd savannah species choose friends with benefits on the African plains
For species trying to boost their chances of avoiding predation, it could be a classic case of 'it's not what you know, it's who you know that matters,' according to new research.
The use of certain neonicotinoids could benefit bumblebees, new study finds
Not all neonicotinoid insecticides have negative effects on bees, according to researchers at Lund University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
A step forward in the struggle against neuroblastoma, a type of childhood cancer
A protein called CD44 makes it possible to identify the population of mother cells that are responsible for the aggressive nature and low survival rate of neuroblastoma, a type of childhood cancer that mainly affects children of two and three years old.
Why do we freeze when startled? New study in flies points to serotonin
A Columbia University study in fruit flies has identified serotonin as a chemical that triggers the body's startle response, the automatic deer-in-the-headlights reflex that freezes the body momentarily in response to a potential threat.
Imaging uncovers secrets of medicine's mysterious ivory manikins
Little is known about the origins of manikins -- small anatomical sculptures thought to be used by doctors four centuries ago -- but now advanced imaging techniques have offered a revealing glimpse inside these captivating ivory dolls.
New pads absorb shock better than foam with air flow and easy manufacture
HRL Laboratories has published test results showing shock-absorbing pads made from HRL's microlattice material had up to 27% higher energy absorption efficiency than the current best-performing expanded polystyrene foam when sustaining a single impact and up to 35% higher energy absorption efficiency than state-of-the-art vinyl nitrile foam when impacted repeatedly.
Oyster deaths: American slipper limpet is innocent
Researchers from Kiel University (CAU), in cooperation with the NORe museum association for the North and Baltic Sea region and the Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum in Frankfurt, have managed to shine some light on the decline in numbers of the European oyster.
Inbreeding and population/demographic shifts could have led to Neanderthal extinction
Small populations, inbreeding, and random demographic fluctuations could have been enough to cause Neanderthal extinction, according to a study published Nov.
New vaccine will stop the spread of bovine TB
Scientists at the University of Surrey have developed a novel vaccine and complementary skin test to protect cattle against bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB).
Impact crater data analysis of Ryugu asteroid illuminates complicated geological history
Analysis of the impact craters on Ryugu using the spacecraft Hayabusa2's remote sensing image data has illuminated the geological history of the Near-Earth asteroid and revealed 77 craters.
Animal embryos evolved before animals
A new study by an international team of researchers, led by scientists from the University of Bristol and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, has discovered that animal-like embryos evolved long before the first animals appear in the fossil record.
Seeing the world's smallest universal joints
Researchers at Osaka University used electron cryomicroscopy to produce the most accurate images to date of the bacterial flagellar hook.
A nice reactive ring to it: New synthetic pathways for diverse aromatic compounds
Researchers at the Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) published a new method for synthesizing γ?aryl-β-ketoesters, which are used in the pharmaceutical manufacturing to create many drug molecules that contain a multi-substituted aromatic framework.
New study shows a carnivorous dinosaur species regrew all its teeth every few months
A meat-eating dinosaur species that lived in Madagascar some 70 million years ago replaced all its teeth every couple of months or so, a new study has found, surprising even the researchers.
Patient's place of residence matters when choosing cost-effective anticoagulation therapy
Appropriately selected anticoagulation therapy can help to reduce the medical costs of patients suffering from atrial fibrillation.
Atomic-scale manufacturing method could enable ultra-efficient computers
As computers continue to infiltrate almost every aspect of modern life, their negative impact on the environment grows.
Problems of homophobia and transphobia in sport
The diverse field of sport is not free from discrimination.
Case report: Stem cells a step toward improving motor, sensory function after spinal cord injury
Stem cells derived from a patient's own fat offer a step toward improving -- not just stabilizing -- motor and sensory function of people with spinal cord injuries, according to early research from Mayo Clinic.
Researchers identify protein that governs human blood stem cell self-renewal
UCLA scientists have discovered a link between a protein and the ability of human blood stem cells to self-renew.
Fighting fruit flies: Aggressive behavior influenced by previous interactions
Aggression doesn't just depend on who you are or who you're interacting with but also depends on your previous interactions, a new University of Guelph fruit fly study has found.
New fossil shrimp species from Colombia helps fill 160 million-year gap
A new fossil species of comma shrimp, exceptionally preserved in mid-Cretaceous rocks of the Colombian Andes, allowed scientists to fill a 160 million-year gap in the evolution of these crustaceans.
Immunotherapy is safe following chemoradiotherapy for women with node-positive cervical cancer
Results from the NRG Oncology phase I clinical trial NRG-GOG 9929 show that utilizing the immunotherapy drug ipilimumab after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is tolerated in the curative treatment of women with lymph node-positive cervical cancer.
Thermal stability and biological compatibility of the bone tissue implants are improved
Scientists from A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMET RAS) have investigated the thermal stability of the synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) - the analogs material of human bone tissue.
Brain receptor that regulates body heat may also help accelerate weight loss
The brain mechanism that enables us to maintain a constant body temperature may also be the key to rapid weight loss, a new study finds.
When your microbiome and your genome aren't a good combination
Research carried out by a team led by Osaka University has shown that various Prevotella species, along with several specific genes and biological pathways, are enriched in the gut microbiota of Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

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