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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 03, 2019


New expert findings seek to protect national parks from invasive animal species
'We value national parks for the natural habitats and wildlife they protect, but because of invasive species, some of our native species are struggling or unable to survive, even with the protection of our park system,' says Virginia Tech wildlife conservation expert Ashley Dayer.
Dramatic transition in Streptomyces life cycle explained in new discovery
Streptomyces bacteria are our primary source of antibiotics, which are produced in the transition from vegetative growth to sporulation in a complex developmental life cycle.
Metalens grows up
Researchers have developed an all-glass, centimeter-scale metalens in the visible spectrum that can be manufactured using conventional chip fabrication methods
NASA-NOAA satellite finds development of tropical cyclone 06A
Imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite showed that a tropical depression in the Arabian Sea has consolidated and organized despite facing wind shear.
Hiring antibodies as nanotechnology builders
Researchers at the University of Rome Tor Vergata recruit antibodies as molecular builders to assemble nanoscale structures made of synthetic DNA.
Concussion alters how information is transmitted within the brain
Damage from concussion alters the way information is transmitted between the 2 halves of the brain, according to a new study.
AI improves chest X-ray interpretation
A sophisticated type of artificial intelligence (AI) can detect clinically meaningful chest X-ray findings as effectively as experienced radiologists, according to a new study.
Lack of specialists doom rural sick patients
Residents of rural areas are more likely to be hospitalized and to die than those who live in cities primarily because they lack access to specialists, according to research in Health Affairs.
Towards high quality ZnO quantum dots prospective for biomedical applications
Scientists from Warsaw together with colleagues from Grenoble have moved a step closer to creating stable, high quality colloidal zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) for use in modern technologies and nanomedicine.
Frequency of worship, not location, matters more when it comes to being good neighbors
Americans travel farther on average to their worship places than they did a decade ago.
Death of STAT lab tests could be good for patient care
While a lab test might be ordered STAT to help save a life, a new study suggests that the STAT test order should rest in peace, and instead the time standard for most clinical lab tests, like the commonly requested complete blood count, or CBC, should be more efficient.
New study explores the link between obesity and gum disease
Obesity and gum (periodontal) disease are among the most common non-communicable diseases in the United States -- and studies show these chronic conditions may be related.
Russia's nuclear industry set to fight the climate crisis by exporting education
Challenges and perspectives for Russia's nuclear industry on its way to assuming a key role in the global fight against the climate crisis, while also ensuring future growth and building on 65 years of prodigious legacy, dating back to the launch of the world's first nuclear power plant in Obninsk in 1954, are brought together in a paper recently published in the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI openly accessible journal Nuclear Energy and Technology.
Fake news feels less immoral to share when we've seen it before
People who repeatedly encounter a fake news item may feel less and less unethical about sharing it on social media, even when they don't believe the information, research indicates.
Finnish rivers transport carbon to the Baltic Sea at an increasing rate
The amount of carbon transported via Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea has risen substantially in the past few decades.
Study calls for improved sanitation and the environmental management of pharmaceuticals
Failure to ensure the environmental sustainability of growing patient access to medicines in developing economies could increase the risk of adverse environmental impacts, according to new research led by the University of Plymouth.
What's driving erosion worldwide?
ETH Zurich researchers are reexamining the causes of soil erosion around the world -- and have found that countries themselves have a surprisingly strong influence on their soil.
Imaging reveals pathways behind depression
MRI illuminates abnormalities in the brains of people with depression, potentially opening the door to new and improved treatments for the disorder, according to two studies.
Building a better breast with eye-tracking technology
What makes the female breast attractive? The answer is subjective, of course.
Through the eyes of animals
Humans are now closer to seeing through the eyes of animals, thanks to an innovative software framework developed by researchers from the University of Queensland and the University of Exeter.
Early immune response may improve cancer immunotherapies
Researchers report a new mechanism for detecting foreign material during early immune responses.
Young tree swallows carry environmental stress into adulthood
Cornell University researchers have found that colder temperatures during tree swallows' development stage has an effect on swallows later in life.
An alloy that retains its memory at high temperatures
Even after the hundredth time the material returns to its original shape when heated.
Rural-urban flip: How changing ACA rules affected health insurance premium costs
People in rural areas of the US who receive subsidies to buy health insurance in the Health Insurance Marketplaces pay less in premiums than their counterparts in urban areas, a flip that occurred in 2018 and has been widening since, according to a new analysis.
A quarter of cancer patients experience avoidable delay to diagnosis
One in four cancer patients experienced a delay to their diagnosis that could have been avoided, according to a new study by Cancer Research UK.
Tech startups gravitate toward cities with strong social networks, study finds
The presence of technology startups can drive economic growth for their home cities.
How the strep bacterium hides from the immune system
A bacterial pathogen that causes strep throat and other illnesses cloaks itself in fragments of red blood cells to evade detection by the host immune system, according to a study publishing December 3 in the journal Cell Reports.
Neuro interface adds tactile dimension to screen images
Researchers from Duke University and HSE University have succeeded in creating artificial tactile perception in monkeys through direct brain stimulation.
Smog-eating graphene composite reduces atmospheric pollution
A graphene-titania photocatalyst degrades up to 70% more atmospheric NOx than standard titania nanoparticles in tests on real pollutants.
Imaging technique gives catalytic 2D material engineering a better view
A scanning electrochemical cell imaging technique shows how nanoscale structural features affect the catalytic activity of MoS2 monolayers for hydrogen evolution reactions, report researchers at Kanazawa University in Angewandte Chemie International Edition.
Prescribing for self, family, and friends widespread among young Irish doctors, poll shows
Prescribing for self, family, friends and colleagues is widespread among young Irish doctors, suggest the results of a survey, published online in the Journal of Medical Ethics.
NASA catches typhoon Kammuri post landfall
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP or S-NPP satellite provided infrared and night-time imagery of Typhoon Kammuri shortly after it made landfall in the Philippines.
Diamonds in your devices: Powering the next generation of energy storage
Supercapacitors, which have begun to stand in for conventional batteries, such as Li-ion batteries, can currently store much less energy than is ideal.
UMD astronomers catch a natural comet outburst in unprecedented detail
University of Maryland astronomers have made the most complete and detailed observations to date of the formation and dissipation of a naturally occurring comet outburst.
New remote-controlled 'smart' platform helps in cardiovascular disease treatment
A joint research group led by Dr. DU Xuemin at the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently demonstrated a remote-controlled 'smart' platform that effectively directs programmed vascular endothelium remodeling in a temporally controllable manner.
MA physician assistant programs adopt first-in-nation partnership to prevent opioid abuse
Morbidity and mortality from prescription and synthetic opioid use and abuse continues to be a U.S. public health issue.
Novel material switches between electrically conducting and insulating states
The new approach developed by Professor James Rondinelli could inform the design of quantum materials platforms for future electronics, as well as faster devices with more storage capabilities.
Illuminating the path for super-resolution imaging with improved rhodamine dyes
DUT and SUTD researchers developed a new strategy that enhances the brightness and clarity of sub-cellular structures when dyed with novel rhodamine fluorophores, laying the ground for the advancement of super-resolution microscopes.
A Freiburg research team deciphers how stem cells decide their identity
Several hundred different cell types of the adult human body are formed during embryonic development, starting from just a few identical stem cells.
One dose of radiotherapy as effective as five doses for cancer in the spine
A single dose of radiotherapy is as 'effective' as five doses for end-of-life cancer patients suffering with painful spinal canal compression, finds a large study conducted by UCL.
NASA's exoplanet-hunting mission catches a natural comet outburst in unprecedented detail
Using data from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), astronomers at the University of Maryland (UMD), in College Park, Maryland, have captured a clear start-to-finish image sequence of an explosive emission of dust, ice and gases during the close approach of comet 46P/Wirtanen in late 2018.
Healing power of honey
Sandwiching nano-layers of manuka honey between layers of surgical mesh inhibits bacteria for up to three weeks as the honey is slowly released, new research shows.
A window into evolution
The C4 cycle supercharges photosynthesis and evolved independently more than 62 times.
Time to stop commercial distortion of healthcare evidence and practice, experts urge
It's time to stop the endemic financial entanglement with industry that is distorting the production and use of healthcare evidence, causing harm to individuals and waste for health systems, argue an influential group of international experts in The BMJ today.
How does language emerge?
How did the almost 6000 languages of the world come into being?
Co-combustion of wood and oil-shale reduces carbon emissions
Utilization of fossil fuels, which represents an increasing environmental risk, can be made more environmentally friendly by adding wood -- as concluded based on the preliminary results of the year-long study carried out by thermal engineers of Tallinn University of Technology.
Characterizing whale vocalization can help map migration
Killer whale pods each have their own set of calls they use to communicate, sometimes referred to as the pod's 'dialect.' By characterizing a pod's calls, researchers can track its seasonal movements, gaining a better understanding of the whales' lives.
AI helps find signs of heart disease on lung cancer screens
Artificial intelligence (AI) provides an automated and accurate tool to measure a common marker of heart disease in patients getting chest CT scans for lung cancer screening, according to a new study.
World first as artificial neurons developed to cure chronic diseases
Artificial neurons on silicon chips that behave just like the real thing have been invented by scientists -- a first-of-its-kind achievement with enormous scope for medical devices to cure chronic diseases, such as heart failure, Alzheimer's, and other diseases of neuronal degeneration.
Global carbon emissions increase but rate has slowed
Global carbon emissions are set to grow more slowly in 2019, with a decline in coal burning offset by strong growth in natural gas and oil use worldwide -- according to new research.
Migraine headaches? Consider aspirin for treatment and prevention
Evidence from 13 randomized trials of the treatment of migraine in 4,222 patients and tens of thousands of patients in prevention of recurrent attacks supports the use of high dose aspirin from 900 to 1,300 milligrams to treat acute migraine as well as low dose daily aspirin from 81 to 325 milligrams to prevent recurrent attacks.
Inhibiting a protease could improve the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease
Scientists at the CNIC and CSIC have identified a function of a protease that could be the future target of drugs to treat inflammatory bowel disease.
NASA finds second tropical system develops in Arabian Sea
Tropical Storm 07A has developed in the eastern Arabian Sea, one day after Tropical Storm 06A developed in the western part of the sea.
Two chiral catalysts working hand in hand
The stereoisomers of a molecule can cause different effects in a biological system, which is important for the development of drugs.
General and pediatric 'Treat All' policies lead to increased ART initiation among youth
A new study published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases found that expansion of HIV treatment eligibility to include those under age 15 led to large and significant increases in initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 30 days of enrollment in care among 10- to 14-year-olds living with HIV.
Eating in sync with biological clock could replace problematic diabetes treatment
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that a starch-rich breakfast consumed early in the morning coupled with a small dinner could replace insulin injections and other diabetes medications for many diabetics.
Love, lies and money: Study introduces, defines and measures financial infidelity
New research from the University of Notre Dame introduces the concept of financial infidelity -- engaging in any financial behavior likely to be frowned upon by a romantic partner and intentionally failing to disclose that behavior.
BU finds potentially harmful air contamination near new Bedford Harbor
A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study indicates that the contaminated water of New Bedford Harbor may pose an airborne health hazard for residents living nearby in Acushnet, Dartmouth, Fairhaven, and New Bedford.
Successful instrument guidance through deep and convoluted blood vessel networks
Researchers have developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations.
Focused ultrasound may open door to Alzheimer's treatment
Focused ultrasound is a safe and effective way to target and open areas of the blood-brain barrier, potentially allowing for new treatment approaches to Alzheimer's disease, according to initial results from a new study.
Compound eyes: The visual apparatus of today's horseshoe crabs goes back 400 million years
The extinct sea scorpion species Jaekelopterus rhenaniae had eyes comparable to those of today's horseshoe crabs.
A study of Saturn's largest moon may offer insights for earth
Scientists studying the weather and climate of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, have reported a significant seasonal variation in its energy budget, a finding which could yield new insights into climate on Earth.
Neurodegenerative diseases may be caused by transportation failures inside neurons
Protein clumps are routinely found in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases.
Bio-inspired hydrogel can rapidly switch to rigid plastic
A new material that stiffens 1,800-fold when exposed to heat could protect motorcyclists and racecar drivers during accidents.
How does protein fit in your holiday diet or New Year's resolutions?
While some diets load up on protein and other diets dictate protein sources, it can be hard to know what to consume while managing weight or during weight loss.
As a way to fight climate change, not all soils are created equal
A set of studies led by CSU soil scientist Francesca Cotrufo offers a newly nuanced understanding of different soil organic matter components that can be increased through varied management strategies.
Electron correlations in carbon nanostructures
Graphene nanoribbons are only a few carbon atoms wide and have different electrical properties depending on their shape and width.
CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing shows very low risk of mistakes
Along with the promise that CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology can offer new human therapies is the need to ensure its safety.
25-fold surge in vitamin D supplement prescriptions for kids in UK primary care
The number of vitamin D supplement prescriptions written for children in primary care in the UK has surged 25-fold in under 10 years, reveals an analysis of family doctor (GP) prescribing data, published in the online journal BMJ Open.
Social influencers: What can we learn from animals?
Research from Oxford University calls us to reconsider how behaviors may spread through societies of wild animals, and how this might provide new insights into human social networks.
Medicine against bone disease found in the leaves of saussurea
Bacterial bone infections are quite resistant to antibiotics and require new therapeutic approaches.
Women wearing hijabs in news stories may be judged negatively
Women wearing a veil or headscarf in the United States may face harsher social judgement, according to a study by Penn State researchers that found when given the same information in a news story, some people may consider a woman wearing a headscarf to be more likely to have committed a crime.
Transition to exhaustion: clues for cancer immunotherapy
Emory research on immune cells 'exhausted' by chronic viral infection provides clues on how to refine cancer immunotherapy.
VTT developed an optical fiber made of cellulose
VTT researchers were able to transmit light in wood-based fibre.
New screening method identifies potential anticancer compounds that reawaken T cells
Scientists at Scripps Research have developed a method for rapidly discovering potential cancer-treating compounds that work by resurrecting anti-tumor activity in immune cells called T cells.
Cannabis dependence and abuse nearly doubled risk of heart attack post-surgery
According to a study led by researchers at St. Michael's Hospital of Unity Health Toronto, patients with cannabis use disorders had an increased cardiac risk post-surgery.
How to improve water quality in Europe
Toxic substances from agriculture, industry and households endanger water quality in Europe -- and by extension, ecosystems and human health.
For some corals, meals can come with a side of microplastics
A new experiment by the University of Washington has found that some corals are more likely to eat microplastics when they are consuming other food, yet microplastics alone are undesirable.
A common drug could help restore limb function after spinal cord injury
Long-term treatment with gabapentin, a commonly prescribed drug for nerve pain, could help restore upper limb function after a spinal cord injury, new research in mice suggests.
New study looks at motorized scooter injuries
More than half of people who received X-rays or CT scans after electric scooter accidents were found to have injuries, most commonly to the upper extremities, according to a new study.
Female fish can breed a new species if they aren't choosy about who is Mr. Right
Female fish can breed a new species if they aren't choosy about who is Mr.
Raising plants to withstand climate change
Success with improving a model plant's response to harsh conditions is leading plant molecular researchers to move to food crops including wheat, barley, rice and chickpeas.
Young children receiving housing vouchers had lower hospital spending into adulthood
Young children whose household received a housing voucher were admitted to the hospital fewer times and incurred lower hospital costs in the subsequent two decades than children whose households did not receive housing vouchers, according to a new study from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
In sickness and in health: Study looks at how married couples face chronic conditions
When they said their wedding vows, many of them promised to stand by one another in sickness and in health.
Meteorite-loving microorganism
The archaeon Metallosphaera sedula can uptake and process extraterrestrial material.
Sleep helps memory, right? Not for eyewitnesses
New research investigating the effect of sleep on eyewitness memory has found that having a period of sleep, compared to a period of wake, does not improve eyewitness identification accuracy.
The art of the Roman surveyors emerges from newly discovered pavements in Pompeii
A series of enigmatic images recently recovered in new excavations in Pompeii shed new light upon a fascinating figure of the Roman world: the Gromatics, the surveyours in charge of the regular division of the land and of town planning.
Great Barrier Reef study shows how reef copes with rapid sea-level rise
A survey of coral reef cores on the Great Barrier Reef has revealed how it has responded to recent periods of rapid sea-level rise.
Study reveals dynamics of crucial immune system proteins
Of the many marvels of the human immune system, the processing of antigens by the class I proteins of the major histocompatability complex (MHC-I) is among the most mind-boggling.
Highly sensitive epigenomic technology combats disease
Much remains unknown about diseases and the way our bodies respond to them, in part because the human genome is the complete DNA assembly that makes each person unique.
Diabetes drug has unexpected, broad implications for healthy aging
Metformin is the most commonly prescribed type 2 diabetes drug, yet scientists still do not fully know how it works to control blood sugar levels.
Social media could be a force for good in tackling depression but for privacy concerns
Social media has been identified by a number of studies as being a significant factor in mental health problems, especially in young people.
New approach to treating cystic fibrosis could lower risk of lung transplants and death
A new approach to treating people with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been shown to reduce inflammation, which has the potential to reduce the need for lung transplants and lower the risk of death.
Siting cell towers needs careful planning
The health impacts of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) are still inconclusive, but the data to date warrants more caution in placing cell towers.
Scientists devise catalyst that uses light to turn carbon dioxide to fuel
In a recent study from Argonne, scientists have used sunlight and a catalyst largely made of copper to transform carbon dioxide to methanol.
Ultrasound techniques give warning signs of preterm births
Ultrasound can be used to examine cervix tissue and improve diagnostics, which is essential for predicting preterm births, and ultrasound data is used to compare two techniques for evaluating changes in cervical tissue throughout pregnancy.
How a cellular shuttle helps HIV-1 spread in immune organs
New insight on how a type of cell facilitates the spread of HIV-1 has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.
Study sheds light on the peculiar 'normal' phase of high-temperature superconductors
Experiments at SLAC and Stanford probe the normal state more accurately than ever before and discover an abrupt shift in the behavior of electrons in which they suddenly give up their individuality and behave like an electron soup.
Investigating the human intestinal mucus barrier up-close and personal
Focusing on the large intestine or colon which houses the greatest number of commensal microbes and has the thickest mucus layer, a team of tissue engineers at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering has developed a colon-on-a-chip (Colon Chip) microfluidic culture device lined by patient-derived colon cells that spontaneously accumulates a mucus layer with the thickness, bi-layered structure, and barrier functions typically found in normal human colon.
Improving blood vessel health in the brain may help combat Alzheimer's
Researchers have found that very slow spontaneous blood vessel pulsations drive the clearance of substances from the brain, indicating that targeting and improving this process may help to prevent or treat amyloid-beta accumulation.
Gas giant composition not determined by host star
A surprising analysis of the composition of gas giant exoplanets and their host stars shows that there isn't a strong correlation between their compositions when it comes to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, according to new work led by Carnegie's Johanna Teske.
Researchers map the formation of ducts connecting digestive organs in zebrafish
A specialized system of ducts transports bile and enzymes from the liver and pancreas to the intestine.
Virtual reality could help flu vaccination rates
Using a virtual reality simulation to show how flu spreads and its impact on others could be a way to encourage more people to get a flu vaccination, according to a study by researchers at the University of Georgia and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Bending an organic semiconductor can boost electrical flow
Slightly bending semiconductors made of organic materials can roughly double the speed of electricity flowing through them and could benefit next-generation electronics such as sensors and solar cells, according to Rutgers-led research.
Distress tolerance plays role in alcohol use and abuse among firefighters
A newly published report from a University of Houston psychology professor finds that firefighters who struggle with PTSD symptoms, and who think they cannot handle negative emotions, are likely to drink and use alcohol it to cope with negative emotions.
Got a migraine? Relief may already be on your medicine shelf
According to a new report in The American Journal of Medicine, published by Elsevier, aspirin can be considered an effective and safe option to other, more expensive medications to treat acute migraines as well as prevent recurrent attacks.
I quit: How poor treatment by customers leads to high turnover in the service industry
According to a new study led by the UBC Sauder School of Business, customer conflict plays a big role when it comes to service industry workers saying 'I quit' -- and how supervisors manage that conflict helps decide whether employees stay or go.
Conservative boards more likely to dismiss CEO
Leaning left or right in the political spectrum may affect how a company's board manages CEO dismissal, finds SMU Assistant Professor David Gomulya.
Laws help reduce pollution and do not affect competitiveness, study finds
Researchers from the University of Granada, in collaboration with the universities of Berkeley and Minnesota, have conducted a review of the most important international scholarship on environmental regulation and firms The researchers propose that international initiatives, such as the World Climate Summit in Madrid, should provide the basis for more effective future regulations Their findings have been published in the research journal with the greatest worldwide impact in the fields of business and business management
Is disability a risk factor for miscarriage?
A new study compared the proportion of women with any cognitive, physical, or independent living disability who experienced a miscarriage during the previous 5-year period to women without disabilities.
Detecting solar flares, more in real time
Computers can learn to find flares and other events in vast streams of solar images to help forecasters issue timely alerts, according to a new study in the Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate.
Unemployment encourages men to try traditionally female-dominated work
A study finds that men who previously worked in male-dominated or mixed-gender fields are significantly more likely to transition to female-dominated jobs following a bout of unemployment, bucking past evidence showing resistance by men to working female-dominated jobs.
Chronic opioid treatment may raise risk of post-traumatic stress disorder, study finds
While opioids are often prescribed to treat people with trauma-related pain, a new UCLA-led study suggests doctors should use caution before prescribing the drug to those they believe may experience severe stress in the future, in order to reduce the risk the patient will develop PTSD.
Researchers use genomics to discover potential new treatment for parasite disease
Using innovative RNA sequencing techniques, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) Institute for Genome Sciences identified a promising novel treatment for lymphatic filariasis, a disabling parasitic disease that is difficult to treat.
Concerns over regulation of oral powders or gels sold as medical devices in Europe
Oral powders or gels, sold as medical devices in the European Union (EU), aren't regulated to the same safety standards as those applied to medicines, reveals research published online in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.
Star-quake vibrations lead to new estimate for Milky Way age
In a paper published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, a team of 38 scientists led by researchers from Australia's ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO-3D) use data from the now-defunct probe to calculate that the disc is about 10 billion years old.
How accumulating useful genes helps older yeast fare better in tougher times
Researchers in the Babraham Institute's Epigenetics research programme have used yeast to learn more about how satellite (extrachromosomal) DNA circles are formed to carry amplified genes, how the gene duplication is specific to the environmental pressure and the effects of age.
Southern Arizona once looked like Tibet
The study determined that the Earth's crust in southern Arizona was once almost 60 kilometers thick, which is twice as thick as it is today -- and comparable to how thick the crust is in parts of the Himalayas.
How to help fix the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' hospital rating system
The current hospital star-rating system used by the US government's Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is plagued with numerous flaws, and University of Chicago Booth School of Business Professor Dan Adelman has come up with a new way to address one of its most controversial issues.
UCalgary research finds short-term radon test kits are not effective in measuring radon gas exposure
A University of Calgary led study finds the only reliable way to measure exposure to radon gas is with a long-term testing kit, 90 or more days.

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