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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 06, 2019


Acupuncture reduces radiation-induced dry mouth for cancer patients
After receiving acupuncture treatment three days a week during the course of radiation treatment, head and neck cancer patients experienced less dry mouth, according to study results from researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
Discovery of a new protein gives insight into a long-standing plant immunity mystery
''Our research suggests that Mai1 has a central role in immunity that likely can not be substituted by other proteins,'' according to first author Robyn Roberts.
Reducing risk in AI and machine learning-based medical technology
A key strength and potential benefit from most AI/ML technology is derived from its ability to evolve as the model learns in response to new data.
Emerging role of adenosine in brain disorders and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
The role of adenosine in neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration has led to growing attention on adenosine receptors as potential drug targets in a range of brain disorders, including neuroregenerative therapy and treatment for amyotrophyic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Surface effects affect the distribution of hydrogen in metals
The researchers from Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University and Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering of the Russian Academy of Sciences studied the distribution of hydrogen in metals in the process of standard testing for hydrogen cracking.
New report shows dramatic health benefits following air pollution reduction
Reductions in air pollution yielded fast and dramatic impacts on health-outcomes, as well as decreases in all-cause morbidity, according to findings in 'Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reduction,' new research published in the American Thoracic Society's journal, Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
A new view for glasses
Scientists at The University of Tokyo used computer simulations to demonstrate how the dynamics of a glassy liquid can be predicted based on the local structural ordering at the atomic level.
Improved pH probes may help towards cancer treatments
Nanopipettes with zwitterionic membranes may offer improved monitoring of changes in pH surrounding living cells, which can indicate traits of invasive cancer cells and their response to treatment, report researchers at Kanazawa University in Nature Communications.
Nanocontainer ships titan-size gene therapies and drugs into cells
Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size -- even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR.
Lack of psychological support for those dealing with infertility in the UK
Psychological support for those dealing with infertility and its treatment is received by only just half of those who want it in the UK - with many left to suffer with anxiety, depression, or suicidal thoughts, according to a new study published in Human Fertility.
Astronomy fellowship demonstrates measures to dismantle bias, increase diversity in STEM
Joyce Yen of the University of Washington recently worked with the Heising-Simons Foundation to dismantle bias and promote diversity in a prominent grant that the Foundation awards to postdoctoral researchers in planetary science.
Dendrites filtering neuron's excitement
Kyoto University research shows that Purkinje cell dendrites filter out signals to the Soma.
Animated videos advance adoption of agriculture techniques
In remote areas with low literacy rates, showing animated videos in the local language demonstrating agricultural techniques results in high retention and adoption rates of those techniques, found researchers from Michigan State University.
Electronic map reveals 'rules of the road' in superconductor
Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a road map that reveals the quantum ''rules of the road'' that electrons must follow in the enigmatic superconductor.
Why people buy, trade, donate medications on the black market
Altruism and a lack of access and affordability are three reasons why people with chronic illnesses are turning to the 'black market' for medicines and supplies, new research shows.
Discovery of genes involved in the biosynthesis of antidepressant
Summary: - St. John's Wort Hypericum perforatum is an ancient medicinal plant.
How saving the ozone layer in 1987 slowed global warming
It may have been an accidental side effect but new research shows that when the world's nations signed the Montreal Protocol in 1987 to ban CFCs and save the ozone layer they also signed an agreement that has already done more to slow global warming than the Kyoto Protocol.
Study debunks notion that C-section would increase risk of obesity in the child
Women who have C-sections are no more likely to have children who develop obesity than women who give birth naturally, according to a large study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published in the journal PLOS Medicine.
Breakthrough in battle against invasive plants
Plants that can 'bounce back' after disturbances like ploughing, flooding or drought are the most likely to be 'invasive' if they're moved to new parts of the world, scientists say.
Move over Jules Verne -- scientists deploy ocean floats to peer into Earth's interior
The release of more than 50 floating sensors, called Mobile Earthquake Recording in Marine Areas by Independent Divers (MERMAIDs), is increasing the number of seismic stations around the planet.
New tool for rapidly analyzing CRISPR edits reveals frequent production of unintended edits
Amidst rising hopes for using CRISPR gene editing tools to repair deadly mutations linked to conditions like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease, a new study in the Nature journal Communications Biology describes a new innovation that could accelerate this work by rapidly revealing unintended and potentially harmful changes introduced by a gene editing process.
How do you cultivate a healthy plant microbiome?
Crops today never see their parents' microbiome, so how do they develop a leaf microbial community that's healthy and resistant to invasion by pathogens?
Leukemia, lymphoma squarely in sights of new class of drugs
A new class of drugs degrades an essential survival protein in cancer cells while sparing platelets.
Pioneering research gives fresh insight into 1 of the pivotal building blocks of life
The quest to better understand how genomic information is read has taken a new step forward, thanks to pioneering new research.
Genetic typing of a bacterium with biotechnological potential
Researchers at Kanazawa University describe in Scientific Reports the genetic typing of the bacterium Pseudomonas putida.
Scientists have spotted new compounds with herbicidal potential from sea fungus
Scientists of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) and the G.B.
Simple experiment explains magnetic resonance
Physicists at University of California, Riverside, have designed an experiment to explain the concept of magnetic resonance.
Stormquakes: Powerful storms cause seafloor tremors
Stormquakes are a phenomenon characterized by seismic activity originating at the ocean floor due to powerful storms.
Siberian researchers contribute to global monitoring of the Earth's Green Lungs
Researchers of Siberian Federal University took part in a global project to collect, systematize and universalize data on the composition of forests in all climatic zones and on all continents of the planet.
Researchers add order to polymer gels
Gel-like materials have a wide range of applications, especially in chemistry and medicine.
Fish scattering sound waves has impact on aquaculture
Fisheries acoustics have been studied for over 40 years to assess biomass and optimize aquaculture applications, and researchers in France have examined the phenomenon of how fish scatter acoustic waves in a dense school of fish contained in an open-sea cage.
'Conductor' gene found in plant root stem cell 'orchestra'
Researchers at North Carolina State University lift the veil on the 'conductor' plant root stem cell gene that helps orchestrate and coordinate stem cell division of different root stem cell types, ensuring the harmonic communication necessary for plant growth and maintenance.
Novel way to ID disease-resistance genes in chocolate-producing trees found
Chocolate-producing cacao trees that are resistant to a major pathogen were identified by an international team of plant geneticists.
Using a molecular motor to switch the preference of anion-binding catalysts
Many organic molecules are chiral, which means that they are non-superimposable on their mirror image.
Empowering mucosal healing with an engineered probiotic
Harvard Wyss Institute researchers developed a living material approach that uses a strain of genetically engineered E.coli Nissle bacteria as a locally acting probiotic.
UM-led experiment closes critical gap in weather forecasting
Scientists working on the next frontier of weather forecasting are hoping that weather conditions 3-to-4 weeks out will soon be as readily available as seven-day forecasts.
Team finds link between vitamin A and brain response in Monarch butterflies
Biologists at Texas A&M University are making strides in understanding biological clock function in several model organisms and translating these studies into broader implications for human health.
Current treatment for fungal meningitis is fueling drug resistance
A common first-line treatment approach for cryptococcal meningitis in low-income countries is being compromised by the emergence of drug resistance, new University of Liverpool research warns.
New ultra-miniaturized scope less invasive, produces higher quality images
Johns Hopkins engineers have created a new lens-free ultra-miniaturized endoscope, the size of a few human hairs in width, that is less bulky and can produce higher quality images.
Hire more LGBTQ and disabled astronomers or risk falling behind, review finds
In a paper published in the journal Nature Astronomy, Professor Lisa Kewley, director of the ARC Centre of Excellence in All Sky Astrophysics (ASTRO 3D), finds that encouraging astronomers from marginalized communities will increase the chances of significant research discoveries.
Infant morbidity decreases with incentive-based prenatal tobacco interventions
A new study in Colorado reveals a significant reduction in NICU (up to 55%) and preterm births due to incentive-based programs implemented to help low-income pregnant women stop smoking cigarettes.
Gamma-ray laser moves a step closer to reality
A physicist at the University of California, Riverside, has performed calculations showing hollow spherical bubbles filled with a gas of positronium atoms are stable in liquid helium.
Dial-a-frog -- researchers develop the 'FrogPhone' to remotely call frogs in the wild
Researchers have developed the 'FrogPhone', a novel device which allows scientists to call up a frog survey site and monitor them in the wild.
Reduced soil tilling helps both soils and yields
By monitoring crops through machine learning and satellite data, Stanford scientists have found farms that till the soil less can increase yields of corn and soybeans and improve the health of the soil -- a win-win for meeting growing food needs worldwide.
Scientists use crabs to validate popular method to identify unknown human brain neurons
A crab's nervous system could help scientists learn what causes single neurons in the human brain to become 'out of whack,' which can contribute to the development of neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease.
Barriers to reintegration lead to poorer health for the formerly incarcerated,
Formerly incarcerated individuals with barriers to re-entry and service needs following their release are subsequently more likely to experience poor physical and mental health, according to an eye-opening new Rutgers University-Camden study.

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