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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 09, 2019


Combination therapy more effective than chemotherapy alone for many newly diagnosed leukemia patients
A Phase II study pairing azacitidine with enasidenib boosts complete remission in patients with AML with IDH2 mutations.
Road salt pollutes lake in one of the largest US protected areas, new study shows
New research shows road salt runoff into Mirror Lake in Adirondack Park prevents natural water turnover and therefore poses a risk to the balance of its ecology.
Aspirin's health benefits under scrutiny
Taking a baby aspirin every day to prevent a heart attack or stroke should no longer be recommended to patients who haven't already experienced one of these events.
Machine learning can help us understand conversations about death
Researchers at the University of Vermont's Vermont Conversation Lab have used machine learning and natural language processing to better understand what end-of-life conversations look like.
NTU scientists uncover structure of key pneumonia virus enzyme
A team of molecular and structural biologists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have found a potential new route to disabling respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) after elucidating the structure of one of its key components.
New clues to the link between ALS and type 2 diabetes
Patients with ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) often suffer from type 2 diabetes.
Megadroughts fueled Peruvian cloud forest activity
New research from Florida Tech found that strong and long-lasting droughts parched the usually moist Peruvian cloud forests, spurring farmers to colonize new cropland.
Liquid flow is influenced by a quantum effect in water
Researchers at EPFL have discovered that the viscosity of solutions of electrically charged polymers dissolved in water is influenced by a quantum effect.
Identification of a key protein linked to ageing
Ageing is a dramatic public health issue in the face of the current demographic changes: the proportion of 60 and over in the world's population will almost double by 2050.
How does political news affect moods? New study in young doctors shows real-time effects
They work in a bubble of 80-hour work weeks, and 24-hour shifts.
New tool to assess digital addiction in children
A new study developed and validated a tool for assessing children's overall addiction to digital devices.
Reducing the side-effects of prostate hormone therapy with exercise
A prescription of short-term exercise for patients with advanced prostate cancer could help to reduce the side-effects of hormone therapy, according to new research.
Navigating navigating land and water
Centipedes not only walk on land but also swim in water.
Scientists find further evidence for a population of dark matter deficient dwarf galaxies
Researchers from the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Science (NAOC), Peking University and Tsinghua University have found a special population of dwarf galaxies that could mainly consist baryons within radii of up to tens of thousands of light-years.
Even light alcohol consumption linked to higher cancer risk in Japan
In a new Cancer study conducted in Japan, even light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with elevated cancer risks.
Ultrafast stimulated emission microscopy of single nanocrystals in Science
ICFO researchers report on a new ultrafast stimulated emission microscopy technique that allows imaging of nano-objects and investigating their dynamics.
Have your health and eat meat too
Barbecued, stir-fried or roasted, there's no doubt that Aussies love their meat.
Play sports for a healthier brain
There have been many headlines in recent years about the potentially negative impacts contact sports can have on athletes' brains.
Green hydrogen: Research to enhance efficiency
Laboratory experiments and a parabolic flight campaign have enabled an international team of researchers from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) to gain new insights into water electrolysis, in which hydrogen is obtained from water by applying electric energy.
Co-addiction of meth and opioids hinders treatment
A study published in the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment found that methamphetamine use was associated with more than twice the risk for dropping out of treatment for opioid-use disorder.
Prescribing anticoagulants in the ED for atrial fibrillation increases long-term use by 30%
Patients prescribed anticoagulants after a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in the emergency department are more likely to continue long-term use of medications to treat the condition, according to research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
BU study finds new factors linked to suicide
A new study led by Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researchers finds that physical illness and injury raises the risk of suicide in men but not women, along with a plethora of other insights into the complex factors that may increase a person's risk of suicide.
Exercise yields some cardiovascular benefits in children with excess weight
Eight months of daily, afterschool physical activity in previously inactive 8- to 11-year-olds with obesity and overweight improved key measures of their cardiovascular health like good cholesterol levels, aerobic fitness and percent body fat, but didn't improve others like arterial stiffness, an early indicator of cardiovascular risk, Medical College of Georgia investigators report.
Pregnant smokers at higher risk for gestational diabetes, Hebrew University study finds
Pregnant smokers at higher risk for gestational diabetes, Hebrew University study finds.
Russian astrophysicists discovered a neutron star with an unusual magnetic field structure
Russian scientists discovered a unique neutron star, the magnetic field of which is apparent only when the star is seen under a certain angle relative to the observer.
New England fishermen losing jobs due to climate
For decades the biggest threat to the industry has been overfishing, but it is no longer the only threat.
Ben-Gurion University researchers develop new method to remove dust on solar panels
Particle removal increased from 41% on hydrophilic smooth Si wafers to 98% on superhydrophobic Si-based nanotextured surfaces.
Newly identified jet-stream pattern could imperil global food supplies, says study
Scientists have identified systematic meanders in the globe-circling northern jet stream that have caused simultaneous crop-damaging heat waves in widely separated breadbasket regions-a previously unquantified threat to global food production that, they say, could worsen with global warming.
Giving common antibiotic before radiation may help body fight cancer
The antibiotic vancomycin alters the gut microbiome in a way that can help prime the immune system to more effectively attack tumor cells after radiation therapy.
Experimental leukemia combination proves toxic for older, frail patients
About 32% of older, sicker patients enrolled on a leukemia clinical trial experienced serious side effects from a treatment that combined a chemotherapy and an immunotherapy drug, leading investigators to pause the trial and the US Food and Drug Administration to eventually pull the combination from the current study.
Treating more than just the heart is critical for geriatric patients
Geriatric conditions such as frailty, cognitive impairment, taking multiple medications and having multiple medical conditions complicate care for older people with acute cardiovascular diseases.
New study compares floodplain protection today to predicted future flood losses
A new study by scientists from The Nature Conservancy (TNC), the University of Bristol and flood analytics company Fathom, seeks to answer an important question related to flooding in the United States - pay now to protect undeveloped areas that are likely to flood in the future or allow developments to go ahead and pay for damage when it occurs.
How high levels of blood fat cause inflammation and damage kidneys and blood vessels
Viral and bacterial infections are not the only causes of inflammation of body tissue.
The genetic signature of memory
Despite their importance in memory, the human cortex and subcortex display a distinct collection of 'gene signatures.' The work recently published in eNeuro increases our understanding of how the brain creates memories and identifies potential genes for further investigation.
Isolated, vulnerable, and apathetic
Although HIV infection rates are high among the transgender community in Russia, many transgender people know very little about the virus, as well as their own health status.
'Safety signals' may help slow down anxiety
For as many as one in three people, life events or situations that pose no real danger can spark a disabling fear, a hallmark of anxiety and stress-related disorders.
Data Science Institute researcher designs headphones that warn pedestrians of dangers
To counter a growing public safety concern, researchers at the Data Science Institute, Columbia, are designing an intelligent headphone system that warns pedestrians of imminent dangers.
CAR T-cell therapy effective for relapsed mantle cell lymphoma patients
A one-year follow-up study revealed a majority of patients with mantle cell lymphoma resistant to prior therapies may benefit from treatment with CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) .
Deeper understanding of irregular heartbeat may lead to more effective treatment
Researchers at Imperial have shown how the chaotic electrical signals underlying irregular heart rhythms lead to the failure of standard treatments.
A tech jewel: Converting graphene into diamond film
Can two layers of the ''king of the wonder materials,'' i.e. graphene, be linked and converted to the thinnest diamond-like material, the ''king of the crystals''?
Storing data in everyday objects
ETH Zurich researchers and an Israeli scientist have discovered a new method for turning nearly any object into a data storage unit.
Scientists show thin metal mesh loaded with T cells shrinks solid tumors
Within weeks, CAR T cells targeting ovarian cancer cleared tumors in 70% of treated mice, shows study in Nature Biomedical Engineering.
Research shows ramping up carbon capture could be key to mitigating climate change
As the world gathers in Madrid to discuss how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to fight climate change, a newly released study makes the case that trapping emissions underground could go a long way toward solving the problem.
Tackling air pollution: researchers present emissions inventory for Nepal
Data on emission amounts and sources have an important role to play in shaping policy on climate protection and air quality.
How playing the drums changes the brain
People who play drums regularly for years differ from unmusical people in their brain structure and function.
Biomarker may aid in determining treatment for cancer patients
A blood test revealed the presence of a biomarker that may offer insights into the survival rates of glioblastoma patients.
New software tool uses AI to help doctors identify cancer cells
UT Southwestern researchers have developed a software tool that uses artificial intelligence to recognize cancer cells from digital pathology images -- giving clinicians a powerful way of predicting patient outcomes.
UConn study: Wing genes responsible for tiny treehopper's extraordinary helmet
Why the treehopper developed the enlarged, three-dimensional hood ornament that distinguishes it from the rest of the insect world remains a mystery to scientists, though it's theorized that mimicry or camouflage designed to protect it from predators is a likely reason.
NASA examines Tropical Cyclone Belna's water vapor concentration
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Southern Indian Ocean, water vapor data provided information about the intensity of Tropical Cyclone Belna.
Detours may make batteries better
Adding atom-scale defects to battery materials may help them charge faster, theoretical models by Rice University scientists show.
Study reveals increased cannabis use in individuals with depression
New findings published in Addiction reveal the prevalence of cannabis, or marijuana, use in the United States increased from 2005 to 2017 among persons with and without depression and was approximately twice as common among those with depression in 2017.
Strategies to lower risk for violent crime and gun violence
Researchers at the annual meeting of The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) present a series of studies during its Study of Violent Crime and Gun Violence symposium which contributes several new frameworks that can be used toward improving laws, civilian strategies, legislation and police response, as well as the overall study of risk in society.
Increasing food intake by swapping mitochondrial genomes
To uncover the relationship between variation in genes and phenotypic diversity, geneticists use a set of fully sequenced fruit-fly genomes.
UCLA study shows inhibition of gene helps overcome resistance to immunotherapy
A new study helps explain why some people with advanced cancer may not respond to one of the leading immunotherapies, PD-1 blockade, and how a new combination approach may help overcome resistance to the immunotherapy drug.
Common genetic link between autism and Tourette's impairs brain communication
Scientists have discovered how a genetic alteration that increases the risk of developing Autism and Tourette's impacts on the brain.
Killer whale grandmothers boost survival of calves
The study found that grandmothers who were no longer able to reproduce had the biggest beneficial impact on the survival chances of their grand-offspring.
Consider soil in fall-applied ammonia rates, Illinois study says
Fall-applied anhydrous ammonia may not fulfill as much of corn's nitrogen needs as previously assumed.
Treatment with PD-1 prior to stem cell transplant is safe for Hodgkin lymphoma patients
A new analysis shows that a donor stem cell transplant following treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor is generally safe and produces good outcomes for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.
Electronics integrated to the muscle via 'Kirigami'
A research team in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering and the Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS) at Toyohashi University of Technology has developed a donut-shaped kirigami device for electromyography (EMG) recordings.
Rhythmic perception in humans has strong evolutionary roots
So suggests a study that compares the behaviour of rodents and humans with respect to the detection rhythm, published in Journal of Comparative Psychology by Alexandre Celma-Miralles and Juan Manuel Toro, researchers at the Center for Brain and Cognition.
Four-hundred-eighty-million-year-old fossils reveal sea lilies' ancient roots
Sea lilies, despite their name, aren't plants -- they're ancient animals related to starfish, and they've been around since before the dinosaurs.
Eating more ketones may fight against Alzheimer's disease
A ketone-supplemented diet may protect neurons from death during the progression of Alzheimer's disease, according to research in mice recently published in JNeurosci.
Aspirin may no longer be effective as cardiovascular treatment
A new paper in Family Practice, published by Oxford University Press, found that the widespread use of statins and cancer screening technology may have altered the benefits of aspirin use.
Finding support outside the clinic -- the intersection of instagram and miscarriage
An interdisciplinary team of researchers explore how women use the platform to talk openly about the emotional distress of a miscarriage and how social media can inform patient care.
Palbociclib is safe for women with advanced breast cancer who have unique gene alteration
When FDA approved palbociclib (Ibrance ®), there was very little data about the safety of this drug in people with benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN), which is common in women of color.
How Enceladus got its stripes
Saturn's icy moon Enceladus is of great interest to scientists due to its subsurface ocean, making it a prime target for those searching for life elsewhere.
Asian water towers are world's most important and most threatened
Scientists from around the world have assessed the planet's 78 mountain glacier-based water systems.
Reorganizing a computer chip: Transistors can now both process and store information
Researchers have created a more feasible way to combine transistors and memory on a chip, potentially bringing faster computing.
The Antarctic: study from Kiel provides data about the structure of the icy continent
Satellite data from the European Space Agency (ESA) has now been used as the basis for new insights on the deep structure of the continent Antarctica.
Urban growth causes more biodiversity loss outside of cities
In a rapidly urbanizing world, the conversion of natural habitats into urban areas leads to a significant loss of biodiversity in cities.
Cities and their rising impacts on biodiversity -- a global overview
The rapid expansion of cities around the world is having an enormous impact on biodiversity.
Lighting up cardiovascular problems using nanoparticles
A new nanoparticle innovation that detects unstable calcifications that can trigger heart attacks and strokes may allow doctors to pinpoint when plaque on the walls of blood vessels becomes dangerous.
Finding the smallest genes could yield outsized benefits
A new study from the Salk Institute identified over 2,000 new, small genes--expanding the number of human genes by 10 percent.
Regional trends in overdose deaths reveal multiple opioid epidemics, according to new study
A recently published study shows the United States in the grip of several simultaneously occurring opioid epidemics, rather than just a single crisis.
Speedy and precise multicolor imaging of biomolecules now possible
For the first time, researchers can track biological molecules with unprecedented speed and precision thanks to the use of multi-metallic nanoparticles.
How a penalty shootout is decided in the brain
Decision-making is controlled by different nerve cells.
Secret behind diabetes drug's benefits revealed
Researchers went into this study with the idea that metformin might communicate with other tissues in the body by causing the secretion of a protein from the liver.
MMR vaccine-eligible children traveling abroad fail to get vaccinated
Nearly 60 percent of eligible young travelers did not receive MMR vaccine during pretravel consultation.
Creating switchable plasmons in plastics
Researchers in the Organic Photonics and Nano-optics goup at the Laboratory of Organic Electronics have developed optical nanoantennas made from a conducting polymer.
Rice, Amazon report breakthrough in 'distributed deep learning'
Computer scientists from Rice University and Amazon, using a divide-and-conquer approach that leverages the power of compressed sensing, have shown they can train the equivalent of a 100 billion-parameter distributed deep learning network on a single machine in less than 35 hours for product search and similar extreme classification problems.
Microcapsules for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells
A team of scientists from Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University together with their colleagues developed a method of targeted drug delivery to cancer cells.
USC scientists show evolutionary principle in microbes of offshore Southern California
USC marine scientists show Red Queen evolutionary principle at work offshore Southern California.
Major political events linked to mood decline among young US doctors
Major political events, such as the 2016 presidential election and inauguration, were associated with declines in mood among young US physicians, finds a study in the Christmas issue of The BMJ.
Researchers find some forests crucial for climate change mitigation, biodiversity
Researchers have identified forests in the western United States that should be preserved for their potential to mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration, as well as to enhance biodiversity.
Nanowire detects Abrikosov vortices
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated the possibility of detecting Abrikosov vortices penetrating through a superconductor-ferromagnet interface.
New function for plant enzyme could lead to green chemistry
Scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have discovered a new function in a plant enzyme that could inspire the design of new chemical catalysts.
Bridge protection in catastrophic earthquakes
Bridges are the most vulnerable parts of a transport network when earthquakes occur, obstructing emergency response, search and rescue missions and aid delivery, increasing potential fatalities.
Lactobacillus balances gut microbiome and improves chronic-alcohol-induced liver injury
Researchers demonstrated that Lactobacillus rhamnosus can dose-dependently reestablish a balanced intestinal microbiome and counter the liver-damaging effects of alcohol consumption in mice to reverse the results of chronic alcohol-induced liver injury.
Proton-hydrogen collision model could impact fusion research
A new study published in EPJ D uses new techniques to calculate the cross sections of atoms which have been excited to higher energy levels.
Predicting a protein's behavior from its appearance
Researchers at EPFL have developed a new way to predict a protein's interactions with other proteins and biomolecules, and its biochemical activity, merely by observing its surface.
Researchers identify 'Achilles' heel' of drug-resistant superbug
Researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have identified a protein that allows vancomycin-resistant enterococci, a deadly superbug, to defy antibiotic treatment and immune system attacks.
Volcano F is the origin of the floating stones
Since August a large accumulation of pumice has been drifting in the Southwest Pacific towards Australia.
How planets may form after dust sticks together
Scientists may have figured out how dust particles can stick together to form planets, according to a Rutgers co-authored study that may also help to improve industrial processes.
Calculating genetic links between diseases, without the genetic data
In a new study, data scientists from the University of Chicago estimated heritability and mapped out relationships among thousands of diseases using data from electronic health records.
City research draws on Formula 1 technology for the construction of skyscrapers
Researchers City, University of London are developing new vibration-control devices based on Formula 1 technology so ''needle-like'' high-rise skyscrapers which still withstand high winds can be built.
Last remaining glaciers in the Pacific will soon melt away
The last remaining tropical glaciers between the Himalayas and the Andes will disappear in the next decade -- and possibly sooner -- due to climate change, a new study has found.
New bone healing mechanism has potential therapeutic applications
A new mechanism that contributes to adult bone maintenance and repair opens the possibility of developing therapeutic strategies for improving bone healing.
Dead probiotic strain shown to reduce harmful, aging-related inflammation
Scientists at Wake Forest School of Medicine have identified a dead probiotic that reduces age-related leaky gut in older mice.
Acoustic focusing to amass microplastics in water
Microplastics suspended in water can be gathered using acoustic forces in microchannels.
CRISPR-resistant viruses build 'safe rooms' to shield genomes from DNA-dicing enzymes
Scientists at UC San Francisco and UC San Diego have discovered a remarkable new strategy that some phages employ to avoid becoming the next casualty of these DNA-dicing enzymes: after they infect bacteria, these phages construct an impenetrable ''safe room'' inside of their host, which protects vulnerable phage DNA from antiviral enzymes.
Air pollution may increase mortality risk after heart transplant
Heart transplant recipients who live in areas where particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution levels reached above national limits for clean air had a 26% higher risk of mortality due to infection, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Separating drugs with MagLev
The composition of suspicious powders that may contain illicit drugs can be analyzed using a quick and simple method called magneto-Archimedes levitation (MagLev), according to a new study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
Scientists accidentally discover a new water mold threatening Christmas trees
Scientists in Connecticut were conducting experiments testing various methods to grow healthier Fraser trees when they accidentally discovered a new species of Phytophthora.
Potential therapy discovered for deadly breast cancer that has few treatment options
Mount Sinai researchers have designed an innovative experimental therapy that may be able to stop the growth of triple-negative breast cancer, the deadliest type of breast cancer, which has few effective treatment options, according to a study published in Nature Chemical Biology in December.
Dana-Farber scientists present promising findings in multiple myeloma at ASH Annual Meeting
Results of studies on a novel agent to treat multiple myeloma and a combination therapy aimed at slowing the progression of a precursor myeloma condition are among reports being presented by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators at the ASH Annual Meeting.
Demonstration of high-speed SOT-MRAM memory cell compatible with 300mm Si CMOS technology
Researchers have announced the demonstration of high-speed spin-orbit-torque magnetoresistive random access memory cell compatible with 300 mm Si CMOS technology.
Three-day intensive crisis intervention is associated with reduced suicidality in adolescents
In what appears to be the first study of its kind and recently published in the journal Child and Adolescent Mental Health, clinicians and researchers at Nationwide Children's have shown that ICI is a promising alternative to lengthy hospitalization.
Sport-related concussions
Concussions are a regular occurrence in sport but more so in contact sports such as American football, ice hockey or soccer.
Climate change and the threat to global breadbaskets
Extreme climatic conditions could lead to an increased risk of unusually low agricultural harvests if more than one global breadbasket is affected by adverse climate conditions at the same time.
Explaining the tiger stripes of enceladus
Slashed across the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus are four straight, parallel fissures or 'tiger stripes' from which water erupts.
Pharmacy assessment of penicillin allergies finds safe, less-expensive options
A pharmacy-driven assessment found more than half of patients with reported penicillin allergies were able to take antibiotics from the same drug class rather than resorting to substitutes that may be more costly, have more side effects and have other downsides.
Genomic cut and paste using a Class 1 CRISPR system
Repairing faulty genes to prevent and cure disease is something researchers have been working towards for many years.
Large atmospheric waves in the jet stream present risk to global food production
Researchers at Oxford University, together with and international colleagues, have discovered jet stream patterns that could affect up to a quarter of global food production.
Community characteristics shape climate change discussions after extreme weather
Political affiliations, the presence of local environmental organizations and prior local media coverage of climate change play a role in how a community reacts to an extreme weather event,
Researchers identify top ways to stop projected 142% rise in Latino cancer
This open-source book shares results of first conference with the same name.
Medicaid expansion doubled access to primary care, increased attention to health risks
When Michigan expanded its Medicaid program to cover more low-income residents, its leaders built in special features to encourage enrollees to understand their health risks, and incentivize them to prevent future health problems, or find them early.
RNA modification -- Methylation and mopping up
Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers have discovered a novel type of chemical modification in bacterial RNAs.
Inflammatory marker linked to dementia
Higher levels of an inflammatory marker, sCD14, were associated with brain atrophy, cognitive decline and dementia in two large heart studies.
Has physics ever been deterministic?
Researchers from the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna and the University of Geneva, have proposed a new interpretation of classical physics without real numbers.
Otago researchers discover new viral strategy to escape detection
University of Otago researchers have discovered how viruses that specifically kill bacteria can outwit bacteria by hiding from their defences, findings which are important for the development of new antimicrobials based on viruses and provide a significant advance in biological knowledge.
Spying on hippos with drones to help conservation efforts
A new UNSW study has shown that using a drone to film hippos in Africa is an effective, affordable tool for conservationists to monitor the threatened species' population from a safe distance, particularly in remote and aquatic areas.
Ice in motion: Satellites capture decades of change
New time-lapse videos of Earth's glaciers and ice sheets as seen from space -- some spanning nearly 50 years -- are providing scientists with new insights into how the planet's frozen regions are changing.
In a split second, clothes make the man more competent in the eyes of others
People make split-second judgements about a person's competency based on their own perceptions of the person's clothing, according to a study led by Princeton University researchers.
A sustainable new material for carbon dioxide capture
In a joint research study from Sweden, scientists from Chalmers University of Technology and Stockholm University have developed a new material for capturing carbon dioxide.
Researchers discover the origin and evolution of a famous concept of the brain
Eye-opening research by neurosurgeons from Barrow Neurological Institute and Montreal Neurological Institute has produced the foremost investigation of the origin and evolution of perhaps the most famous concept devised in neurobiology--the homunculus of neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield.
You create your own false information, study finds
Along with partisan news outlets and political blogs, there's another surprising source of misinformation on controversial topics -- it's you.
Brain function abnormal in children with Type 1 diabetes, Stanford-led study finds
Children with Type 1 diabetes show subtle but important differences in brain function compared with those who don't have the disease, a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine has shown.

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