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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 13, 2019


Historical look at US army suicides
Nearly 200 years of military records from 1819 to 2017 were used to examine suicide rates among active-duty personnel in the US Army in this observational study.
Entrectinib effective, well-tolerated against ROS1 and NTRK lung cancers, especially with brain metastases
Pooled analysis of three phase 1 and 2 clinical trials show that the drug entrectinib is effective and well-tolerated against advanced ROS1 and NTRK fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).
A self-cleaning surface that repels even the deadliest superbugs
A team of researchers at McMaster University has developed a self-cleaning surface that can repel all forms of bacteria, preventing the transfer of antibiotic-resistant superbugs and other dangerous bacteria in settings ranging from hospitals to kitchens.
Salmonella the most common cause of foodborne outbreaks in the European Union
Nearly one in three foodborne outbreaks in the EU in 2018 were caused by Salmonella.
High-tech method for uniquely targeted gene therapy developed
Neuroscientists at Lund University in Sweden have developed a new technology that engineers the shell of a virus to deliver gene therapy to the exact cell type in the body that needs to be treated.
Barrels of ancient Antarctic air aim to track history of rare gas
An Antarctic field campaign last winter led by the US and Australia has successfully extracted some of the largest samples of air dating from the 1870s until today.
Salmon lose diversity in managed rivers, reducing resilience to environmental change
The manipulation of rivers in California is jeopardizing the resilience of native Chinook salmon.
Freestanding microwire-array enables flexible solar window
Transparent solar cells (TSC) are emerging device that combines the benefits of visible transparency and electricity generation.
Researchers create synthetic nanopores made from DNA
A scientific collaboration led by researchers at iNANO/Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Aarhus University and the Department of Chemistry at the University of Copenhagen has resulted in the construction of a synthetic DNA nanopore capable of selectively translocating protein-size macromolecules across lipid bilayers.
Patient-reported outcomes predict aromatase inhibitor adherence
If you want to predict which breast cancer patients will most likely stop taking aromatase inhibitors, check out their own responses to the health questions patients commonly answer in cancer clinical trials, according to research findings to be presented Friday, Dec.
Problem drinkers have higher 'benzo' use, UCSF-Kaiser Permanente study shows
Problem drinkers are more likely than teetotalers and moderate drinkers to take benzodiazepines, a class of sedatives that are among the most commonly prescribed drugs -- and the most abused.
Colliding molecules and antiparticles
A study by Marcos Barp and Felipe Arretche from Brazil published in EPJ D shows a model of the interaction between positrons and simple molecules that is in good agreement with experimental results.
Taking shape: Scientists propose new structure for shell of HIV-1 virus
The matrix shell of the HIV-1 virus may have a different shape than previously thought, and a newly proposed model has significant implications for understanding how the virus functions, according to a new study by University of Alberta scientists.
Rectal microbes influence effectiveness of HIV vaccine
Microbes living in the rectum could make a difference to the effectiveness of experimental HIV vaccines, according to researchers at UC Davis.
Neural network for elderly care could save millions
A deep neural network model helps predict healthcare visits by elderly people, with the potential to save millions
IU School of Medicine team learns how to predict triple negative breast cancer recurrence
Indiana University School of Medicine researchers have discovered how to predict whether triple negative breast cancer will recur, and which women are likely to remain disease-free.
Does evidence support BRCA1/2 & other genetic testing for patients with breast cancer?
Should germline genetic testing be offered to all patients with breast cancer?
Emergency department study reveals patterns of patients at increased risk for suicide
A new NIMH-funded study has found that people who presented to California emergency departments with deliberate self-harm had a suicide rate in the year after their visit 56.8 times higher than demographically similar Californians.
Tracking titin in real time
Using new high-resolution imaging techniques, MDC researchers and colleagues have tracked titin, the body's largest protein, in real time throughout its entire lifecycle.
Paving the way to healing complex trauma
A major study led by researchers at La Trobe University in Australia has identified key themes that will be used to inform strategies to support Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parents in the first years of their children's lives.
Breast-conserving treatment without surgery not supported at this time
Results from NRG Oncology's BR005 study show that breast-conserving treatment without surgery cannot be recommended, based on the study criteria of clinical complete response, radiological complete response (rCR)/near rCR, and negative tumor bed biopsies.
Invest in private companies: They display more reliable accounts than public ones'
Institutional investors tend to put their money largely in public companies, persuaded that market discipline makes their accounts more reliable than private ones' and most financial literature confirms their beliefs.
You did what with my donation? When donors feel betrayed by charities
When people learn that a charitable contribution they earmarked for a specific project was used for another cause, they feel betrayed -- and often punish the charity, new research from Washington State University indicates.
Dartmouth study finds conscious visual perception occurs outside the visual system
A Dartmouth study finds that the conscious perception of visual location occurs in the frontal lobes of the brain, rather than in the visual system in the back of the brain.
Residual cancer burden after neoadjuvant therapy can accurately predict breast cancer survival
Researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center today reported results from a pooled analysis of more than 5,100 breast cancer patients that found residual cancer burden (RCB) continuous index and classification were independently and strongly prognostic for all breast cancer phenotypes.
Success in metabolically engineering marine algae to synthesize valuable antioxidant astaxanthin
A research group led by Professor HASUNUMA Tomohisa of Kobe University's Engineering Biology Research Center have succeeded in synthesizing the natural pigment astaxanthin using the fast-growing marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp.
Finding a killer electron hot spot in Earth's Van Allen radiation belts
JAXA and NASA satellite observations show where killer electrons are generated in the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth.
NTM infections on the rise nationally; women and elderly most affected
The number of people newly infected each year and the number of people living with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease appears to be increasing, especially among women and those 65 and older, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
New study enhances knowledge about widespread diseases
When proteins in the brain form deposits consisting of insoluble aggregates, diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's can occur.
Breast cancer patients with government insurance at higher risk of death
A retrospective study of 9800 women with breast cancer who participated in randomized clinical trials found that Medicaid/Medicare patients were less likely to participate in a clinical trial compared to their privately insured counterparts.
Finding a non-invasive way to predict effectiveness of cancer therapy
Researchers have taken a critical step toward developing a non-invasive nuclear medicine technique that can predict the effectiveness of therapy for cancerous tumors, allowing for personalized, precision treatment.
Research calls for new measures to treat mental illness and opioid use
Opioid use among psychiatric hospital patients needs to be addressed through an integrated approach to managing mental illness, pain and substance use, a study by researchers at the University of Waterloo has found.
Mayo Clinic researchers present findings at the 2019 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium
Mayo Clinic researchers will present findings at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium Dec.
Simultaneous emission of orthogonal handedness in circular polarization
Both right- and left-handed circularly polarized light were simultaneously generated from a single device, paving the way for novel applications in biosensors and organic LEDs.
Study probing visual memory, amblyopia unveils many-layered mystery
Scientists pinpionted the role of a receptor in the plasticity underlying the degradation of vision in the common childhood condition amblyopia, but expected that receptor would play a bigger role in layer 4 of the visual cortex.
City College leads new photonics breakthrough
A new approach to trapping light in artificial photonic materials by a City College of New York-led team could lead to a tremendous boost in the transfer speed of data online.
Bone bandage soaks up pro-healing biochemical to accelerate repair
Researchers at Duke University have engineered a patch or bandage that captures a pro-healing molecule called adenosine that briefly surges at the site of a bone break or fracture to accelerate and improve the natural healing process.
Better studying superconductivity in single-layer graphene
A new study published in EPJ B demonstrates that an existing technique is better suited for probing superconductivity in pure, single-layer graphene than previously thought.
New assay assesses multiple cellular pathways at once
A novel technological approach developed by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine expands from 2 to 6 the number of molecular pathways that can be studied simultaneously in a cell sample with the dual luciferase assay, a type of testing method commonly used across biomedical fields.
Knowledge-sharing: a how-to guide
How is knowledge exchanged and shared when interdisciplinary research teams work together?
Perinatal exposure to flame retardant alters epigenome, predisposing metabolic disease
A UMass Amherst study showed that environmentally relevant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), a brominated flame retardant, through the umbilical cord and breast milk permanently changed liver metabolism in rats.
A test of a customized implant for hip replacement
A team of scientists from the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Center of the National Technology Initiative (NTI) of Peter the Great St.
Rare find: human teeth used as jewellery in Turkey 8,500 years ago
At a prehistoric archaeological site in Turkey, researchers have discovered two 8,500-year-old human teeth, which had been used as pendants in a necklace or bracelet.
Moongoose females compete over reproduction
A new study on wild banded mongooses reveals that females may use spontaneous abortion to cope with reproductive competition, and to save their energy for future breeding attempts in better conditions.
The wild relatives of major vegetables, needed for climate resilience, are in danger
The genes that make crop wild relatives robust have the potential to make their cultivated cousins -- our food plants -- better prepared for a harsh climate future.
Growing carbon nanotubes with the right twist
Researchers synthetize nanotubes with a specific structure expanding previous theories on carbon nanotube growth.
Unearthing the mystery of the meaning of Easter Island's Moai
Based on a 5-year excavation of two Moai found within the Easter Island quarry called Rano Raraku, the Easter Island Statue Project released the first definitive study to reveal the quarry as a complex landscape and link soil fertility, agriculture, quarrying and the sacred nature of the Moai.
Study shows novel protein plays role in bacterial vaginosis
Women with bacterial vaginosis exhibit elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory protein, IL-36y, according to a new collaborative study led by the University of Arizona College of Medicine -- Phoenix.
Saliva test shows promise for earlier and easier detection of mouth and throat cancer
Unfortunately, cancers that occur in the back of the mouth and upper throat are often not diagnosed until they become advanced.
Rapid tissue donation program offers feasible approach to improve research
In an article published in Cancer Medicine, Moffitt Cancer Center scientists describe a community-based program called the Rapid Tissue Donation (RTD) protocol.
Researchers reconstruct spoken words as processed in nonhuman primate brains
Using a brain-computer interface, a team of researchers has reconstructed English words from the brain activity of rhesus macaques that listened as the words were spoken.
Multi-omics approach offers new insights into peanut allergy severity
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified novel genes associated with the severity of peanut allergy, as well as ways in which these genes interact with other genes during allergic reactions.
Standard pathology tests outperform molecular subtyping in bladder cancer
While trying to develop a comparatively easy, inexpensive way to give physicians and their patients with bladder cancer a better idea of likely outcome and best treatment options, scientists found that sophisticated new subtyping techniques designed to do this provide no better information than long-standing pathology tests.
Leaving home is beneficial for male squirrels but not for females, study shows
In the world of squirrels, moving away from your home turf has better outcomes for males than for females, according to a new study by University of Alberta ecologists.
How a protein in your brain could protect against Alzheimer's disease
Research shows that white blood cells in the human brain are regulated by a protein called CD33--a finding with important implications in the fight against Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study by University of Alberta chemists.
Meaningful change in culture urged to save neurology, reduce gender gap
UC Davis School of Medicine dean, NINDS deputy director lead national charge to improve conditions for women in neurology.
Waiting area entertainment and co-opetition between brick-and-mortar stores boosts profit
With the popularity of online shopping, it's no secret brick-and-mortar stores are fighting to stay relevant.
Mitochondria are the 'canary in the coal mine' for cellular stress
Mitochondria, tiny structures present in most cells, are known for their energy-generating machinery.
New methods could help researchers watch neurons compute
A pair of advances in brain imaging technology will help neuroscientists track electrical activity in neurons with a new level of clarity.
Following the lizard lung labyrinth
Birds and mammals are on extreme ends of the airflow spectrum.
Excessive antibiotic prescriptions for children in low-, middle-income countries
Between 2007 and 2017, children in eight low- and middle-income countries received, on average, 25 antibiotic prescriptions from birth through age 5 -- up to five times higher than the already high levels observed in high-income settings.
Nanoscience breakthrough: Probing particles smaller than a billionth of a meter
Scientists at Tokyo Tech developed a new methodology that allows researchers to assess the chemical composition and structure of metallic particles with a diameter of only 0.5 to 2 nm.
Why are giant pandas born so tiny?
Born pink, blind, and helpless, giant pandas typically weigh about 100 grams at birth -- the equivalent of a stick of butter.
High-calorie food is more tempting when time is ticking down
When people see the valuable resource of time counting down, they are more tempted to compensate by consuming a different resource: calories.

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