Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 18, 2019
Parkinson's symptoms improve with weekly regimens of both physical and cognitive exercises
Parkinson's patients' motor and non-motor symptoms were improved with a weekly exercise regimen that included physical and cognitive tasks, according to new research presented today (December 18, 2019) at The Physiological Society early career conference, Future Physiology 2019: Translating Cellular Mechanisms into Lifelong Health Strategies.

Two-year ellipsys data featured at annual Controversies in Dialysis Access (CiDA) Meeting
A landmark two-year follow-up study on the Ellipsys® Vascular Access System was highlighted at the annual Controversies in Dialysis Access (CiDA) meeting, one of the premier dialysis access medical conferences in the world.

A self-healing sweat sensor (video)
Wearable sensors that track heart rate or steps are popular fitness products.

Cancer therapy may be aided by induced macropinocytosis, a rare form of cell death
In laboratory experiments, a metabolic inhibitor was able to kill a variety of human cancer cells of the skin, breast, lung, cervix and soft tissues through a non-apoptotic route -- catastrophic macropinocytosis.

When cells cycle fast, cancer gets a jumpstart
Yale researchers have now identified another bit of cellular chicanery that jumpstarts cancer.

State of the climate over the Three Gorges Region of the Yangtze River in 2018
The publication of the annual climate report in 2018 will help people better understand the climate conditions in the region around the Three Gorges over the Yangtze River.

Different approaches to 'zero-sum' thinking, contribute to political divide
Voters tend to believe that one political party's gain can only be obtained at another party's expense, according to a new study.

Solving the puzzle of IgG4-related disease, the elusive autoimmune disorder
IgG4-related disease is an autoimmune disorder affecting millions and has no established cure.

Thawing permafrost affecting northern Alaska's land-to-ocean river flows
A new analysis of the changing character of runoff, river discharge and other hydrological cycle elements across the North Slope of Alaska reveals significant increases in the proportion of subsurface runoff and cold season discharge, changes the authors say are 'consistent with warming and thawing permafrost.' First author and lead climate modeler Michael Rawlins at UMass Amherst says warming is expected to shift the Arctic from a surface water-dominated system to a groundwater-dominated system, with deeper water flow paths through newly thawed soils.

SMU develops efficient methods to simulate how electromagnetic waves interact with devices
It takes a tremendous amount of computer simulations to create a device like an MRI scanner that can image your brain by detecting electromagnetic waves propagating through tissue.

Quantum dot technology invisibly records vaccination history on skin
A research team has created a microneedle platform using fluorescent quantum dots that can deliver vaccines and invisibly encode vaccination history in the skin.

Pregnant women with HIV often not given recommended treatment
Women living with HIV who are also pregnant don't always receive recommended antiretroviral medications, according to a recent study.

OU study uses genetics and menthol to examine how the skin senses irritation
A new University of Oklahoma study could have implications on our understanding of how certain sensory signals are transmitted through the body.

Breakthrough science provides hope for disease that affects 1.5 million people in US
Today the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) publishes research led by Monash University that offers the first real hope for the treatment of lupus, a disease which affects 1.5 million people in the US and more than 5 million globally, 90% women and for which there is no cure.

NASA's GISMO instrument maps inner Milky Way, sees cosmic 'candy cane'
A feature resembling a candy cane highlights this colorful composite image of our Milky Way galaxy's central zone.

Were greener areas around schools associated with lower likelihood of ADHD symptoms?
Attending schools in greener areas appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of having symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in this observational study of children in China.

Study reveals molecular features of anxiety in the brain
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital have taken a new approach to the search, developing a rational, computationally inspired method for the preclinical study of anxiety.

Study suggests early-life exposure to dogs may lessen risk of developing schizophrenia
Ever since humans domesticated the dog, the faithful, obedient and protective animal has provided its owner with companionship and emotional well-being.

Tracking thermodynamicfundamentals
Since the end of the 19th century, physicists know that the transfer of energy from one body to another is associated with entropy.

In global south, urban sanitation crisis harms health, economy
Researchers spent a year examining 15 cities in the global south, and found that 62% of sewage and fecal sludge is unsafely managed.

First images of an 'upgraded' CRISPR tool
Columbia scientists have captured the first images of a new gene editing tool that could improve upon existing CRISPR-based tools.

Preparing for extreme sea levels depends on location, time, UCF study finds
Using historical data from tide gauges that line US coasts, University of Central Florida researchers created an extreme sea level indicator that identifies how much of a role different major weather and ocean forces have played in affecting extreme sea levels in coastal areas around the country.

Heart transplants from donors positive for hepatitis C
Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn., report in this case series on 80 patients who had heart transplants using hearts from donors positive for hepatitis C.

Booze on the brain
Santa Clara University Assistant Professor Lindsay Halladay, PhD, and colleagues at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism have identified a specific circuit in the brain that could be targeted to treat compulsive drinking.

High lipoprotein(a) levels in type 1 diabetes linked to cardiovascular disease
High blood levels of the lipid lipoprotein(a) in people with type 1 diabetes add to the already elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease, researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report in a paper published in the prestigious journal Diabetes Care.

Association of household with risk of first psychiatric hospitalization in Finland
National registry data for 6.2 million people in Finland from 1996 to 2014 were used to examine how household income was associated with risk for a first admission to a psychiatric hospital for treatment of a mental disorder.

Tel Aviv University study finds widespread misinterpretation of gene expression data
New research by a Tel Aviv University group identifies a frequent technical bias in data generated by RNA-seq technology, one of the most widely used methods in molecular biology, which often leads to false results.

New method captures real-time movement of millions of molecules in 3D
Despite massive strides in understanding HIV, there are still important gaps.

Pregnancy hypertension risk increased by traffic-related air pollution
A new report from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) suggests that traffic-related air pollution increases a pregnant woman's risk for dangerous increases in blood pressure, known as hypertension.

Fossils of the future to mostly consist of humans, domestic animals
In a co-authored paper published online in the journal Anthropocene, University of Illinois at Chicago paleontologist Roy Plotnick argues that the fossil record of mammals will provide a clear signal of the Anthropocene era.

APS tip sheet: Modeling supermarket traffic jams
Modeling supermarket layouts could help reduce aisle congestion.

Researchers discover how ant species uses abdomen for extra power during jumps
Researchers in the department of entomology at the University of Illinois have shown how a species of ant uses its abdomen to add speed to its jump, in a recent study published in Integrative Organismal Biology.

Air travel reduces local investment bias, benefits investors and firms, study shows
Easy access to air travel has not only flattened the world, it also has flattened the bias toward investing locally, according to new research from the University of Notre Dame.

Scientists discover a new mechanism in childhood kidney cancer
A problem in reader proteins that identify which gene is up for expression may cause normal cells to turn malignant during development.

Researchers apply temperature gradients to grow and move liquid crystals
In a new study, Texas A&M University researchers have discovered that applying a small difference in temperature to a watered-down mixture of a compound called zirconium phosphate initiates its liquid crystallization.

Improved 3D nanoprinting technique to build nanoskyscrapers
IBS scientists have improved the 3D nanoprinting process that enables to build precise, self-stacked, tall-and-narrow nanostructures.

Study shows risks for additional procedures after bariatric surgery
Which of the two most common bariatric surgeries -- gastric sleeve or gastric bypass -- has the highest subsequent risk of additional operations or procedures?

Walking and cycling to work linked with fewer heart attacks
Walking and cycling to work were associated with fewer heart attacks across 43 million adults in England, according to a new national study.

Stevia remains the most discussed low/zero-calorie sweetener
The International Stevia Council recently unveiled data from its 2019 Online Conversation & Trends Analysis to identify and better understand the attitudes and perceptions around the sweetener stevia in English- and Spanish-speaking countries.

Global urban growth typified by suburbs, not skyscrapers
A Yale analysis of 478 cities with populations of more than 1 million people finds that urban growth across the world is predominantly moving outward rather than upward, a trend that is generally considered inefficient and unsustainable.

Reflecting on the year in chemistry
A lot can happen in a year, especially when it comes to science.

Immune to influence
A University of Konstanz study examining vaccine-related attitudes reveals that our beliefs are so resilient that we effectively immunize ourselves to the opinions of others.

Interfacial chemistry improves rechargeability of Zn batteries
Prof. CUI Guanglei's group from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has proposed new concepts concerning in situ formed and artificial SEIs as a means of fundamentally modulating the electrochemical characteristics of Zn.

Investment in medical and health R&D not keeping up with needs of nation
Total US investment in medical and health research and development (R&D) grew by 6.4% from 2017 to 2018, reaching $194.2 billion.

Ice sheet melting: Estimates still uncertain, experts warn
Estimates used by climate scientists to predict the rate at which the world's ice sheets will melt are still uncertain despite advancements in technology, new research shows.

Paper-based test could diagnose Lyme disease at early stages
After a day hiking in the forest, the last thing a person wants to discover is a tick burrowing into their skin.

New coating hides temperature change from infrared cameras
An ultrathin coating developed by University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers upends a ubiquitous physics phenomenon of materials related to thermal radiation: The hotter an object gets, the brighter it glows.

Successful satellite launch for Graz University of Technology, Austria
The European Space Agency's OPS-SAT CubeSat, the world's first flying laboratory, will test new technologies for operational space applications.

Different mutations in a single gene can wreak many types of havoc in brain cells
Mount Sinai researchers have found that different mutations in a single gene can have myriad effects on a person's health, suggesting that gene therapies may need to do more than just replenish the missing or dysfunctional protein the gene is supposed to encode, according to a study published in Nature Genetics in November 2019.

The 'cores' of massive galaxies had already formed 1.5 billion years after the big bang
A distant galaxy more massive than our Milky Way -- with more than a trillion stars - has revealed that the 'cores' of massive galaxies in the Universe had formed already 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, about 1 billion years earlier than previous measurements revealed.

Researchers support new strategies for HIV control
The search for a cure to AIDS has partly focused on ways to eradicate infected cells.

Children with HIV score below HIV-negative peers in cognitive, motor function tests
Children who acquired HIV in utero or during birth or breastfeeding did not perform as well as their peers who do not have HIV on tests measuring cognitive ability, motor function and attention, according to a report published online today in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Recent screening rose among people under 50 after release of new colorectal guidelines
Recent colorectal cancer screening rates more than doubled among people ages 45 to 49 in the months after the release of updated American Cancer Society guidelines recommending screening in that age group.

Forty percent of people with peanut allergies can eat tree nuts but choose not to
New study showed that nearly 90% of people with peanut allergy could potentially tolerate almonds, but 33% of that group preferred strict avoidance due to fear of an allergic reaction.

Rates of depression and substance use higher for pregnant teens, study finds
Researchers from Lawson Health Research Institute and Brescia University College in London, Ontario, Canada found that teenage pregnant women are more likely to live in poverty, have poorer mental health and have higher rates of substance use.

Zika vaccine protects fetus in pregnant monkeys
An experimental vaccine against the Zika virus reduced the amount of virus in pregnant rhesus macaques and improved fetal outcomes.

Online hate speech could be contained like a computer virus, say Cambridge researchers
Artificial intelligence is being developed that will allow advisory ''quarantining'' of hate speech in a manner akin to malware filters - offering users a way to control exposure to ''hateful content'' without resorting to censorship.

Submarine cables to offshore wind farms transformed into a seismic network
A fiber optic network in the North Sea was used to record seismicity.

Membrane inspired by bone and cartilage efficiently produces electricity from saltwater
Inspired by membranes in the body tissues of living organisms, scientists have combined aramid nanofibers used in Kevlar with boron nitride to construct a membrane for harvesting ocean energy that is both strong like bone and suited for ion transport like cartilage.

Mealworms safely consume toxic additive-containing plastic
Mealworms are not only able to eat various forms of plastic, as previous research has shown, they can consume potentially toxic plastic additives in Styrofoam with no ill effects, a new Stanford study shows.

Study finds racial/ethnic disparities in pain treatment by emergency responders
Whether or not a patient receives pain treatment when seeking emergency medical services may depend, in part, on their race or ethnicity, according to a new study by Portland State researchers.

Solar power from 'the dark side' unlocked by a new formula
Most of today's solar panels capture sunlight and convert it to electricity only from the side facing the sky.

A more intuitive online banking service would reinforce its use among the over-55s
The very nature of online banking is the cause of the reticence of the over-55s to use it as they do not feel comfortable navigating the 'digital world'.

Low back pain accounts for a third of new emergency department imaging in the US
The use of imaging for the initial evaluation of patients with low back pain in the emergency department (ED) continues to occur at a high rate -- one in three new emergency visits for low back pain in the United States -- according to the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR).

A new way to optimize sleep and light exposure can reduce jet lag and improve alertness
In a series of articles, including one published today in PLOS ONE, researchers from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute explain how they have developed and demonstrated a series of algorithms that can analyze biometric information recorded by a smart device and then recommend the best combination of sleep and light to help a person readjust their circadian rhythm.

Marijuana vaping increases among US teens 2018-2019
Marijuana vaping reported by US adolescents increased from 2018 to 2019.

Little reason for moral panicking after #MeToo
Men and women generally agree on what constitutes sexual harassment.

Scientists of Samara Polytech have developed new lubricant oils with special properties
Due to gases temperatures up to 800 - 1500 °C and high turbine shaft speed, not all metal materials can stand engines rigid conditions, say nothing about lubricants.

'Like a video game with health points,' energy budgets explain evolutionary body size
Budgeting resources isn't just a problem for humans preparing a holiday dinner, or squirrels storing up nuts for the winter.

Caribbean settlement began in Greater Antilles, say University of Oregon researchers
A fresh, comprehensive look at archaeological data suggests that seafaring South Americans settled first on the large northernmost islands of the Greater Antilles rather than gradually moving northward from the much closer, smaller islands of the Lesser Antilles.

Pattern of heavy alcohol drinking may damage heart tissue
A pattern of heavy/harmful alcohol drinking increases levels of blood biomarkers that indicate heart tissue damage.

Parental coaching adolescents through peer stress
During early adolescence, especially the transition to middle school, kids face a number of challenges both socially and academically.

Health impact of support between African American couples when dealing with racial discrimination
Experiences of racial discrimination are a common source of stress for African Americans, and research shows discrimination can have a damaging impact on physical and emotional health.

A soft robotic insect that survives being flattened by a fly swatter
Researchers at EPFL have developed an ultra-light robotic insect that uses its soft artificial muscles to move at 3 cm per second across different types of terrain.

The delicate water lily: A rose by another name?
A new study published in Nature reports the 409-megabase genome sequence of the blue-petal water lily (Nymphaea colorata).

Comparing heirloom and modern wheat effects on gut health
Amid concerns about gluten sensitivity, increasing numbers of people are avoiding wheat.

Working women healthier even after retirement age
Study shows that women who worked consistently during their prime midlife working years had better physical health than non-working women later in life.

Topological materials for information technology offer lossless transmission of signals
New experiments with magnetically doped topological insulators at BESSY II have revealed possible ways of lossless signal transmission that involve a surprising self-organisation phenomenon.

Scientists identify harmful bacteria based on its DNA at a very low cost
Currently, the detection of food poison outbreaks caused by bacteria takes a long time and is expensive, but this does not have to be the case in the future.

Chemical compound found in essential oils improves wound healing, IU study finds
Indiana University researchers have discovered that a chemical compound found in essential oils improves the healing process in mice when it is topically applied to a skin wound.

New clues on dark matter from the darkest galaxies
Low-surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies offered important confirmations and new information on one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos: dark matter.

Hebrew U researcher cracks newton's elusive '3-body' problem
Hebrew U. Researcher Cracks Newton's Elusive 'Three-Body' Problem. Chaos leads scientists to new understanding of centuries'-old quandary.

Forgetfulness might depend on time of day
Can't remember something? Try waiting until later in the day.

Submarine cables: billions of potential seismic sensors!
Scientists have for the first time shown that it is possible to detect the propagation of seismic waves on the seafloor using submarine telecommunications cables.

Genes and family are biggest predictor of academic success, study suggests
Whether children will enjoy academic success can be now predicted at birth, a new study suggests.

Close to half of US population projected to have obesity by 2030
Researchers predict a marked rise in American adults with obesity or severe obesity in ten years.

Australian desalination plant attracts fish
With growing populations and climate uncertainty, water security is a global concern.

Nanopores can identify the amino acids in proteins, the first step to sequencing
While DNA sequencing is a useful tool for determining what's going on in a cell or a person's body, it only tells part of the story.

Chemicals in vaping flavors cause widespread damage to lung tissue
New research appearing in the journal Scientific Reports unpacks the list of chemicals that comprise flavored e-liquids and pods used in vaping and details their harmful effects to lung tissue, including inflammation and genetic damage that could indicate long-term risk for respiratory disease and even cancer.

New space image reveals cosmic 'candy cane'
Deep in our Milky Way galaxy's center, a candy cane emerges as the centerpiece of a new, colorful composite image from a NASA camera, just in time for the holidays.

Even with early treatment, HIV still attacks young brains, says MSU study
The majority of children living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa.

Scientists find way to supercharge protein production
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine have found a way to increase production of proteins in bacteria up to a thousandfold, a discovery that could aid production of proteins used in the medical, food, agriculture, chemical and other industries.

Texas A&M study reveals domestic horse breed has third-lowest genetic diversity
A new study by Dr. Gus Cothran, professor emeritus at the Texas A&M School of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, has found that the Cleveland Bay horse breed has the third-lowest genetic variation level of domestic horses, ranking above only the notoriously inbred Friesian and Clydesdale breeds.

Researchers determine age for last known settlement by a direct ancestor to modern humans
An international team of researchers has determined the age of the last known settlement of the species Homo erectus, one of modern humans' direct ancestors.

Drops of liquid crystal molecules branch out into strange structures
New research published in Nature reveals that, when cooled, droplets containing chain-like liquid crystal molecules transform from spheres into complex shapes such as flowers, corals, and fibrous networks.

Perpetual predator-prey population cycles
How can predators coexist with their prey over long periods without the predators completely depleting the resource that keeps them alive?

Deprivation strongly linked to hospital admissions
People who live in areas of higher than average deprivation are more likely to be admitted to hospital and to spend longer in hospital, according to new research from the University of Cambridge.

Alzheimer's study shows promise in protecting brain from tau
A new study published in Science Translational Medicine offers more reasons why the scientific community should be targeting tau in the search for an Alzheimer's cure.

Artificial intelligence identifies previously unknown features associated with cancer recurrence
Artificial intelligence (AI) technology developed by the RIKEN Center for Advanced Intelligence Project (AIP) in Japan has successfully found features in pathology images from human cancer patients, without annotation, that could be understood by human doctors.

Vaping of marijuana on the rise among teens
Findings from the 2019 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey demonstrate the appeal of vaping to teens, as seen in the increased prevalence of marijuana use as well as nicotine vaping.

Watered down biodiversity: sample type is critical in environmental DNA studies for biomonitoring
A new study looking at macroinvertebrate diversity in shallow, open-water wetlands found that sample choice is a critical factor for a comprehensive assessment of biodiversity.

Can good sleep patterns offset genetic susceptibility to heart disease and stroke?
A pioneering new study led by Dr. Lu Qi, director of the Tulane University Obesity Research Center, found that even if people had a high genetic risk of heart disease or stroke, healthy sleep patterns could help offset that risk.

Marijuana use in e-cigarettes increases among US students 2017-2018
Marijuana use in electronic cigarettes increased among US middle and high school students from 2017 to 2018.

Concussions common among college students, more prevalent off the field than on
About one in 75 college students sustain a concussion each academic year, and the vast majority occur outside of organized sports, according to a new three-year study.

Is targeting aging the future of medicine? Researchers make the case
Human life expectancy worldwide rose dramatically over the past century, but people's health spans -- the period of life spent free from chronic, age-related disease or disability -- have not increased accordingly.

Case Western Reserve social sciences researchers develop new tool to assess exposure to childhood violence, trauma
One in five children in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, are either exposed to, or are victims of, violence and trauma, according to a new study from the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences at Case Western Reserve University.

Fluorescence spectroscopy helps to evaluate meat quality
Scientists of Sechenov University jointly with their colleagues from Australia proposed a new, quicker and cheaper way to assess meat quality.

Single-molecule detection of cancer markers brings liquid biopsy closer to clinic
A fast, inexpensive yet sensitive technique to detect cancer markers is bringing researchers closer to a 'liquid biopsy' -- a test using a small sample of blood or serum to detect cancer, rather than the invasive tissue sampling routinely used for diagnosis.

New insights into the formation of Earth's crust
New research from Mauricio Ibanez-Mejia at the University of Rochester gives scientists better insight into the geological processes responsible for the formation of Earth's crust.

Study: Human management helps rare plants, butterflies survive hurricane
Ongoing habitat management could help prevent hurricane-driven extinctions. A rare Florida plant, the pineland croton, weathered the damage from Hurricane Irma better in plots that were under human management than those left alone.

BU chemists develop new biodegradable adhesive
Boston University professor Mark Grinstaff unveiled biodegradable adhesive that is made of entirely naturally derived chemical components.

Email users should have 'more control' over post-mortem message transmission
Email users should have far more control over the transmission of their messages upon death, a new Aston Business School study suggests.

Study: Obesity could affect brain development in children
New research published in JAMA Pediatrics found that obese children had a thinner pre-frontal cortex than normal weight children.The thinner cortex could be factor in the decreased executive function earlier studies observed among children with higher BMI.

Large UK study shows teenage girls far more likely to self-harm
Teenage girls are suffering far worse mental health and wellbeing issues than boys, according to a major new study published in the peer-reviewed journal Research Papers in Education.

Are herpes virus infections linked to Alzheimer's disease?
Researchers refute the link between increased levels of herpes virus and Alzheimer's disease.

Star fruit could be the new 'star' of Florida agriculture
Cover crops may increase sustainability of carambola groves.

How common are concussions not related to sports among college undergrads?
Researchers in this observational study looked at the number of concussions(both sports-related and not related to sports) experienced by undergraduate students at a large US public university over three academic years.

Getting a good night's sleep complicated by menopause
The value of a good night's sleep can't be underestimated.

Switching cereals in India for improved nutrition, sustainability
A new study offers India a pathway to improve nutrition, climate resilience and the environment by diversifying its crop production.

CRI scientists discover metabolic feature that allows melanoma cells to spread
Researchers at Children's Medical Center Research Institute at UT Southwestern (CRI) have uncovered why certain melanoma cells are more likely to spread through the body.

Nearly 9 million injured worldwide by fire, heat, and hot substances in 2017
Heat-related incidents resulted in nearly 9 million injuries and more than 120,000 deaths worldwide in 2017, according to a new scientific study.

Depression and suicide risk linked to air pollution
People exposed to higher levels of air pollution are more likely to experience depression or die by suicide, finds a new analysis led by UCL, published in Environmental Health Perspectives.

Research provides new design principle for water-splitting catalysts
Understanding why platinum is such a good catalyst for producing hydrogen from water could lead to new and cheaper catalysts -- and could ultimately make more hydrogen available for fossil-free fuels and chemicals.

Mentoring project deepened student learning, commitment
Pairing graduate students with professionals working in their field resulted in deeper learning and inspired passion for the work, according to new research from the University of Houston.

Saccharin derivatives give cancer cells a not-so-sweet surprise
Saccharin received a bad rap after studies in the 1970s linked consumption of large amounts of the artificial sweetener to bladder cancer in laboratory rats.

If the world can capture carbon, there's capacity to store it
Humankind will need to harness carbon capture and storage technologies to help keep global warming to 2 degrees C or less.

National clinical trial provides mastectomy alternative for recurrent breast cancer
Mastectomy has historically been the standard treatment for breast cancer patients experiencing recurrence after an initial lumpectomy and whole-breast radiation.

Researchers identify possible link between cannabis use and structural changes to heart
Regular cannabis use could affect the structure and function of the heart, research led by a team at Queen Mary University of London suggests.

Storing medical information below the skin's surface
MIT researchers have developed a novel way to record a patient's vaccination history: storing the data in a pattern of quantum-dot dye, invisible to the naked eye, that is delivered under the skin at the same time as the vaccine.

Together you're less alone
Alone, as a pair or in groups - the diversity in social systems of primates is interesting because it may also provide insights into human social life. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to