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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | December 20, 2019


Advances in the characterization of high dynamic range or HDR images
A set of techniques used in image processing that allow better viewing between the lighter and darker areas of an image.
Thyroid cancer rates in US
An analysis suggests rates of thyroid cancer in the US appear to have plateaued in recent years after decades on the rise.
Longevity protein SIRT6 also protects against fatty liver and fatty liver disease
SIRT6 regulates fat metabolism by activating another protein called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha).
Brain biomarkers for detecting Alzheimer's disease are located
Intervention in the early stages of Alzheimer's Disease improves the quality of life of their patients.
Luxury consumption can fuel 'impostor syndrome' among some buyers
If you have the money, what could be wrong about purchasing a Swiss watch or an Italian sports car?
SHAPEIT4: An algorithm for large-scale genomic analysis
The examination of Haplotypes makes it possible to understand the heritability of certain complex traits.
Strong change of course for muscle research
Scientists have discovered a new subtype of muscle stem cells.
Could every country have a Green New Deal? Stanford report charts paths for 143 countries
Researchers offer an updated vision of the steps that 143 countries around the world can take to attain 100% clean, renewable energy by the year 2050.
How common is diabetes among racial/ethnic groups?
Estimating how common diabetes (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) was among US adults by racial and ethnic groups was the objective of this observational study.
A step closer to understanding evolution -- mitochondrial division conserved across species
A group of scientists at Tokyo University of Science showed for the first time that in red algae, an enzyme that is usually involved in cell division also plays a role in replication of mitochondria -- a crucial cell organelle.
High carbon footprint households identified by sweets, alcohol, not high meat consumption
Families with higher carbon footprints are likely to consume more confectionary, alcohol, and restaurant food, according to a new study by Japanese and European researchers published in One Earth.
Ecological impacts of palm stearin spill to the coastal ecosystem
In August 2017, a marine accident occurred in the Pearl River Estuary where a cargo vessel accidentally released about 1,000 tonnes of palm stearin into the sea, where over 200 tonnes reached the southwest coasts of Hong Kong.
Bark beetles control pathogenic fungi
Pathogens can drive the evolution of social behaviour in insects.
NIST study suggests universal method for measuring light power
The proposed definition promises a more precise, less expensive and more portable method for measuring this important quantity for science, technology, manufacturing, commerce and national defense.
Telomere research at Marshall published in Nature Communications
The findings show a clear genetic link between components of ribosome biogenesis pathway and telomere length, mapping a new direction for understanding and potentially treating human diseases caused by mutations in genes that control both the ribosome and telomere.
Counting photons is now routine enough to need standards
NIST has taken a step toward enabling universal standards for single-photon detectors (SPDs), which are becoming increasingly important in science and industry.
One-off genetic score can detect stroke risk from birth
Researchers have shown that genetic data obtained from a single blood draw or saliva sample can be used to identify individuals at a 3-fold increased risk of developing ischaemic stroke.
Hitting HIT: Heparin therapy
Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant, but evokes in some patients a potentially life-threatening condition called HIT.
Popular gyms undermining health with tanning beds, UConn researcher says
Popular gym chains across the country capitalize on the broad desire to get healthy in the New Year with persuasive post-holiday marketing campaigns, but they're also undermining public health warnings about the dangers of indoor tanning, according to a new study from UConn researchers published today by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Network Open.
Freestanding emergency departments may increase out-of-pocket spending for patients
A collaborative study led by researchers at the University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix and Rice University found that freestanding emergency departments can increase out-of-pocket spending, health-care utilization and price per visit.
Genetic variation gives mussels a chance to adapt to climate change
Existing genetic variation in natural populations of Mediterranean mussels allows them to adapt to declining pH levels in seawater caused by carbon emissions.
sphingotec's endothelial function biomarker bio-ADM® predicts need for organ support in general ICU patient population
Data from more than 2,000 patients enrolled in the FROG-ICU study demonstrate that high levels of bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM®) predict the need for organ support, ionotropes, and vasopressors in the general patient population at admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).
Finding familiar pathways in kidney cancer
The famous cancer gene p53, which was thought to be less relevant in kidney cancer, may play a larger role than previously appreciated, suggesting new potential for treatment.
Chronobiology: 'We'll be in later'
Students attending a high school in Germany can decide whether to begin the schoolday at the normal early time or an hour later.
Using a chip to find better cancer fighting drugs
Kyoto researchers have developed a new 'tumor-on-a-chip' device that can better mimic the environment inside the body, paving the way for improved screening of potential cancer fighting drugs.
Targeted screening could prevent one in six prostate cancer deaths
The study, published in PLOS Medicine, modelled the harms and benefits of introducing four-yearly PSA screening for all men aged 55 to 69 versus more targeted checks for those at higher risk of the disease.
The 'airbag' that protects cells against stress
CNIC scientists have identified the molecular mechanisms that allow our cells to adapt to, protect themselves against, and survive mechanical stress.
Rise in serious harm to children caused by powerful painkillers, says study
The proportion of high-strength painkiller poisonings among children which result in emergency hospital admissions has increased, according to research published in the peer-reviewed journal Clinical Toxicology.
Understanding the adolescent brain
New research from University of Alberta neuroscientists shows that the brains of adolescents struggling with mental-health issues may be wired differently from those of their healthy peers.
Space-time metasurface makes light reflect only in one direction
Breaking reciprocity is important in optical systems that require asymmetric flow of light, such as full-duplex communication systems and lasers.
Using a material's 'memory' to encode unique physical properties
As materials age, they 'remember' prior stresses and external forces, which scientists and engineers can then use to create new materials with unique properties.
Corpus luteum cells of cats successfully cultivated and comprehensively characterized
The reproduction of lynxes is highly mysterious. Unlike other wild cats, most lynxes are only receptive for a few days once a year.
Newly developed mathematical model could be used to predict cancer drug side effects
A research team at Kobe University Hospital have further illuminated the likelihood of cancer drug side effects that can occur due to genetic mutations in the drug-metabolizing enzyme.
Immune mystery solved in mice points to better protection from rotavirus in humans
Researchers at the University of Toronto have discovered how a brief disruption to a molecular pathway in the guts of mice before they are born can compromise adult immunity to a common and often deadly intestinal virus.
Permanent predator-prey oscillations
Predator-prey cycles are among the fundamental phenomena of ecological systems.
Overspill of fat shown to cause Type 2 Diabetes
For the first time, scientists have been able to observe people developing Type 2 diabetes - and confirmed that fat over-spills from the liver into the pancreas, triggering the chronic condition.
Discovering a new fundamental underwater force
A team of mathematicians from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Brown University has discovered a new phenomenon that generates a fluidic force capable of moving and binding particles immersed in density-layered fluids.
Prospective memory key to performance of everyday life activities in multiple sclerosis
'Poor prospective memory hinders the ability to perform a broad range of everyday life activities, which undermines individuals' independence,' noted Dr.
IU team identifies potential target for restoring movement after spinal cord injury
Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have made several novel discoveries in the field of spinal cord injuries (SCI).
Back new PACK training tackles common diseases in developing countries
An educational outreach training package has shown to be effective for improving management of respiratory diseases in Brazil, raising hopes it could be rolled out to treat other common, severe diseases in low- and middle-income countries.
Gender-tailored treatment could ease opioid epidemic
Gender-tailored methods to address the harmful mental health effects of childhood adversity may help alleviate the current opioid crisis and make treatment more effective, concludes University of Massachusetts Amherst epidemiology researcher Elizabeth Evans in her latest research about opioid use disorder (OUD).
Artificial intelligence tracks down leukemia
Artificial intelligence can detect one of the most common forms of blood cancer - acute myeloid leukemia -- with high reliability.
UTHealth's Cynthia Ju awarded NIH grants for liver injury research
Tiny solutions are being sought for big liver problems by a scientist at McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
Researchers produce first laser ultrasound images of humans
MIT engineers have come up with an alternative to conventional ultrasound that doesn't require contact with the body to see inside a patient.
Does Medicaid managed care impact obstetrical care and birth outcomes?
A new study shows that among a set of disadvantaged women, Medicaid managed care reduces the women's access to high-quality hospital services during pregnancy and delivery and was associated with worse birth outcomes, worse prenatal care, and a higher risk of inappropriate gestational weight gain.
SLAS Discovery releases first issue of 2020
January's edition of SLAS Discovery features an analysis of two plated sets of synthetic compounds available from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the author's positive and negative results of using this type of collection in his lab's research.
Bern and Fribourg researchers identify neurons responsible for rapid eye movements/REM during sleep
Why do we move our eyes fast in the paradoxical sleep -- in that sleep phase, in which most dreams take place?
It's a small (coal-polluted) world, after all
A study published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry underscores that the release of pollutants in one region can have implications beyond its borders; emphasizing the dire need for global collaboration on environmental issues.
New security system to revolutionise communications privacy
A new uncrackable security system created by researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), the University of St Andrews and the Center for Unconventional Processes of Sciences (CUP Sciences) is set to revolutionize communications privacy.
This 'lemon' could help machine learning create better drugs
Purdue University drug discovery researchers have created a new framework for mining data for training machine learning models.
Men think they're better liars
Men are twice as likely as women to consider themselves to be good at lying and at getting away with it, new research has found.
Less abundant species of animals and plants are organised in ghettos to survive
Similar to cities, animal and plant communities are organised in ghettos or ethnic neighbourhoods where less abundant species are grouped together to encourage their persistence against the most competitive ones.
IKBFU Scientists study molecular elements effective in countering malaria
The scientists research a building block of organic molecules needed for medical chemistry development.
From 3D to 2D and back: Reversible conversion of lipid spheres into ultra-thin sheets
Scientists at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and the University of Tokyo have developed a technique for the reversible conversion of 3D lipid vesicles into 2D ultra-thin nanosheets.
First step taken to find causes of muscle wasting disease
Researchers have gained new insight into the mechanisms involved in how skeletal muscles lose their mass and strength as people age, called sarcopenia.
Obesity in pregnant moms linked to lag in their sons' development and IQ
A mother's obesity in pregnancy can affect her child's development years down the road, according to researchers who found impaired motor skills in preschoolers and lower IQ in middle childhood for boys whose mothers were severely overweight while expecting them.
Obesity embargo alert for January 2020
All print, broadcast and online journalists who receive the Obesity embargo alert agree to abide by the embargo and may not publish, post, broadcast or distribute details of the embargoed studies before the embargo date and time.
Body cells spy out bacteria
The aryl-hydrocarbon receptor detects when bacteria increase so much in number that they become a danger to the body.
Sphingotec's biomarker penKid® predicts septic acute kidney injury
Sphingotec reports study data demonstrating that its proprietary renal function biomarker penKid® (Proenkephalin) predicts acute kidney injury (AKI), multi-organ failure and mortality in sepsis patients presenting to the emergency department (ED).
HKU plant scientists identify new strategy to enhance rice grain yield
Rice provides a daily subsistence for about three billion people worldwide and its output must keep pace with a growing global population.
Study suggests obesity associated with greater greenhouse gas emissions
A new analysis suggests that the increasing average body size of people on Earth, in addition to the growing world population may further challenge attempts to reduce man-made carbon dioxide emissions, according to a paper published online in Obesity, the flagship journal of The Obesity Society.
Falcons see prey at speed of Formula 1 car
Extremely acute vision and the ability to rapidly process different visual impressions -- these 2 factors are crucial when a peregrine falcon bears down on its prey at a speed that easily matches that of a Formula 1 racing car: Over 350 kilometers per hour.
Artificial intelligence as behavioral analyst
Computer algorithms disassemble prey capture behavior of zebrafish into its components.
Berlin's bright sky isn't a bat's thing
People can hardly imagine a city without night-time street lighting.
New research uncovers improvements in vaccines against meningitis
New research from experts at the University of Nottingham could lead to an improved vaccine to protect against the bacterium, Neisseria meningitides that causes sepsis and meningitis.
Study links longer exposure to obesity and earlier development of obesity to increased risk of type 2 diabetes
Cumulative exposure to obesity could be at least as important as actually being obese in terms of risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), concludes new research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]).
CRISPR-Cas9 datasets analysis leads to largest genetic screen resource for cancer research
A comprehensive map of genes necessary for cancer survival is one step closer, following validation of the two largest CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screens in 725 cancer models, across 25 different cancer types.
Revealing the structure of axons
Recent studies have shown that under the axonal membrane, rings composed of actin filaments give the structure its flexibility.
Organic crop practices affect long-term soil health
Prior organic farming practices and plantings can have lasting outcomes for future soil health, weeds and crop yields, according to new Cornell University research.
Hepatitis C-positive donors a viable option to expand heart donor pool
Patients who were transplanted with hearts from hepatitis C-positive donors had comparable outcomes after one year to patients who received hearts from donors that didn't have the disease, according to a Vanderbilt University Medical Center study published in JAMA Cardiology.
High carbon footprint families identified by sweets and restaurant food, not higher meat consumption
Families with higher carbon footprints are likely to consume more confectionary, alcohol and restaurant food, according to a new study published in One Earth.
A photo taken with a mobile phone to detect frauds in rice labelling
Including plastic that is undetectable by the consumer or distorting the quality of the product are some of the frauds facing the third most consumed cereal in the world: rice.
Untangling APOE ε 4's association to tau tangles
For years, physicians have been aware that patients carrying the apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE ε4) gene are at a greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
New study shows how patients' health values can impact vital pelvic floor treatment
Researchers and health professionals in Swansea have revealed the value women put on their own health can have a direct effect on the success of medical treatment for pelvic floor problems.
Genes as early warning systems: Stroke research
Estimates based on genomic data predict stroke risk with an accuracy similar to, or greater than those based on clinical risk factors.
Nightside barrier gently brakes 'bursty' plasma bubbles
Rice space plasma physicists develop algorithms to measure the buoyancy waves that appear in thin filaments of magnetic flux on Earth's nightside.
Russian scientists have found a way to make laser optics more effective and cheaper
The research team of the IKBFU developed a fundamentally new method of manufacturing laser optics, which is based on the use of rare-earth metal ions of ytterbium and its oxide.

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