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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | January 02, 2020


Half the amount of chemo prevents testicular cancer from coming back, new trial shows
Testicular cancer can be prevented from coming back using half the amount of chemotherapy that is currently used, a new clinical trial has shown.
Veterans report health as their No. 1 worry
Health concerns are the most important readjustment challenge facing veterans in the first year after they leave military service.
Study finds dopamine, biological clock link to snacking, overeating and obesity
A new study finds that the pleasure center of the brain and the brain's biological clock are linked, and that high-calorie foods -- which bring pleasure -- disrupt normal feeding schedules, resulting in overconsumption.
MIPT physicists find ways to overcome signal loss in magnonic circuits
Researchers from the MIPT and their Russian colleagues have demonstrated that the coupling elements in magnonic logic circuits are so crucial that a poorly selected waveguide can lead to signal loss.
Few people consider religious affiliation of hospital they choose
A small minority of Americans surveyed consider the religious affiliation of the hospitals that treat them, but a majority said they didn't want religious doctrine dictating their healthcare choices, according to a study by researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
Color-changing fiber and theory reveal fundamental mystery of knots
Color-changing fibers and mathematical theory combine to disclose the simple rules that govern the strength and stability of commonly used knots, researchers report.
Math test score gap between white and non-white students in Brazil due to complex factors
School test scores often show gaps in performance between white and non-white students.
ORNL researchers advance performance benchmark for quantum computers
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a quantum chemistry simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of quantum devices and guide the development of applications for future quantum computers.
Researchers determine how a specific protein regulates tumor growth
Immune checkpoints are surface proteins that cancer cells use to evade immune response.
Taking the measure of glycans
Glycans on antibody drugs can significantly affect their safety and efficacy.
Snake-like proteins can wrangle DNA
Theoretical simulations at Rice University suggest structural maintenance of chromosome proteins coil not only around each other but also around the strands of DNA they help manipulate.
Health ranks as top concern for veterans immediately after military service
In a survey of nearly 10,000 veterans newly separated from military service, most were satisfied with their work and social well-being, but more than half reported chronic physical health problems, and a third reported chronic mental health conditions.
How malaria parasites become resistant to artemisinin antimalarial drugs
Malaria parasite mutations that inhibit the endocytoic appetite for a host's red blood cells may render them resistant to artemisinin, a widely used frontline antimalarial drug, according to a new study, which reveals a key molecular mechanism of drug resistance.
Hearing through lip-reading
Brain activity synchronizes with sound waves, even without audible sound, through lip-reading, according to new research published in JNeurosci.
GMRT discovers a gigantic ring of hydrogen gas around a distant galaxy
A team of astronomers at the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA-TIFR) in Pune, India, have recently discovered an extremely large ring composed primarily of neutral hydrogen gas around a distant galaxy named AGC 203001 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT).
Starry eyes on the reef: Color-changing brittle stars can see
Scientists have shown for the first time that brittle stars use vision to guide them through vibrant coral reefs, thanks to a neat color-changing trick.
Climate change and deforestation could decimate Madagascar's rainforest habitat by 2070
A study in Nature Climate Change has found that, left unchecked, the combined effects of deforestation and human-induced climate change could eliminate Madagascar's entire eastern rainforest habitat by 2070, impacting thousands of plants, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that are endemic to the island nation.
A close look at thin ice
Marrying theoretical work with experiments and high-tech imaging techniques, atmospheric chemists Chongqin Zhu and Joseph S.
A new study finds research gaps in environmental science disciplines across the Arctic
More sampling is needed particularly in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, northern Greenland, northern Taimyr, and central and eastern Siberia.
Earliest evidence for rhizomes roasting in Africa 170 thousand years ago
The 170,000-year-old charred remains of starchy plant parts from Border Cave, South Africa provides the earliest direct evidence for the collecting and cooking of carbohydrate-rich rhizomes, a new study reports.
HIV patients lose smallpox immunity despite childhood vaccine, AIDS drugs
HIV patients lose immunity to smallpox even though they were vaccinated against the disease as children and have had much of their immune system restored with antiretroviral therapy, according to a study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Operating room reproductive hazards for female surgeons
Researchers in this review article discuss occupational reproductive hazards for female surgeons in the operating room, including radiation exposure, surgical smoke, working conditions and physical demands, sharps injuries, anesthetic gases and the use of toxic agents.
Tests measure solar panel performance beyond established standards
In testing solar panels, the sun's intensity, the spectral composition and the angle of light are important factors in understanding why certain panels are successful and others degrade more quickly.
Diabetes can independently lead to heart failure, population study shows
Heart problems are a common development for people with diabetes.
Stanford researchers build a particle accelerator that fits on a chip
For the first time, scientists at Stanford and SLAC have created a silicon chip that can accelerate electrons -- albeit at a fraction of the velocity of the most massive accelerators -- using an infrared laser to deliver, in less than a hair's width, the sort of energy boost that takes microwaves many feet.
Rhythmicity of cluster headache
Although it is known that CH patients exhibit circadian rhythmicity of attacks, new data add a new feature with regard to the rhythmicity of attacks throughout the disease course.
Craft-beer boom linked to record-number of US states growing hops
Craft breweries aren't just a fun place to meet up with friends.
1ST reported occurrence & treatment of spaceflight medical risk 200+ miles above earth
Serena Auñón-Chancellor, M.D., M.P.H., Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine's branch campus in Baton Rouge, is the lead author of a paper describing a previously unrecognized risk of spaceflight discovered during a study of astronauts involved in long-duration missions.
Keep exercising: New study finds it's good for your brain's gray matter
A study in Mayo Clinic Proceedings from the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases provides new evidence of an association between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain health, particularly in gray matter and total brain volume -- regions of the brain involved with cognitive decline and aging.
Study confirms climate change impacted Hurricane Florence's precipitation and size
A new modeling framework showed that Hurricane Florence produced more extreme rainfall and was spatially larger due to human-induced climate change.
Engrams emerging as the basic unit of memory
A review in Science traces neuroscientists' progress in studying the neural substrate for storing memories and raises key future questions for the field.
Closer to identifying leukemic stem cells
Researchers at the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute have developed innovative diagnostic trials to identify cells resistant to leukemia treatment.
Structured, salary-only compensation plan for physicians is a model for pay equity
Gender pay equity in the field of medicine remains elusive.
Ten not-to-be-missed PPPL stories from 2019 -- plus a triple bonus!
Arms control robots, a new national facility, and accelerating the drive to bring the fusion energy that powers the stars to Earth: 10 (and a triple bonus!) Must-Read Stories of 2019.
Global call to action on FH aims to improve diagnosis and treatment
The FH Foundation and World Heart Federation joined together to tackle the global burden of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a vastly under-recognized and poorly managed public health concern.
Early modern humans cooked starchy food in South Africa, 170,000 years ago
The inhabitants of the Border Cave in the Lebombo Mountains on the Kwazulu-Natal/eSwatini border were cooking starchy plants 170,000 years ago.
Climate signals detected in global weather
Searched for and found: climate researchers can now detect the fingerprint of global warming in daily weather observations at the global scale.
Exclusions in family planning programs and health statistics contravene human rights
Infertility impinges on the human right to have a child, according to new research published today, which also calls for greater healthcare equity and more inclusive reproductive health surveillance.
UNC expert helps treat astronaut's blood clot during NASA mission
Moll was the only non-NASA physician NASA consulted when it was discovered that an astronaut aboard the ISS had a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) -- or blood clot -- in the jugular vein of their neck.
Lower risk for malignant melanoma after bariatric surgery
Bariatric surgery is associated with a distinct reduction in skin-cancer risk, a study shows.
Researchers identify starting point for designing drugs that cure clostridium difficile
A newly published paper in PNAS details a research breakthrough that provides a promising starting point for scientists to create drugs that can cure C. diff -- a virulent health care-associated infection that causes severe diarrhea, nausea, internal bleeding, and potentially death.
A quantum breakthrough brings a technique from astronomy to the nano-scale
Columbia and University of California San Diego researchers have brought a technique borrowed from astrophysics to the ultra-small scale, allowing for the first time an optical nano-probe to be combined with simultaneous magnetic nano-imaging of quantum materials.
Bystander CPR less likely for people living in Hispanic neighborhoods
People living in predominately Hispanic neighborhoods are less likely to receive CPR from a bystander following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest compared to people living in non-Hispanic neighborhoods, researchers from Penn Medicine and the Duke University of School of Medicine reported in the journal Circulation.
Newly identified dendritic action potentials give humans unique brain power
Newly discovered action potentials in neuronal dendrites neurons uniquely amplify the computational power of the human brain, according to a new study.
Innovation is widespread in rural areas, not just cities
Conventional measures of innovation suggest that only big cities foster new ideas, but a more comprehensive measure developed at Penn State shows that innovation is widespread even in rural places not typically thought of as innovative.
Study: Hearing develops in tandem with form and function
New research reveals a key insight into the development of hair bundles, the intricately complex assemblies in the inner ear responsible for hearing.
REE mineral-bearing rocks found in eastern Mojave Desert
Scientists from the US Geological Survey have mapped a rare earth element deposit of magmatic carbonatite located in the Mountain Pass region of the eastern Mojave Desert.
Plants can improve your work life
In modern society, stress reduction in the workplace is a pressing issue.
Researchers identify key structure of C. difficle bacteria that could lead to future treatments
Researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine and their colleagues have identified the structure of the most lethal toxin produced by certain strains of Clostridium difficile bacteria, a potentially deadly infection associated with the use of antibiotics.
Harnessing the microbiome to improve stroke recovery
Supplementing the body's short chain fatty acids can improve stroke recovery, according to research in mice recently published in JNeurosci.
Extra benefit from epilepsy neurostimulators -- reducing comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms
Researchers report cases of five epilepsy patients who found better treatments for deleterious neuropsychiatric symptoms like anxiety, depression, psychosis and impaired memory using data collected -- while the patients were at home -- from implanted neurostimulators placed in their brains to control their epileptic seizures.
Unattainable standards of beauty for today's woman
While the average American woman's waist circumference and dress size has increased over the past 20 years, Victoria's Secret fashion models have become more slender, with a decrease in bust, waist, hips and dress size, though their waist to hip ratio (WHR) has remained constant.
Some learning is a whole-brain affair, study shows
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have successfully used a laser-assisted imaging tool to 'see' what happens in brain cells of mice learning to reach out and grab a pellet of food.
Mediterranean diet may help preserve the kidney health of transplant recipients
In a study of kidney transplant recipients, those with higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet were less likely to experience kidney function loss.
New radiotracer offers opportunities for earlier intervention after heart attack
A new radiotracer can effectively image fibroblast activation after a heart attack, identifying a window of time during which cardiac fibrosis can be prevented and the disease course altered.

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