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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | January 09, 2020


Penn shows giving entire course of radiation treatment in less than a second is feasible
Cancer patients may one day be able to get their entire course of radiation therapy in less than a second rather than coming in for treatment over the course of several weeks, and researchers in the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania have taken the first steps toward making it a reality.
BU researchers: Pornography is not a 'public health crisis'
Researchers from the Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) have written an editorial in the American Journal of Public Health special February issue arguing against the claim that pornography is a public health crisis, and explaining why such a claim actually endangers the health of the public.
Scientists observe ultrafast birth of radicals
An international team of researchers have, for the first time, glimpsed the ultrafast process of proton transfer following ionization of liquid water, shedding light on how radical cations separate from their electron partners, neutralize and subsequently drift about creating damage.
How successful are retailer-themed super saver events?
Retailer-Themed Super Saver Events (ReTSS) yield different outcomes than regular sales promotions.
Copper-based nanomaterials can kill cancer cells in mice
An interdisciplinary team of scientists from KU Leuven, the University of Bremen, the Leibniz Institute of Materials Engineering, and the University of Ioannina has succeeded in killing tumor cells in mice using nano-sized copper compounds together with immunotherapy.
New study suggests 21-gene recurrence score may help in radiation decision-making
A new study shows that a test physicians commonly used to guide chemotherapy treatment for post-breast cancer surgery patients may also help them decide whether radiation therapy may be of benefit.
Missing protein in brain causes behaviors mirroring autism
Scientists at Rutgers University-Newark have discovered that when a key protein needed to generate new brain cells during prenatal and early childhood development is missing, part of the brain goes haywire -- causing an imbalance in its circuitry that can lead to long-term cognitive and movement behaviors characteristic of autism spectrum disorder.
Mathematicians put famous Battle of Britain 'what if' scenarios to the test
Mathematicians from the University of York have developed a new model to explore what the impact of changes to Luftwaffe tactics would actually have been.
One-fourth of children with autism are undiagnosed
One-fourth of children under age 8 with autism spectrum disorder -- most of them black or Hispanic -- are not being diagnosed, which is critical for improving quality of life.
Tea drinkers live longer
Drinking tea at least three times a week is linked with a longer and healthier life, according to a study published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Scientists use ancient marine fossils to unravel long-standing climate puzzle
Cardiff University scientists have shed new light on the Earth's climate behavior during the last known period of global warming over 14 million years ago.
Toward a smarter way of recharging the aquifer
Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis have solved a mystery: how did arsenic show up in aquifer water that had been triple purified?
Researchers decipher a new way that immune cells detect infections and cancers
Melbourne researchers have determined the molecular basis for how an important component of the immune system, called gamma-delta T cells, detects infections and cancers.
Plant life expanding in the Everest region
Plant life is expanding in the area around Mount Everest, and across the Himalayan region, new research shows.
Addressing the emotional toll of pediatric chronic conditions
Report led by experts at Cincinnati Children's, published online Jan.
A new method to study lithium dendrites could lead to better, safer batteries
Lithium ion batteries often grow needle-like structures between electrodes that can short out the batteries and sometimes cause fires.
Moths' flight data helps drones navigate complex environments
The flight navigation strategy of moths can be used to develop programs that help drones to navigate unfamiliar environments, report Ioannis Paschalidis at Boston University, Thomas Daniel at University of Washington, and colleagues, in the open-access journal PLOS Computational Biology.
Recurrent miscarriage: Diabetes drug could lead to new treatment
A drug designed to tackle diabetes could also be repurposed as the first treatment to prevent miscarriage by targeting the lining of the womb itself, according to a clinical trial led by the University of Warwick.
Ultrasound can make stronger 3D-printed alloys
A study just published in Nature Communications shows high frequency sound waves can have a significant impact on the inner micro-structure of 3D printed alloys, making them more consistent and stronger than those printed conventionally.
The Lancet: Study suggests mental health impact of ongoing social unrest in Hong Kong
The ongoing social unrest in Hong Kong may be affecting the mental health of the general adult population -- potentially leading to substantial increases in demand for mental and psychosocial support services, according to a 10-year observational study published in The Lancet.
The Vikings erected a runestone out of fear of a climate catastrophe
Several passages on the Rök stone -- the world's most famous Viking Age runic monument -- suggest that the inscription is about battles and for over a hundred years, researchers have been trying to connect the inscription with heroic deeds in war.
Bandage material helps stop bleeding without adhering to the wound
Researchers from ETH Zurich and the National University of Singapore have developed a new kind of bandage that helps blood to clot and doesn't stick to the wound.
'Flash and freeze' reveals dynamics of nerve connections
How do the physical parts of a neuron enable it to process and communicate information?
In fighting gut infections, nervous system is key, Yale-Harvard team finds
The peaceful and delicate co-existence of friendly gut bacteria and the immune system relies on highly coordinated information exchange between immune system cells and certain cells lining the intestine.
Study reveals insights on hidden sexual-arousal disorder
Results indicate that persistent genital arousal disorder can be caused by altered firing of nerves that carry sensations from the genitalia or by damage to the lowest parts of the spinal cord.
UCF study: Judo may help health, social interactions of children with autism
Judo may be just the right sport to increase the physical activity level among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and holds promise for reducing sedentary behavior, which is linked to obesity and diabetes, according to a new study from the University of Central Florida in Orlando.
Nuclear radiologists 'outsmart' prostate cancer with an apparently ineffective drug
Patients with advanced metastatic prostate cancer often have few treatment options.
An international study discovers a new origin of lymphatic vessels in the heart
A study published today in Development Cell opens the way to future research into the mechanism of lymphatic vessel formation in this new niche and the functional diversity of cardiac lymphatics.
Researchers discover new building blocks of catalyst zeolite nanopores
Zeolites crystals, used among other things for refining petroleum to gasoline and biomass into biofuels, are the most-used catalysts by weight on the planet, and discovering mechanisms of how they form has been of intense interest to the chemical industry and related researchers, say chemist Scott Auerbach et al. at UMass Amherst.
Shark and ray vision comes into focus
Until now, little has been known about the evolution of vision in cartilaginous fishes, particularly sharks and their genetic cousins, the rays.
Team's fabricated corneal tissue allows closer look at how eyes heal
University of Texas at Dallas researchers have demonstrated a technique in the lab for fabricating tiny strands of collagen called fibrils to facilitate further research on the eye's repair process.
Psoriasis: Towards a novel therapeutic approach
Researchers at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) and the Department of Dermatology of the Erasme hospital uncover the importance of VEGFA signaling in the epidermis to mediate psoriasis development.
First genomic study of puberty yields insights into development and cancer
In the first-ever genome-scale analysis of the puberty process in humans, researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) outline distinct and critical changes to stem cells in males during adolescence.
Heart disease linked to a higher risk of kidney failure
In adults followed for a median of 17.5 years, cardiovascular diseases--including heart failure, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, and stroke--were each linked with a higher risk of developing kidney failure.
Vector-borne causes of fever in cats demand year-round preventive therapy
Increased body temperature is the single-most commonly noted abnormal finding for the medical practitioner.
Rejuvenating the brain
The older we get the more our brains will find it difficult to learn and remember new things.
How do fruit flies see in color? Columbia study uncovers human-like brain circuit at work
Columbia scientists have identified a brain circuit that drives fruit flies' ability to see in color -- and found that it bears a striking resemblance to the circuitry behind our own capacity for color vision.
Prosocial and tolerant parrots help others to obtain food
African grey parrots spontaneously help conspecifics without obvious benefits to themselves.
Food textures affect perceptions of healthiness
New research has demonstrated how food producers could change the surface texture of products to change people's perceptions and promote healthy eating.
Wake up dormant dopaminergic neurons to reverse Parkinson's disease
Researchers have discovered a new mechanism for PD pathology. The study found that the movement abnormalities of PD begin in the earlier stage when dopaminergic neurons, though being alive, cannot synthesize dopamine (in a dormant state).
Harnessing biology and technology to develop new depression treatments -- update from Harvard Review
New research into the biology of depression, along with new and evolving technologies, provides the basis for developing the next generation of treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD), according to the special January/February issue of Harvard Review of Psychiatry.
Study finds deforestation is changing animal communication
Deforestation is changing the way monkeys communicate in their natural habitat, according to a new study.
Early humans arrived in Southeast Asia later than previously believed
New dates from the World Heritage archeological site at Sangiran on the island of Java suggest that that the first appearance of Homo erectus occurred more recently than previously thought, researchers report.
Preparing for the hydrogen economy
In a world first, University of Sydney researchers have found evidence of how hydrogen causes embrittlement of steels.
'Gift of life' marketing fails to motivate many donors
With a global shortage of both blood and organ donors, QUT researchers are suggesting language used to attract donors be changed, especially for organ donor donation.
How bacterial evolution of antibiotic arsenals is providing new drug blueprints
Scientists have taken their cue from nature to provide new options for drug designers seeking to hold back the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.
Surgery may add months or years of survival for adults with rare and deadly brain cancers
For adult patients with brainstem high-grade gliomas -- one of the rarest and deadliest forms of brain cancer -- surgically removing the entire tumor may add many months or potentially years of survival beyond that offered by radiation and chemotherapy, according to results of a medical records study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.
Global warming is the kindling that caused extensive wildfire
Professor Jong-Seong Kug and his research team identified Arctic Oscillation as the cause for the recent wildfires in Siberia.
New insulin compound could improve therapy for diabetes patients
Researchers have successfully created a non-fibrillating form of human insulin in a discovery that could improve the clinical delivery and cost of insulin for people living with diabetes.
Contaminating a fake rubber hand could help people overcome OCD, study suggests
The famous, but bizarre, 'rubber hand illusion' could help people who suffer from obsessive compulsive disorder overcome their condition without the often unbearable stress of exposure therapy, suggests new research.
Common genetic defect in prostate cancer inspires path to new anti-cancer drugs
Researchers found that, in prostate cancer, a mutation leading to the loss of one allele of a tumor suppressor gene known as PPP2R2A is enough to worsen a tumor caused by other mutations.
Safety events: 40% of gun owners reported not locking all guns -- even around kids
Gun owners will go to events to get free devices for locking up their firearms at home, but a survey of nearly 3,000 participants at such events in Washington found that 40% had unlocked guns at home, and the presence of children in the home did not make a difference.
NASA-NOAA satellite tracks Tropical Storm Blake's remnants spreading
The South Interior area of the state of Western Australia is under warnings for heavy rainfall and gusty winds as the remnants of Tropical Storm Blake move on a southeasterly path through the state.
Colorectal cancer risk remains despite modern treatment for ulcerative colitis
Patients with the inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis have a higher risk of dying from colorectal cancer, despite modern therapy, even though the risk has declined in recent years.
Acidic environment could boost power of harmful pathogens
New findings published in PLOS Pathogens suggest lower pH in the digestive tract may make some bacterial pathogens even more dangerous.
Lack of insurance cause of survivorship gap in minorities with cancer, study shows
Nearly half of the disparity in later-stage diagnosis was mediated by being uninsured or underinsured, according to a new study conducted at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Boston Medical Center/Boston University School of Medicine.
Overdose rates higher & opioid addiction care scarcer, in Medicaid work requirement states
Low-income people with addiction, especially those with addiction to opioids, may find it hard to access the kind of care they need to recover no matter where they live, a new study suggests.
Machine learning shapes microwaves for a computer's eyes
To improve object identification and speed in fields where both are critical -- such as autonomous vehicles, security screening and motion sensing -- engineers have developed a method to identify objects using microwaves that improves accuracy while reducing the associated computing time and power requirements.
Peering into the genome of brain tumor
Scientists at Osaka University have created a machine learning method for classifying the mutations of glioma brain tumors based on MR images alone.
Stellar heavy metals can trace history of galaxies
Astronomers have cataloged signs of nine heavy metals in the infrared light from supergiant and giant stars.
Decoding hidden brain chatter to advance neuroprostheses
Scientists eavesdropped on neurons and discovered a stable signal driving common movement skills like typing sneakers.
AAFP releases updated feline retrovirus guidelines to the veterinary community
On Thursday, January 9, the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) will release updated Feline Retrovirus Testing and Management Guidelines to the veterinary community, which will be published in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery.
Sensing protein wellbeing
The folding state of the proteins in live cells often reflect the cell's general health.
Earlier falls predict subsequent fractures in postmenopausal women
The risk of fracture in postmenopausal women can be predicted by history of falls, according to new findings from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study (OSTPRE) at the University of Eastern Finland.
Martian water vapor varies with the seasons
The potential for Mars' water to be lost into space is greater during the planet's warm and stormy seasons, according to a new study.
Discovery of gene that modifies the severity of inherited kidney disease
Scientists have developed a new way to understand complex genetic diseases and have identified a gene that modifies the severity of inherited kidney disease, paving the way for personalized treatments.
Metabolic syndrome associated with increased risk of blood clot recurrence
People with metabolic syndrome -- a set of conditions including obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, elevated levels of fats and cholesterol in the blood, and high blood pressure - are more likely to experience recurrent blood clots, according to a new study published today in Blood Advances.
New closed-loop system offers promise as novel treatment for post-bariatric hypoglycemia
Post-bariatric hypoglycemia is a profoundly life-altering condition for patients. Having unpredictable hypoglycemia that people can't detect is really an unsafe situation.
Scientists observe ultrafast chemistry in water caused by ionizing radiation
An international research team jointly led by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore), the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and Germany's Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) has for the first time observed the ultrafast formation and then breakdown of the water ion that is created when water is exposed to ionizing radiation.
Baby and adult brains 'sync up' during play, finds Princeton Baby Lab
A team of Princeton researchers has conducted the first study of how baby and adult brains interact during natural play, and they found measurable connections in their neural activity.
Growing strained crystals could improve performance of perovskite electronics
A new method could enable researchers to build more efficient, longer lasting perovskite solar cells and LEDs.
Team led by NUS avian researcher discovered 10 new bird taxa in Wallacea
A research team led by Associate Professor Frank Rheindt from the National University of Singapore found five bird species and five subspecies new to science in three small island groups off Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Getting to the heart of heart beats: Cardiac thin filament structure and function revealed
Osaka University team uses advanced electron cryomicroscopy and image analysis to reveal the structure of vital muscle thin filaments in the heart with the highest resolution ever.
Randomness opens the gates to the land of attophotography
One of the last obstacles hindering the photography and filming of processes occurring on a scale of attoseconds, i.e. billionths of a billionth of a second, has disappeared.
Less severe cases of diarrheal illness can still lead to child mortality, research shows
Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of death for young children, accounting for nine percent of all deaths worldwide in children under 5 years of age, with most occurring in children under two years of age.
Collection of new bird species discovered on small Wallacean islands
Hidden away on a trio of tiny and under-explored Wallacean islands off the eastern Indonesian coast, researchers discovered 10 new species and subspecies of songbirds, according to a new study, bringing a long-overlooked pocket of local biodiversity to light.
Harvard researchers help explain link between emotion and addictive substance use
What drives a person to smoke cigarettes? What role do emotions play in this addictive behavior?
Unlimited potential: Researchers found new ways to generate totipotent-like cells
Totipotency is set to become a key tool for research and future medical applications.
'Resurrection ecology' of 600-year-old water fleas used to understand pollution adaptation
By taking advantage of the unique genomic model organism of tiny waterfleas, or Daphnia, an international team of researchers has now analyzed Daphnia from a phosphorus-rich Minnesota lake -- and compared it to revived, 600-year-old Daphnia dormant eggs found in the bottom sediments -- to better understand how these creatures cope with a dramatic environmental change.
Mars: Water could disappear faster than expected
The small red planet is losing water more quickly than what theory as well as past observations would suggest.
Large 'herbivores of the sea' help keep coral reefs healthy
Selective fishing can disrupt the delicate balance maintained between corals and algae in embattled Caribbean coral reefs.
Gene network helps to turn white fat into beneficial calorie-burning fat
1.9 billion people in the world are overweight. Of these, 650 million people are obese, which increases the risk of secondary diseases such as cancer.
Smoking HIV out of dormancy
A new mechanism uncovered by a Norwegian research group could improve the chances of developing a cure for HIV by forcing the virus out of dormancy so that it can be killed.
BPA replacement hinders heart function, study reveals
BPA's counterpart replacement BPS can hinder heart function within minutes of a single exposure, according to a new University of Guelph study.
Antibiotic tolerance reduces the ability to prevent resistance under drug combination therapies
Antimicrobial tolerance can promote the evolution of antimicrobial resistance even under combination drug treatments widely used and expected to prevent it from occurring, a new study finds.
New study shows dominance of local air pollution sources in Delhi
The University of Surrey has revealed results from a new, comprehensive study that suggests that activities such as construction and vehicle traffic contribute significantly to the Delhi National Capital Region's high concentrations of harmful air pollutants and gases.
Kangaroo mother care reduces infant mortality
When newborn babies with low birth weight are held close to their mother's bodies throughout the day, their chance of survival increases substantially.
African grey parrots spontaneously 'lend a wing'
People and other great apes are known for their willingness to help others in need, even strangers.
'Bilingual' molecule connects two basic codes for life
'Much like a translator enables communication between two people from different regions of the world, we envision that our bilingual molecule will enable us to mediate new forms of communications between nucleic acids and proteins in the cellular environment,' says Jennifer Heemstra, associate professor of chemistry at Emory University.
An out-of-the-box attack on diabetes
A protein newly identified as important in type 1 diabetes can delay onset of the disease in diabetic mice, providing a new target for prevention and treatment in people, according to research led by scientists at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Indiana University School of Medicine.
Persistent genital arousal disorder -- PAIN Reports® presents update on rare neurological disorder
Imagine living with unwanted sexual arousals, occurring unexpectedly and repeatedly, unrelated to any sexual desire or pleasure.
Breast density notification laws not effective for all women
A new Yale study suggests that state-mandated notifications on mammogram reports intended to inform women of the health risks related to breast density are not worded effectively.
Prostate cancer can now be diagnosed better using artificial intelligence
Researchers at Radboud university medical center have developed a 'deep learning' system that is better than most pathologists at determining the aggressiveness of prostate cancer.
Improved functioning of diverse landscape mosaics
It is well-established that biodiverse ecosystems generally function better than monocultures.
From as young as 4, children see males as more powerful than females
As early as 4 years old, children associate power and masculinity, even in countries considered to be more egalitarian like Norway.
Product distribution restraints are not equal research shows
Online shoppers may be pleasantly surprised to find the price of their chosen item has dropped once they've moved to the checkout phase of their purchase.
Scientists transform a BBQ lighter into a high-tech lab device
Researchers have devised a straightforward technique for building a laboratory device known as an electroporator -- which applies a jolt of electricity to temporarily open cell walls -- from inexpensive components, including a piezoelectric crystal taken from a butane lighter.
The claw disease tyloma is primarily genetic in cows
Scientists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and Georg August University Göttingen have succeeded in proving that a claw disease in cows is primarily genetic.
Molecular factories: The combination between nature and chemistry is functional
Researchers at the University of Basel have succeeded in developing molecular factories that mimic nature.
Response to fire impacts water levels 40 years into future
Salvage logging and re-seeding a forest after a wildfire helps reduce flooding and returns water levels to normal faster, according to a new paper from a Washington State University researcher.
Integral molecular announces preclinical P2X7 antibody assets for autoimmune disorders
Integral molecular announces preclinical P2X7 antibody assets for autoimmune disorders.
New possible strategy for treating chronic pain due to burns may help sufferers including veterans
New research shows how second-degree burns cause hard-to-treat chronic pain, and this understanding may be key to treating these complications, common in war veterans This research, published in Physiological Reports, suggests that burns cause changes to neurons in multiple parts of the spinal cord, even far from the injury site, which can contribute to chronic pain and other long-term complications.
New study shows 'organic' wounds improve produce
Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists found benefits of insect leaf-wounding in fruit and vegetable production.
A 'pivotal' moment for understanding whale evolution
We could be getting closer to understanding how feeding behaviors in whales and dolphins have evolved over time.
Common plasticizer disrupts C. elegans egg production
A new study published Jan. 9 in PLOS Genetics by Mónica Colaiácovo of Harvard Medical School and colleagues reports that the most commonly used plasticizer, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), leads to fertility problems by causing an excess number of breaks in the DNA during egg production, and then interfering with the repair systems that fixes the breaks.
A conversation could be the answer to successful rehabilitation of prisoners
Researchers have found people on the brink of release from a prison sentence have lost any sense of being connected to the outside world and, as a result, become prejudiced towards wider society.
Parents aren't powerless when it comes to sleep-deprived teenagers
Teenagers in the US simply don't get enough shut eye.
Break point
Experiments in worms reveal the molecular damage caused by DEHP, a chemical commonly used to make plastics flexible.

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