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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | January 20, 2020


'Reading' with aphasia is easier than 'running'
Neurolinguists from HSE University have confirmed experimentally that for people with aphasia, it is easier to retrieve verbs describing situations with several participants (such as 'someone is doing something'), although such verbs give rise to more grammar difficulties.
Physics shows that imperfections make perfect
For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated that certain systems with interacting entities can synchronize only if the entities within the system are different from one another.
An improved method for protein crystal structure visualization
During crystallization atoms are arranged in a 3D lattice structured in a specific way.
Health of poor Brits worse than that of those born a century ago
The self-reported health of poor Brits is worse than that of people born a century ago, suggests a large nationally representative study of more than 200,000 working-age people, published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
New research could reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death
New research has shown that by changing the time course of voltage change early in action potential it is possible to both withhold a potentially lethal electrical disturbance and improve the strength of cardiac contraction in heart failure at the same time.
Parrots collaborate with invisible partners
New study shows that peach-fronted conures have a surprisingly advanced talent for collaboration when it comes to finding food.
Smart materials are becoming smarter
Composites are a new type of materials that consist of heterogeneous components (metals, ceramics, glass, plastic, carbon, etc.) and combine their properties.
The right to silence -- compassionate approach to interrogation more effective, study shows
A University of Liverpool research paper, published in American Psychologist, provides new evidence for using a humane, respectful and compassionate approach to interrogating high-value detainees (HVDs -- i.e., terrorist suspects) to encourage cooperation and disclosure of information.
On the edge between science and art: Historical biodiversity data from Japanese 'gyotaku'
Japanese cultural art of 'gyotaku,' which means 'fish impression' or 'fish rubbing,' captures accurate images of fish specimens.
Wisdom of the crowd? Building better forecasts from suboptimal predictors
Scientists at the University of Tokyo and Kozo Keikaku Engineering Inc. have shown how to combine the forecasts of a collection of suboptimal 'delay embedding' predictors for time series data.
While promoting diseases like cancer, these enzymes also cannibalize each other
In diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, and sickle cell anemia, cathepsins promote their propagation.
Tracking the scent of warming tundra
Climate change is causing the subarctic tundra to warm twice as fast as the global average, and this warming is speeding up the activity of the plant life.
Research shows potential for zero-deforestation pledges to protect wildlife in oil palm
New research has found that environmental efforts aimed at eliminating deforestation from oil palm production have the potential to benefit vulnerable tropical mammals.
Human exposure to aluminum linked to familial Alzheimer's disease
A new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (JAD) supports a growing body of research that links human exposure to aluminum with Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Sperm donation to strangers after death should be allowed in the UK, say ethicists
Men in the UK should be allowed to voluntarily donate their sperm after death, if they want to, argue ethicists in an analysis published online in the Journal of Medical Ethics.
Melting reveals drug targets in a living organism
Developing new medicines and understanding how they target specific organs often gives a crucial advantage in the fight against human diseases.
ACP calls for comprehensive reform of US health in a series of policy papers
The American College of Physicians issued a bold call to action challenging the US to implement systematic reform of the healthcare system, and released an ambitious new vision for a better health care system for all and expansive policy recommendations for how to achieve it.
America's largest medical specialty society endorses single-payer Medicare for All
Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP) today welcomed the American College of Physicians' (ACP) endorsement of single-payer Medicare for All.
Art speaks for itself and makes hearts beat faster
Information about an artwork has no effect on the aesthetic experience of museum visitors.
New research provides evidence of strong early magnetic field around Earth
New research from the University of Rochester provides evidence that the magnetic field that first formed around Earth was even stronger than scientists previously believed.
New technique predicts which melanoma patients are at risk for cancer recurrence, spread
Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital, in collaboration with international colleagues, present a new, quantitative technique that leverages DNA sequencing to make more sophisticated and accurate predictions about which primary melanomas are likely to recur and spread.
Combined prenatal smoking and drinking greatly increases SIDS risk
Children born to mothers who both drank and smoked beyond the first trimester of pregnancy have a 12-fold increased risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) compared to those unexposed or only exposed in the first trimester of pregnancy, according to a new study supported by the National Institutes of Health.
Ozone-depleting substances caused half of late 20th-century Arctic warming, says study
A study examines the greenhouse warming effects of ozone-depleting substances and finds that they caused about a third of all global warming from 1955 to 2005, and half of Arctic warming and sea ice loss during that period.
Big gains in bone marrow transplant survival since mid-2000s
A bone marrow transplant can be a lifesaving treatment, but it can come with life-threatening risks.
Refining breast cancer classification by multiplexed imaging
An imaging approach developed at UZH enables the study of breast cancer tissue in greater detail.
Internists call for comprehensive reform of US health care
The American College of Physicians is issuing a bold call to action challenging the US to implement systematic reform of the health care system, and released an ambitious new vision for a better health care system for all and expansive policy recommendations for how to achieve it.
Cancer: Faster drug discovery to hit 'undruggable' targets
Medicines made from coiled protein fragments could provide a new handle on hard-to-treat diseases like cancer, but they are difficult to design.
Belly fat linked with repeat heart attacks
Heart attack survivors who carry excess fat around their waist are at increased risk of another heart attack, according to research published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Zika inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cells
Experiments performed by Brazilian scientists showed that Zika virus inhibits tumor cell proliferation even when inactivated by high temperature.
Measuring the world of social phenomena
Economists working with Professor Marko Sarstedt from University of Magdeburg are demanding that the same scientific standards be applied to economics and the behavioral sciences in general as are used in the natural sciences.
More than 2 million patients with heart disease report use of marijuana
Observational studies have linked marijuana use to a range of cardiovascular risks, including stroke, arrhythmia and diseases that make it hard for the heart muscle to pump properly.
A new role for neurogenesis
The ability to create new neurons may exist as built-in protection for sensitive brain areas, according to research in mice recently published in JNeurosci.
Setting fires to avoid fires
Despite having proven effective at reducing wildfire risks, prescribed burns have been stymied by perceived and real risks, regulations and resource shortages.
Warmer and acidified oceans can lead to 'hidden' changes in species behavior
Research by scientists at Ghent University (Belgium), University of Plymouth (UK) and University of South Carolina (USA) shows the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana) makes considerable changes to its feeding habits when faced with warmer and more acidified oceans.
Female chimps with powerful moms are less likely to leave home
In chimp society females leave the nest, while males stay with their parents.
The salt of the comet
Under the leadership of astrophysicist Kathrin Altwegg, Bernese researchers have found an explanation for why very little nitrogen could previously be accounted for in the nebulous covering of comets: the building block for life predominantly occurs in the form of ammonium salts, the occurrence of which could not previously be measured.
Study points to positive effects of guided self-help for depression in autistic adults
The new study published in the journal Autism suggests a form of low intensity CBT could offer new hope for people with co-occurring autism and depression.
Want to know what climate change will do in your back yard? There's a dataset for that
The 7-terabyte dataset, the largest of its kind, helps envision climate-change scenarios at scales as small as 1 kilometer.
New research confirms lingering mood benefit of psychedelics
People who had recently used psychedelics such as psilocybin report a sustained improvement in mood and feeling closer to others after the high has worn off, shows a new Yale study published the week of Jan.
Clubs and bars must support women by cracking down on sexual aggression
Nightclubs and bars must create a supportive environment that cracks down on unwanted sexual attention and allows women to enjoy their nights out, according to a new study.
Well-designed substrates make large single crystal bi-/tri-layer graphene possible
IBS CMCM scientists have reported the fabrication and use of single crystal copper-nickel alloy foil substrates for the growth of large-area, single crystal bilayer and trilayer graphene films.
People with inadequate access to food 10% to 37% more likely to die prematurely
Adults with food insecurity (i.e., inadequate access to food because of financial constraints) are 10% to 37% more likely to die prematurely from any cause other than cancer compared to food-secure people, found new research in CMAJ.
Medicinal cannabis may not ease sleep problems in the long run
Medicinal cannabis might not ease sleep problems in people with chronic pain over the long term, because frequent users might build up tolerance to its sleep-inducing effects, suggests preliminary research published online in BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care.
Magnetized molecules used to monitor breast cancer
A new type of scan that involves magnetizing molecules allows doctors to see in real-time which regions of a breast tumor are active, according to research funded by Cancer Research UK and published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences today.
Cave fights for food: Voracious spiders vs. assassin bugs
Killing and eating of potential competitors has rarely been documented in the zoological literature, even though this type of interaction can affect population dynamics.
Brazilian wildfire pollution worsens air quality in distant cities -- study
Wildfires in south eastern Brazil produce airborne pollution that worsens air quality in major cities such as Sao Paulo -- cancelling out efforts to improve the urban environment and posing health risks to citizens, according to a new study.
Magnetic nanomaterials become an effective treatment against liver fibrosis
Fibrosis may affect different body organs. It develops as a reaction to long-time inflammation and is supposed to isolate the inflammation site from surrounding tissues.
Light therapy for immune cells helps with side effects of cancer therapy
A frequent side effect of cancer immunotherapies can probably be stopped by light activation of immune cells, as researchers at the Medical Center -- University of Freiburg have shown.
Algorithm turns cancer gene discovery on its head
Prediction method could help personalize cancer treatments and reveal new drug targets.
Research suggests potential link between marijuana and heart risks
As more states legalize marijuana for both medicinal and recreational use and use increases nationwide, cardiologists should advise patients about the potential risks, including effects of marijuana with some commonly prescribed cardiovascular medications, according to a research review published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
How diarrhea pathogens switch into attack mode at body temperature
Many bacterial pathogens excrete toxins as soon as they have entered the host in order to suppress its immune response.
Insect bites and warmer climate means double-trouble for plants
Michigan State University scientists think that current models are incomplete and that we may be underestimating crop losses.
Infants integrate firsthand and social experiences to decide when and how to try
Persistence is important to learning and is related to success in school and emotional well-being.
An estimated 2 million people with heart disease have used marijuana, finds study
A new study estimates that more than 2 million Americans with heart disease have used marijuana, but the cardiovascular effects of the drug are not fully understood.
Tipping mechanisms could spark societal change towards climate stabilization
To achieve the goal of net-zero carbon by 2050 emissions need to be cut by half every decade from now on.
Light scattered by thrombocytes can improve the treatment of cardiovascular diseases
A team of scientists from Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University used Raman spectroscopy to study the thrombocytes of patients with cardiovascular diseases and compared their spectra with those of healthy people.
Prolonged breath-holding could help radiotherapy treatment of cardiac arrhythmias
A technique that enables patients suffering from heart conditions to hold their breath safely for over five minutes could have potential as part of a new treatment for cardiac arrhythmias, say researchers at the University of Birmingham.
Look what's inside: Full-body movies from EXPLORER scanner
Positron Emission Tomography, or PET scanning, a technique for tracing metabolic processes in the body, has been widely applied in clinical diagnosis and research spanning physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology.
Platelets instead of spheres make screens more economical
ETH scientists have further developed QLED technology for screens. They have produced light sources that for the first time emit high-intensity light in only one direction.
New drug prevents liver damage, obesity and glucose intolerance in mice on high-fat diet
Mice given a new drug targeting a key gene involved in lipid and glucose metabolism could tolerate a high-fat diet regimen (composed of 60% fat from lard) without developing significant liver damage, becoming obese, or disrupting their body's glucose balance.
How human social structures emerge
What rules shaped humanity's original social networks? The earliest social networks were tightly knit cultural groups made of multiple biologically related families.
New species of antibiotic-resistant bacteria found in infected wound
A hitherto unknown antibiotic-resistant bacteria species, in the same family as E. coli and Salmonella spp., has been found and classified in Sweden.
Native Americans did not make large-scale changes to environment prior to European contact
Contrary to long-held beliefs, humans did not make major changes to the landscape prior to European colonization, according to new research conducted in New England featuring faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York.
Proteins that protect against joint inflammation identified
Endogenous proteins that play a vital part in allergies and parasitic infection can prevent the immune system from wrongly attacking the body and causing inflamed joints, a study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published in the scientific journal PNAS reports.
Brain activity patterns linked with improved learning and memory in multiple sclerosis
'The decreased brain activation seen in this study may be a sign of more efficient processing after treatment,' said Dr.
Discovery of new T-cell raises prospect of 'universal' cancer therapy
Researchers at Cardiff University have discovered a new type of killer T-cell that offers hope of a 'one-size-fits-all' cancer therapy.
A cautionary tale about measuring racial bias in policing
Racial bias and policing made headlines last year after a study examining records of fatal police shootings claimed white officers were no more likely to shoot racial minorities than nonwhite officers.
Scientists Studied bacterial cells in the photoemission spectrum
Nature-like object studies are an actively developing field of science based on the use of biological materials.
Walking sharks discovered in the tropics
Four new species of tropical sharks that use their fins to walk are causing a stir in waters off northern Australia and New Guinea.
Dozens of non-oncology drugs can kill cancer cells
Researchers tested approximately 4,518 drug compounds on 578 human cancer cell lines and found nearly 50 that have previously unrecognized anti-cancer activity.
Climate (not humans) shaped early forests of New England
A new, multidisciplinary study by archaeologists, ecologists, and paleoclimatologists overturns long-held interpretations of the role humans played in shaping the American landscape before European colonization.
Dialing up the heat on nanoparticles
Rapid progress in the field of metallic nanotechnology is sparking a science revolution that is likely to impact all areas of society, according to professor of physics Ventsislav Valev and his team at the University of Bath in the UK.
Editing RNA delivers precision strike on triple-negative breast cancer
An abundance of microRNA-21 predicts lower survival in people with hard-to-treat 'triple-negative' breast cancer.
Nearly 9 in 10 parents say teens spend too much time gaming
Eighty-six percent of parents agree that teens spend too much time gaming, but many may be mistaken about the extent of their own child's video game habits, a new national poll suggests.
Record-breaking terahertz laser beam
Terahertz radiation is used for security checks at airports, for medical examinations and also for quality checks in industry.
Scientists shed light on surprising visual development patterns
Neuroscientists reveal a surprising clue about how this intricate visual processing system forms during early brain development.

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