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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | January 24, 2020


Stanford researchers conduct census of cell surface proteins
A new technique for systematically surveying proteins on the outer surface of cells, which act like molecular social cues to guide cell-cell interactions and assembly into tissues and organs.
Increasing opportunities for sustainable behavior
To mitigate climate change and safeguard ecosystems, we need to make drastic changes in our consumption and transport behaviors.
Family caregivers are rarely asked about needing assistance with caring for older adults
Family caregivers usually are not asked by health care workers about needing support in managing older adults' care, according to a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Efforts to tackle tobacco harm explored by experts
The impact of the tobacco display ban on young people's attitudes to smoking has been analysed by University of Stirling experts.
Quantum physics: On the way to quantum networks
Physicists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich, together with colleagues at Saarland University, have successfully demonstrated the transport of an entangled state between an atom and a photon via an optic fiber over a distance of up to 20 km -- thus setting a new record.
Nano-thin flexible touchscreens could be printed like newspaper
Taking a thin film common in cell phone touchscreens, researchers have used liquid metal chemistry to shrink it from 3D to 2D.
Why eating yogurt may help lessen the risk of breast cancer
One of the causes of breast cancer may be inflammation triggered by harmful bacteria suggest researchers.
Vitamin E acetate in products used by the first cases of EVALI in New York State
A new study published on Jan. 24, 2020, in the journal Toxics provides important insight into the recent lung intoxication epidemic referred to as 'e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury' (EVALI).
Principles for a green chemistry future
A team led by researchers from the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies recently authored a paper featured in Science that outlines how green chemistry is essential for a sustainable future.
Benefits of fetal surgery for spina bifida continue through school age
The benefits of fetal surgery to repair spina bifida, a procedure pioneered at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) in 1997, continue through school age, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) study reports today in the journal Pediatrics.
Dance of the honey bee reveals fondness for strawberries
Bees are pollinators of many plants, but their diversity and density is declining.
Horror movies manipulate brain activity expertly to enhance excitement
Finnish research team maps neural activity in response to watching horror movies.
Registry data -- of sufficient quality -- suitable for extended benefit assessment of drugs
Registry data -- of sufficient quality -- are suitable for the extended benefit assessment of drugs.
Assessing risk of chemicals to wildlife is huge challenge that requires new approach
Computer modelling and long-term ecological monitoring will be essential to assess the environmental risks of the rapidly growing number of chemicals across the world, according to a new review paper in the journal Science.
Shaping the social networks of neurons
Identification of a protein complex that attracts or repels nerve cells during development.
The skin of the earth is home to pac-man-like protists
The most common groups of soil protists behave exactly like Pac-Man: moving through the soil matrix, gobbling up bacteria according to a new article in Science Advances.
Study shows effects of Chinese divorce law on women's wellbeing
In a new study, Yale sociologist Emma Zang examined the consequences of the 2011 judicial interpretation on the well being of men and women.
With a protein 'delivery,' parasite can suppress its host's immune response
The parasite Toxoplasma gondii need not infect a host immune cell to alter its behavior, according to a new study from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.
Tiny, ancient meteorites suggest early Earth's atmosphere was rich in carbon dioxide
Tiny meteorites that fell to Earth 2.7 billion years ago suggest that the atmosphere at that time was high in carbon dioxide, which agrees with current understanding of how our planet's atmospheric gases changed over time.
Advancing frozen food safety: UGA evaluates environmental monitoring programs
Arlington, Va. - New research funded by the Frozen Food Foundation evaluates current environmental monitoring practices being implemented across the frozen food industry to prevent and control Listeria monocytogenes (Lm).
Opioid dependence found to permanently change brains of rats
Approximately one-quarter of patients who are prescribed opioids for chronic pain misuse them, with five to 10 percent developing an opioid use disorder or addiction.
Discovery sheds new light on how cells move
Through experiments, UW-Madison researchers found that the force each cell applies to the surface beneath it -- in other words, traction -- is the dominant physical factor that controls cell shape and motion as cells travel as a group.
World's first public database of mine tailings dams aims to prevent deadly disasters
GRID-Arendal has launched the Global Tailings Portal, a new public, searchable database with detailed information on more than 1,700 mine tailings dams around the world.
Advanced practice registered nurses to have a greater role in national response to opioid epidemic
As we enter a new year and a new decade, many states have enacted legislation affecting the roles of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in terms of practice authority, reimbursement, and prescriptive authority, according to the 32nd Annual Legislative Update in the January issue of The Nurse Practitioner, published by Wolters Kluwer.
A single number helps Stanford data scientists find most dangerous cancer cells
Biomedical data scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have shown that the number of genes a cell uses to make RNA is a reliable indicator of how developed the cell is, a finding that could make it easier to target cancer-causing genes.
Can lithium halt progression of Alzheimer's disease?
In a new study, a team of researchers at McGill University has shown that, when given in a formulation that facilitates passage to the brain, lithium in doses up to 400 times lower than what is currently being prescribed for mood disorders is capable of both halting signs of advanced Alzheimer's pathology and of recovering lost cognitive abilities.
People with obesity who experience self-directed weight shaming benefit from intervention
While it's known that weight 'self-stigma' is associated with poor mental and physical health, little is known about how to help people combat it.
Going with the flow: New insights into mysterious fluid motions
Scientists gain a deeper understanding of turbulent and transitional pipe flows.
New research shows more people knowingly use fentanyl
Fentanyl use by people who use drugs has doubled since 2015, and two-thirds of people are aware they've taken it, finds new research out of British Columbia, the Canadian province that has experienced the highest number of illicit drug toxicity deaths as a result of the opioid crisis.
Study: Commercial air travel is safer than ever
It has never been safer to fly on commercial airlines, according to a new study by an MIT professor that tracks the continued decrease in passenger fatalities around the globe.
NIH study finds benefits of fetal surgery for spina bifida persist through school age
Children as young as 6 years old who underwent fetal surgery to repair a common birth defect of the spine are more likely to walk independently and have fewer follow-up surgeries, compared to those who had traditional corrective surgery after birth, according to researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health.
TP53 gene variant in people of African descent linked to iron overload, may improve malaria response
In a study by Wistar and collaborators, a rare, African-specific variant of the TP53 gene called P47S causes iron accumulation in macrophages and other cell types and is associated with poorer response to bacterial infections, along with markers of iron overload in African Americans.
What goes up may actually be down
A new study in Frontiers in Neuroscience used virtual reality to determine how people plan their movements by 'seeing' gravity using visual cues in the landscape around them, rather than 'feeling it' through changes in weight and balance.
The regulators active during iron deficiency
Iron deficiency is a critical situation for plants, which respond using specific genetic programmes.
High air pollution exposure in 1-year-olds linked to structural brain changes at age 12
A new study suggests that significant early childhood exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is associated with structural changes in the brain at the age of 12.
Lung microbiome may help predict outcomes in critically ill patients
Changes in the lung microbiome may help predict how well critically ill patients will respond to care, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Brain-cell helpers powered by norepinephrine during fear-memory formation
A sustained state of vigilance will generate a different type of memory than a momentary startle, and these differences are linked to distinct signaling molecules in the brains of mice.
Deciphering the sugar code
Like animals and humans, plants possess a kind of immune system.
'Jumping genes' help stabilize DNA folding patterns
The DNA molecule inside the nucleus of any human cell is more than six feet long.
The highways of our brain
Researcher of the Netherlands Institute for neuroscience found that myelin, the sheath around neurons, creates a coaxial cable producing multiple waves of electrical potentials traveling in a more complicated manner than was envisioned earlier.
A new twist on quantum communication in fiber
New research done at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, and Huazhang University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China, has exciting implications for secure data transfer across optical fiber networks.
Inequality is bad for society, economic prosperity good
Rich countries vary a lot when it comes to health and social problems.
Researchers obtain 'high-definition' view of diabetes-related proteins
Scientists have examined a key receptor for the first time at high resolution -- broadening understanding of how it might function, and opening the door to future improvements in treating conditions such as type 2 diabetes.
Blue-emitting diode demonstrates limitations and promise of perovskite semiconductors
Halide perovskites have garnered attention because they're highly efficient at capturing energy in solar cells and efficient emitters in diodes.
Fonts in campaign communications have liberal or conservative leanings
'This research is of interest to anyone who cares about political communications, and the results have clear implications for political campaign professionals,' said Haenschen.
The 'place' of emotions
The entire set of our emotions is mapped in a small region of the brain, a 3 centimeters area of the cortex, according to a study conducted at the IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy.
Benefits of fetal surgery for spina bifida persist in school-age children
In a follow-up to the landmark 2011 study that demonstrated prenatal surgery for spina bifida has measurable benefits over surgery after birth for one of the most disabling neural tube defects, researchers have published new findings.
More than 40% of status epilepticus patients suffer adverse outcomes
A new study published in Seizure gives insight into the short-term outcome of patients treated for status epilepticus in Kuopio University Hospital in Finland.
MTU engineers examine lithium battery defects
Lithium dendrites cause poor performance and even explosions in batteries with flammable liquid electrolytes.
Size matters! The neuroanatomy of trigeminal neuralgia´s treatment response
An MRI study investigating the influence of changes in the neuroanatomy of trigeminal neuralgia found that both trigeminal nerve and brain structures such as the hippocampus can predict the surgical treatment outcome.
30-year study identifies need of disease-modifying therapies for maple syrup urine disease
A new study analyzes 30 years of patient data and details the clinical course of 184 individuals with genetically diverse forms of Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD), which is among the most volatile and dangerous inherited metabolic disorders.
Marburg virus found in Sierra Leone bats
Scientists have detected Marburg virus in fruit bats in Sierra Leone, marking the first time the deadly virus has been found in West Africa.
New species of Allosaurus discovered in Utah
A remarkable new species of meat-eating dinosaur, Allosaurus jimmadseni, was unveiled at the Natural History Museum of Utah.
The Blue Acceleration: Recent colossal rise in human pressure on ocean quantified
Human pressure on the world's ocean accelerated sharply at the start of the 21st century and shows no sign of slowing, according to a comprehensive new analysis on the state of the ocean.
UCI researchers identify a connection between early life adversity and opioid addiction
Individuals with a history of early life adversity (ELA) are disproportionately prone to opioid addiction.
A new stretchable battery can power wearable electronics
The adoption of wearable electronics has so far been limited by their need to derive power from bulky, rigid batteries that reduce comfort and may present safety hazards due to chemical leakage or combustion.

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