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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | January 28, 2020


Synthesis considers how being smart helps you at school and school helps you become smarter
Academic achievement plays an important role in children's development because academic skills, especially in reading and math, affect many outcomes, including educational attainment, performance and income at work, health, and longevity.
Protein pores packed in polymers make super-efficient filtration membranes
A multidisciplinary team of engineers and scientists has developed a new class of filtration membranes for a variety of applications, from water purification to small-molecule separations to contaminant-removal processes, that are faster to produce and higher performing than current technology.
General population screening reduces life threatening diabetic ketoacidosis, new research shows
JDRF Funded Research finds screening for islet autobodies reduce the occurrence of life threatening diabetic ketoacidosis in children with pre-symptomatic type 1 diabetes.
Study examines genetic testing in diverse young breast cancer patients over a decade
Researchers examined racial and ethnic differences in genetic testing frequency and results among diverse breast cancer patients diagnosed at age 50 or younger from January 2007 to December 2017.
Iron nanorobots show their true mettle
Multifunctional iron nanowires selectively obliterate cancer cells with a triple-punch combination attack.
Hungry for hutia? Our taste for Bahamas' 'most peaceable rodent' shaped its diversity
Hungry for hutia? Humans' taste for this Bahamian rodent shaped its diversity over 1,000 years -- an example of how what we like to eat can chart the course of a species.
Studying the geometry of a common skin disease
In a recent study from Hiroshima University, researchers turned to mathematics to predict hive patterns in humans.
Screening sweet peppers for organic farming
A study conducted out of The University of Georgia delved into the comparative yields of sweet pepper varieties produced under organic farming conditions.
Does news coverage of crashes affect perceived blame?
Despite an ever-rising number of pedestrian and bicyclist deaths on US roads each year, there's no widespread public pressure to improve road safety -- a situation influenced by how news articles about auto-pedestrian/bicyclist crashes are written, said Tara Goddard, Texas A&M assistant professor of urban planning.
Scientists short-circuit maturity in insects, opening new paths to disease prevention
New research from UC Riverside shows, contrary to previous scientific belief, a hormone required for sexual maturity in insects cannot travel across the blood-brain barrier unless aided by a transporter protein.
Smart single mother bees learn from their neighbors
Solitary female bees inspect other nests for signs of danger before making decisions on where to build their own, a new London-based study suggests.
Beating the heat in the living wings of butterflies
Columbia engineers and Harvard biologists discover that butterflies have specialized behaviors and wing scales to protect the living parts of their wings.
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy: #DRYMESTER the only safe approach
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy leads to poorer cognitive functioning in children, according to the most comprehensive review on the issue to date.
Crab-shell and seaweed compounds spin into yarns for sustainable and functional materials
Biobased fibres are made from two renewable marine resources and with promise in advanced applications, in wovens and medical materials, among others.
Abnormal imaging findings key to EVALI diagnosis in vapers
Pulmonary imaging is important in the diagnosis of the acute lung injury associated with vaping, known as electronic cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI), according to a new special review article.
Bad to the bone: Specific gut bacterium impairs normal skeletal growth and maturation
Bone mass accrual is regulated by the gut microbiome as well as by diet and exercise.
Unhealthy and unhappy -- the mental toll of troubled relationships
Some forms of domestic violence double victims' risk of depression and anxiety disorders later in life, according to University of Queensland research.
Increasing tropical land use is disrupting the carbon cycle
An international study led by researchers at Lund University in Sweden shows that the rapid increase in land use in the world's tropical areas is affecting the global carbon cycle more than was previously known.
Critically injured soldiers have high rates of mental health disorders
U.S. combat soldiers who suffered a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are more likely than soldiers with other serious injuries to experience a range of mental health disorders, according to a new retrospective study by University of Massachusetts Amherst health services researchers.
The future of hazelnuts: the economic value of subseasonal forecasts
Cold spells can bring significant costs to agribusiness. Using sub-seasonal forecasts to predict extreme events 2-6 weeks in advance can bring an economic value up to 60% to the players of the hazelnut agribusiness.
More than a knee injury: ACL tears cause harmful changes in our brain structure
It's known that some joint function is often permanently lost after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and re-injury is common even with intensive physical therapy, but it's unclear why.
How active shooter incidents off campus lead to guns on campus
A new study finds that active shooter incidents off campus and politics are key factors that led state legislators to pass laws allowing concealed weapons on college and university campuses between 2004 and 2016.
Best urban design for reducing road injuries
City design combining more public transport and rail networks with smaller, low speed blocks are the best to reduce road transport injuries, according to a new global study co-authored by researchers at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.
New insight into how cannabidiol takes effect in the brains of people with psychosis
Researchers from King's College London have shown that cannabidiol (CBD) alters the brain activity in people with psychosis during memory tasks, making it more similar to the activation seen in people without psychosis during the same tasks.
Second of its kind 'sharpshooter' leafhopper from Brazil 'strikes' with its colouration
When, in 2014, Brazilian researchers stumbled across a red-eyed leafhopper feeding inside bromeliads, growing in the restingas of southeastern Brazil, they were certain it was a one-of-a-kind discovery.
Non-invasive electrostimulation leads to improved memory in mice
The study, led by the Neuropharmacology Laboratory-NeuroPhar, is the result of the collaboration between groups at the DCEXS and the DTIC.
New knowledge on how different brain cell types contribute to our movements
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have mapped how different nerve cells in the brain area striatum process information to plan and execute our movements at just the right time and with the right vigour.
'Scrambled' cells fix themselves
In the human body, cells shield themselves from disease-causing microbes by scrambling their lipids into liquids, according to new research by an international team headed by the Montreal Clinical Research Institute and Université de Montréal.
NICU babies have greater risk of mental health issues
Children who spend time in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at birth have a higher risk of mental health issues later, regardless of their birth weight, say McMaster University researchers.
Tiny magnetic structures enhance medical science
Magnetic nanostructures have interesting properties that enhance novel applications in medical diagnosis and allow the exploration of new therapeutic techniques.
Walnuts may slow cognitive decline in at-risk elderly
Eating walnuts may help slow cognitive decline in at-risk groups of the elderly population, according to a study conducted by researchers in California and Spain.
Virtual assistants provide disappointing advice when asked for first aid, emergency info
Virtual assistants don't yet live up to their considerable potential when it comes to providing users with reliable and relevant information on medical emergencies, according to a new study from University of Alberta researchers.
Scientists create listeriosis-immune mice by turning off gene in myeloid cells
An international research team which includes specialists from ITMO University has conducted a series of experiments to study the immune system and identify the genes and proteins involved in the response to certain harmful bacteria.
Protein levels in urine after acute kidney injury predict future loss of kidney function
High levels of protein in a patient's urine shortly after an episode of acute kidney injury is associated with increased risk of kidney disease progression, providing a valuable tool in predicting those at highest risk for future loss of kidney function.
Kidney paired donation is an excellent option for transplant candidates
An analysis compared transplant recipients who received kidneys through national kidney paired donation and those who received kidneys from other living donors (such as relatives, friends or other paired exchange mechanisms).
Cycling to work? You may live longer
People who cycle to work have a lower risk of dying, a New Zealand study has found.
Hey Google, are my housemates using my smart speaker?
Surveys show that consumers are worried that smart speakers are eavesdropping on their conversations and day-to-day lives.
Novel molecules display potent and selective action against ovarian tumor cells
Compounds based on palladium, a metal belonging to the same group as platinum, have been developed by researchers from Brazil, the UK and Italy.
Research offers promise for treating schizophrenia
Research by a University of Georgia psychologist shows that targeting one particular symptom of schizophrenia has a positive effect on other symptoms.
Antianxiety and antidepressant effects from a single dose of psychedelic drug persist years later in cancer patients
Following up on their landmark 2016 study, researchers at NYU Grossman School of Medicine found that a one-time, single-dose treatment of psilocybin, a compound found in psychedelic mushrooms, combined with psychotherapy appears to be associated with significant improvements in emotional and existential distress in cancer patients.
Researchers foresee the ongoing use of cash
Are the countries of the Eurozone ready to drop cash in hand?
Researchers generalize Fourier's heat equation, explaining hydrodynamic heat propagatio
Researchers have developed a novel set of equations for heat propagation that explain why and how heat propagation can become fluid-like, rather than diffusive.
New mathematical model for amyloid formation
Scientists report on a mathematical model for the formation of amyloid fibrils.
Ethics and Human Research, January-February 2020
Exploitation in 'crowdsourced' research, oversight of right-to-try access to experimental drugs, and more.
Gene therapy success in chronic septic granulomatosis
American and British teams published yesterday in Nature Medicine the conclusive results of a gene therapy trial conducted in the United States and Great Britain in 9 patients with X-linked Chronic Septic Granulomatosis (X-CGD), a rare and severe immune dysfunction.
Six patients with rare blood disease are doing well after gene therapy clinical trial
UCLA researchers are part of an international team that reported the use of a stem cell gene therapy to treat nine people with the rare, inherited blood disease known as X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, or X-CGD.
100 years after development, TB vaccines vary in ability to stimulate immune components
New research from the Precision Vaccines Program at Boston Children's Hospital shows that BCG vaccines for tuberculosis prevention vary widely in their ability to activate components of the immune system.
What's in your water?
Mixing drinking water with chlorine, the United States' most common method of disinfecting drinking water, creates previously unidentified toxic byproducts, says Carsten Prasse from Johns Hopkins University and his collaborators from the University of California, Berkeley and Switzerland.
Artificial intelligence predicts treatment outcome for diabetes-related vision loss
A new approach that uses artificial intelligence to analyze retinal images could one day help doctors select the best treatment for patients with vision loss from diabetic macular edema.
Squid brains approach that of dogs
We are closer to understanding the incredible ability of squid to instantly camouflage themselves thanks to research from The University of Queensland.
Concordian examines the link between cognition and hearing or vision loss
Concordia researcher Natalie Phillips and her colleagues found that poor hearing especially was linked to declines in memory and executive function in otherwise relatively healthy, autonomous, community-dwelling older adults.
China health threats likely to increase due to heatwaves
The coronavirus had caused many deaths in China this month, and a new study has shown increasingly severe and frequent heatwaves could lead to serious health emergencies in future due to climate change.
Most innovative cancer drugs facing delays in reaching patients
Cancer patients have had to wait longer for innovative new cancer drugs than for more conventional treatments, suggesting the most exciting new therapies have not been successfully fast tracked, a new analysis reports.
Stem cells, CRISPR and gene sequencing technology are basis of new brain cancer model
University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers created a new type of brain cancer model for glioblastoma using stem cells, CRISPR and gene sequencing.
Give & take: Cancer chromosomes give the game away
As tumours develop, cancer cells gain and lose so-called 'chromosome arms', changing their response to drugs, a finding which may offer better personalised treatments for 17 types of cancer.
Rethinking land conservation to protect species that will need to move with climate change
A new study finds that many species of animals and plants likely will need to migrate under climate change, and that conservation efforts will also need to shift to be effective.
Helping prevent eco-interventions from backfiring
Drastic ecosystem interventions like eradicating an unwanted species can sometimes backfire, but new University of Queensland-led modelling may help to avoid these ecological hiccups.
New study shows why women have to be likeable, and men don't
A new study in The Economic Journal finds that likeability is an influencing factor in interactions between women, as well as interactions between men and women, but not in all-male interactions.
Weight loss surgery improves breathing issues in obese patients
Bariatric surgery and weight loss appear to reverse some of the negative effects of obesity on the respiratory system, according to a new study.
Third Reich's legacy tied to present-day xenophobia and political intolerance
Who -- or what -- is to blame for the xenophobia, political intolerance and radical political parties spreading through Germany and the rest of Europe?
Pneumonia recovery reprograms immune cells of the lung
Researchers have determined that after lungs recover from infection, alveolar macrophages (immune cells that live in the lungs and help protect the lungs against infection) are different in multiple ways and those differences persist indefinitely.
Weighing more than your twin at birth may predict better achievement at school
Research has shown that children who are born at a low birthweight are less likely to do well in school and more likely to live in lower-income neighborhoods as adults.
AI could deceive us as much as the human eye does in the search for extraterrestrials
An artificial neural network has identified a square structure within a triangular one in a crater on the dwarf planet Ceres, with several people agreeing on this perception.
Stopping sperm in its tracks: latest progress in the hunt for a male contraceptive
Researchers at the University of Dundee have developed an unrivalled, fully automated robotic screening system which allows them to rapidly test the effect of drugs and other chemicals on human sperm.
Better primary care needed to help young stroke survivors return to work
The role of primary care needs to be improved to help young stroke survivors return to work, according to a new study from Queen Mary University of London and the University of Cambridge.
'Curious and curiouser!'
An unusual chunk in a meteorite may contain a surprising bit of space history, based on new research from Washington University in St.
As seen in movies, new meta-hologram can be used as a communication tool
Junsuk Rho and his research team developed a multiplexed meta-hologram device operating at visible light.
Zinc lozenges did not shorten the duration of colds
Administration of zinc acetate lozenges to common cold patients did not shorten colds in a randomized trial published in BMJ Open.
Mayo medical student jump-starts curriculum to identify human trafficking
As human trafficking evolves as a health concern, medical schools are starting to include the topic in education.
Instant hydrogen production for powering fuel cells
Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing and Tsinghua University, Beijing investigate real-time, on-demand hydrogen generation for use in fuel cells, which are a quiet and clean form of energy.
High school GPAs are stronger predictors of college graduation than ACT scores
Students' high school grade point averages are five times stronger than their ACT scores at predicting college graduation, according to a new study published today in Educational Researcher, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association.
Global dissatisfaction with democracy at record high, new report reveals
2019 had the 'highest level of democratic discontent' since detailed global recording began in 1995.
Biomarkers of brain function may lead to clinical tests for hidden hearing loss
A pair of biomarkers of brain function -- one that represents 'listening effort,' and another that measures ability to process rapid changes in frequencies -- may help to explain why a person with normal hearing may struggle to follow conversations in noisy environments, according to a new study led by Massachusetts Eye and Ear researchers.
AI-analyzed blood test can predict the progression of neurodegenerative disease
A new study shows artificial intelligence (AI) analysis of blood samples can predict and explain disease progression, which could one day help doctors choose more appropriate and effective treatments for patients.
Bone marrow-on-a chip provides new research directions for Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome
A new research tool that mimics the behavior of diseased bone marrow provides a new strategy for understanding the bone marrow disease, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), and hopefully, developing new treatments.
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health: Early-life screen time linked to reduced physical activity in preschool children
Children aged two to three who spend more than three hours a day viewing screens such as tablets and televisions (TVs) grow up to be less physically active at age 5.5 years, compared to children who used screens for an hour or less each day, a study published in The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health journal has found.
Researchers develop method to assess geographic origins of ancient humans
Working with lead isotopes taken from tooth enamel of prehistoric animals, researchers at the University of Arkansas have developed a new method for assessing the geographic origins of ancient humans.
Presence of blood clot associated with rapid aortic aneurysm growth
The presence of a blood clot on the wall of the aorta in people with abdominal aortic aneurysms is associated with more rapid, potentially dangerous growth in the aneurysm, according to a major new study.
UL study reveals 'identical' survival for kidney dialysis patients using different treatments
University of Limerick, Ireland, study reveals 'identical' survival rates for kidney dialysis patients using different forms of treatment.
Harrington Seed Destructor kills nearly 100 percent of US agronomic weed seeds in lab study
In the battle against herbicide-resistant weeds, farmers are increasingly eager to add non-chemical control methods to their management toolbox.
A better building block for creating new materials
Researchers describe a new way to synthesize organic 'Legos', a chemical framework that can be easily modified and controlled to create new materials with unique properties.
Key to beating colorectal cancer hiding in plain sight?
Colorectal cancer, one of the most common cancers in the developed world, is intrinsically resistant to many drug therapies.
Mouse brain region processes sound and motion at the same time
New insight on how information relating to sound and movement is processed in the brain has been published today in the open-access journal eLife.
Using virtual reality to help individuals with autism spectrum disorder
Novel interventions using virtual reality to aid individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) handle common scenarios may include helping youngsters navigate air travel.
Upper-plate earthquakes caused uplift along New Zealand's Northern Hikurangi Margin
Earthquakes along a complex series of faults in the upper plate of New Zealand's northern Hikurangi Subduction Margin were responsible for coastal uplift in the region, according to a new evaluation of local marine terraces.
Novel insight into chromosome 21 and its effect on Down syndrome
A UCL-led research team has, for the first time, identified specific regions of chromosome 21, which cause memory and decision-making problems in mice with Down syndrome, a finding that provides valuable new insight into the condition in humans.
1 in 4 kids who get antibiotics in children's hospitals are prescribed drugs incorrectly
New research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St.
New study identifies bumble bees' favorite flowers to aid bee conservation
Research in the Sierra Nevada region of California illustrates the varying flower choices of bumble bees: the five most common bumble bee species studied each selected a different assortment of flowers, and each selected at least one flower species not selected by the others.
Study analyses potential global spread of new coronavirus
Experts in population mapping at the University of Southampton have identified cities and provinces within mainland China, and cities and countries worldwide, which are at high-risk from the spread of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV).
Citizen science discovers a new form of the northern lights
Working together with space researchers, Finnish amateur photographers have discovered a new auroral form.
NUS Medicine researchers can reprogramme cells to original state for regenerative medicine
Scientists from NUS Medicine have found a way to induce totipotency in embryonic cells that have already matured into pluripotency.
Major Asia gene study to help doctors battle disease
'Under-representation of Asian populations in genetic studies has meant that medical relevance for more than half of the human population is reduced,' one researcher said.
Eating disorders linked to exercise addiction
New research shows that exercise addiction is nearly four times more common amongst people with an eating disorder.
Towards better anti-cancer drugs
The Bayreuth biochemist Dr. Claus-D. Kuhn and his research team have deciphered how the important human oncogene CDK8 is activated in cells of healthy individuals.
Tiny salamander's huge genome may harbor the secrets of regeneration
If scientists can find the genetic basis for the axolotl's ability to regenerate, they might be able to find ways to restore damaged tissue in humans.

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