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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | January 30, 2020


Vision may be the real cause of children's problems
Do you have poor motor skills or struggle to read, write or solve math problems?
Machine learning technique speeds up crystal structure determination
A computer-based method could make it less labor-intensive to determine the crystal structures of various materials and molecules, including alloys, proteins and pharmaceuticals.
People may lie to appear honest
People may lie to appear honest if events that turned out in their favor seem too good to be true, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
Astronomers witness the dragging of space-time in stellar cosmic dance
An international team of astrophysicists led by Australian Professor Matthew Bailes, from the ARC Centre of Excellence of Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), has shown exciting new evidence for 'frame-dragging'-- how the spinning of a celestial body twists space and time -- after tracking the orbit of a stellar pair for almost two decades.
Drug class provides cardiovascular benefit for all patients with type 2 diabetes
All type 2 diabetes patient subgroups are likely to achieve cardiovascular protection from the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, according to a large multi-study review published in the Journal of the American Heart Association.
Computer servers now able to retrieve data much faster
Computer scientists at the University of Waterloo have found a novel approach that significantly improves the storage efficiency and output speed of computer systems.
Researchers make critical advances in quantifying methane released from the Arctic Ocean
A new study, lead by researchers at Stockholm university and published in Science Advances, now demonstrate that the amount of methane presently leaking to the atmosphere from the Arctic Ocean is much lower than previously claimed in recent studies.
Study provides first look at sperm microbiome using RNA sequencing
A new collaborative study published by a research team from the Wayne State University School of Medicine, the CReATe Fertility Centre and the University of Massachusetts Amherst provides the first in-depth look at the microbiome of human sperm utilizing RNA sequencing with sufficient sensitivity to identify contamination and pathogenic bacterial colonization.
New research could aid cleaner energy technologies
New research led by faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York, could aid cleaner energy technologies.
Study links daylight saving time to 28 fatal car accidents per year in the US
Several US states have considered doing away with the practice of changing the clocks forward or back in favor of permanent Daylight Saving Time (DST), while experts around the world suggest permanent Standard Time is a better alternative for health and wellbeing.
The first roadmap for ovarian aging
Infertility likely stems from age-related decline of the ovaries, but the molecular mechanisms that lead to this decline have been unclear.
'Remainers' and 'Leavers' more united than divided, study finds
New research suggests those who voted to leave and those who voted to remain have much more in common than is typically assumed.
Letting your child pick their snack may help you eat better, study suggests
Giving in to your kid's desire for an unhealthy snack may improve your own eating choices, a new University of Alberta study shows.
Schizophrenia genetics analyzed in South African Xhosa
Schizophrenia genetics was studied in the Xhosa population because Africa is the birthplace of all humans, yet ancestral African populations are rarely part of genetics research.
If it takes a hike, riders won't go for bike sharing
Even a relatively short walk to find the nearest bicycle is enough to deter many potential users of bike sharing systems, new Cornell research suggests.
Trees struggle when forests become too small
As forest areas shrink and become fragmented, many tree species face problems.
Less chemotherapy may have more benefit in rectal cancer
GI Cancers Symposium: Colorado study of 48 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, found that patients receiving lower-than-recommended doses in fact saw their tumors shrink more than patients receiving the full dose.
New clinical practice guideline for complex ADHD in children and adolescents
New clinical guidelines call strongly for providing psychosocial supports for children and adolescents with complex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
HKUST researchers find that regulating lipid metabolism in neurons helps axon regeneration
Regenerative medicine is the study of repairing tissue and organ function that is lost due to injury, aging, or disease.
Immune response in brain, spinal cord could offer clues to treating neurological diseases
An unexpected research finding is providing information that could lead to new treatments of certain neurological diseases and disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's.
Study: 90-sec scan shows promise evaluating chest pain in Emergency Dept observation unit
A new pilot study has found that a resting 90-second magnetocardiography (MCG) scan shows promise in evaluating emergency department observation unit (EDOU) chest pain patients for Coronary Artery Stenosis.
Cooling a 'massive' solid-state nanoparticle into its quantum ground state
In a study probing the boundary between the classical and quantum worlds, researchers laser-cooled a tiny glass nanoparticle with the density of a solid object to a quantum state.
In Cuba, cleaner rivers follow greener farming
For the first time in more than 50 years, a joint team of Cuban and US scientists studied the water quality of twenty-five Cuban rivers and found little damage after centuries of sugarcane production.
National survey: Students' feelings about high school are mostly negative
In a nationwide survey of 21,678 US high school students, researchers from the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence and the Yale Child Study Center found that nearly 75% of the students' self-reported feelings related to school were negative.
To best treat a burn, first cool with running water, study shows
New research in the January edition of Annals of Emergency Medicine reveals that cooling with running water is the best initial treatment for a child's burn.
'Spring forward' to daylight saving time brings surge in fatal car crashes
A study of 732,000 accidents over two decades has found that the annual switch to daylight saving time is associated with a 6% increase in fatal car crashes that week.
The Lancet: Cervical cancer could be eliminated in countries worst affected by the disease, and 62 million women's lives could be saved by 2120
Over the next 100 years, more than 74 million cervical cancer cases and 60 million deaths could be averted, and the disease eliminated in the 78 countries with the highest disease burden, according to two modelling studies published in The Lancet.
Maino and the emergence of hip-hop as a source of mental resilience
Born in Brooklyn, New York, the rap artist Maino (Jermaine John Colman) takes his experiences not only from growing up in the famous borough, but also the 10 long years he spent behind bars at Riker's Island Penitentiary.
Researchers combine X-rays and laser light to image sprays
Researchers have developed a new laser-based method that provides an unprecedented view of sprays such as the ones used for liquid fuel combustion in vehicle, ship and plane engines.
Trees might be 'aware' of their size
Birch trees adjust their stem thickness to support their weight.
Nanotechnology: Putting a nanomachine to work
A team of chemists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich has successfully coupled the directed motion of a light-activated molecular motor to a different chemical unit -- thus taking an important step toward the realization of synthetic nanomachines.
Imaging study of key viral structure shows how HIV drugs work at atomic level
Salk scientists have discovered how a powerful class of HIV drugs binds to a key piece of HIV machinery.
Cells' springy coils pump bursts of RNA
Models by Rice University chemists calculate the chemical and mechanical energies involved in 'bursty' RNA production in cells.
Bats inspire detectors to help prevent oil and gas pipe leaks
Engineers have developed a new scanning technique inspired by the natural world that can detect corroding metals in oil and gas pipelines.
MSU researcher aids discovery of new cellular mechanism
Montana State University's Ed Schmidt played a key role on an international team that recently discovered a previously unknown mechanism cells can use to protect themselves from oxidative damage.
Penn researchers identify cancer cell defect driving resistance to CAR T cell therapy
Some cancer cells refuse to die, even in the face of powerful cellular immunotherapies like CAR T cell therapy, and new research is shedding light on why.
Coral genes go with the flow further than expected
Simulations reveal unexpected connections in the Red Sea basin that could help marine conservation.
US birth weights drop due to rise in cesarean births, inductions
US birth weights have fallen significantly in recent decades due to soaring rates of cesarean deliveries and inductions which have shortened the average pregnancy by a week, new research shows.
New study identifies Neanderthal ancestry in African populations and describes its origin
After sequencing the Neanderthal genome, scientists discovered all present day non-African individuals carry some Neanderthal ancestry in their DNA.
Immune systems not prepared for climate change
Researchers have for the first time found a connection between the immune systems of different bird species, and the various climatic conditions in which they live.
Improvements in care could save the lives of more acute bowel obstruction patients
Delay in Transit, published by the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD), reviewed 686 cases of patients aged 16 and over, in an attempt to improve the high mortality rates for the condition which are currently at around 10% in cases where surgery is needed.
Study finds vaping prevention program significantly reduces use in middle school students
In response to the youth vaping crisis, experts at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) developed CATCH My Breath, a program to prevent electronic cigarette use among fifth - 12th grade students.
Want to change your personality? It may not be easy to do alone
Most people want to change an aspect of their personality, but left to their own devices, they may not be successful in changing, research shows.
Smoke two of these and call me in the morning? Not quite, study finds
Researchers surveyed cannabis users about beliefs on marijuana's effectiveness in treating certain medical conditions.
Double trouble: A drug for alcoholism can also treat cancer by targeting macrophages
The deadly nature of cancer stems from its ability to spread and grow inside the host.
Fossil foraminifer in marine sediment reveals sea surface water temperature 800,000 years ago
Japanese researchers found that the sea surface water temperature in the northwestern Pacific fluctuated drastically from approximately 800,000 to 750,000 years ago, based on oxygen isotope analyses for fossil foraminifers from an uplifted marine succession in the Chiba composite section on Honshu Island, Japan.
MRI tool can diagnose difficult cases of ovarian cancer
Researchers have developed a new MRI tool that can identify cases of ovarian cancer which are difficult to diagnose using standard methods.
Brain drowns in its own fluid after a stroke
Cerebral edema, swelling that occurs in the brain, is a severe and potentially fatal complication of stroke.
GW study identifies need for disaster preparedness training for dermatologists
A new survey from dermatology and emergency medicine researchers at the George Washington University suggests that the dermatology community is inadequately prepared for a biological disaster and would benefit from a formal preparedness training program.
Shriners affiliation, fertility research, and microbiome paper
January has been an exciting month at The Jackson Laboratory (JAX).
Gene hunting: The power of precision medicine
Humans and animals are made up of trillions of cells, and each cell contains DNA specific to that individual.
Near caves and mines, corrugated pipes may interfere with bat echolocation
Corrugated metal pipes have been installed at cave and mine entrances to help bats access their roosts, but a new study from Brown University researchers suggests that these pipes may actually deter bats.
Can exercise improve video game performance?
Time spent playing video games is often seen as time stolen from physical activities.
Genetics of schizophrenia in South African Xhosa informs understanding for all human populations
In the first genetic analysis of schizophrenia in an ancestral African population, the South African Xhosa, researchers report that individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to carry rare damaging genetic mutations than those who are well.
Families give high marks to parenting supports 'for refugees, by refugees,' study finds
A parenting program, developed by Somali and Bhutanese refugees in partnership with Boston College researchers, retained a majority of participants and showed promise reducing reports of childhood depression and family conflict and improving behavior among children, according to findings published in the Journal of Adolescent Health.
Cooperation after eye contact: Gender matters
Researchers from the UB published an article in the journal Scientific Reports which analyses, through the prisoner's dilemma game, the willingness of people to cooperate when in pairs.
Sustainable 3D-printed super magnets
Magnetic materials play important roles in electrical products. These materials are usually manufactured by means of established production techniques and use of rare earth metals.
Researchers build a better lung model
Using a combination of pluripotent stem cells (cells that can potentially produce any cell or tissue type) and machine learning (artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn automatically), researchers have improved how they generate lung cells.
Likelihood of e-book purchases increase 31% by combining previews and reviews
New research in the INFORMS journal Information Systems Research finds that the purchasing decision of customers considering buying e-books is significantly influenced through easy access to a combination of e-book previews and reviews, resulting in a staggering 31% increase in a consumer's likelihood to purchase an e-book.
New clues into the genetic origins of schizophrenia
The first genetic analysis of schizophrenia in an ancestral African population, the South African Xhosa, appears in the Jan.
Study identifies reasons for drinking in UK serving and ex-serving military personnel
A study, led by the University of Liverpool and King's College London, has identified the reasons why UK serving and ex-serving military personnel drink, in research based on military personnel self-reporting a stress or emotional problem.
Cervical cancer could be eliminated within a century
Cervical cancer could be eliminated worldwide as a public health issue within the next century.
Giving cryptocurrency users more bang for their buck
A new cryptocurrency-routing scheme co-invented by MIT researchers can boost the efficiency -- and, ultimately, profits -- of certain networks designed to speed up notoriously slow blockchain transactions.
Brain's 'GPS system' toggles between present and possible future paths in real time
In a study of rats navigating a simple maze, neuroscientists at UC San Francisco have discovered how the brain may generate such imagined future scenarios.
A quantum of solid
Researchers in Austria use lasers to levitate and cool a glass nanoparticle into the quantum regime.
Putrid compound may have a sweet side gig as atherosclerosis treatment
A compound associated with the smell of death may have potential as a treatment for atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory diseases.
Partisan polarization helps Congress pass bills
While political polarization in the United States is the worst it has been in years, new research from Michigan State University and the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research suggests that having a partisan -- and sometimes divisive -- Congress might be more productive than if bipartisan groups were the norm.
Intravenous drugs can often rapidly restore normal heart rhythm without sedation, shocks
A study published in The Lancet found that two ways of quickly restoring normal heart rhythm in patients with acute atrial fibrillation in the emergency department are equally safe and effective.
Those who believe that the economic system is fair are less troubled by poverty, homelessness, and extreme wealth
We react less negatively to extreme manifestations of economic disparity, such as homelessness, if we think the economic system is fair and legitimate, and these differences in reactivity are even detectable at the physiological level, finds a team of psychology researchers.
SUTD's novel approach allows 3D printing of finer, more complex microfluidic networks
The biomedical industry, involving the engineering of complex tissue constructs and 3D architecture of blood vessels, is one of the key industries to benefit from SUTD's new development.
Research team finds possible new approach for sleeping sickness drugs
Using ultra-bright X-ray flashes, a team of researchers has tracked down a potential target for new drugs against sleeping sickness: The scientists have decoded the detailed spatial structure of a vital enzyme of the pathogen, the parasite Trypanosoma brucei.
New insights into how the human brain solves complex decision-making problems
A research team, led by Professor Sang Wan Lee at KAIST jointly with John O'Doherty at Caltech, succeeded in discovering both a computational and neural mechanism for human meta reinforcement learning, opening up thea possibility offor porting key elements of human intelligence into artificial intelligence algorithms.
McGill researchers lay foundation for next generation aortic grafts
A new study by researchers at McGill University has measured the dynamic physical properties of the human aorta, laying the foundation for the development of grafts capable of mimicking the native behavior of the human body's largest artery.
Mechanism for improvement of photoluminescence intensity in phosphor material
A research team consisting of Toyohashi University of Technology, Nagoya Institute of Technology, and the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) have clarified the mechanism by which the crystal structure of a red phosphor material obtained by adding P2O5 and Eu2O3 to a silicate (Ca2SiO4)-based material at various heat treatment temperatures changes in photoluminescence intensity due to differences in these factors.
Experiencing police brutality increases mistrust in medical institutions, impacts health
There is plenty of data showing that police brutality leads to mistrust of police and law enforcement.
ASU scientists boost gene-editing tools to new heights in human stem cells
David Brafman's Arizona State University lab has developed a new TREE method (an acronym short for transient reporter for editing enrichment, or TREE), which allows for bulk enrichment of DNA base-edited cell populations -- and for the first time, high efficiency in human stem cell lines.
Can wood construction transform cities from carbon source to carbon vault?
A new study by researchers and architects at Yale and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research predicts that a transition to timber-based wood products in the construction of new housing, buildings, and infrastructure would not only offset enormous amounts of carbon emissions related to concrete and steel production -- it could turn the world's cities into a vast carbon sink.
Research brief: Mothers on antiepileptic medication can safely breastfeed
Professor Angela Birnbaum in the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy speaks about breastfeeding and antiepileptic medication.
Pre-eruption seismograms recovered for 1980 Mount St. Helens event
Nearly 40 years ago, analog data tapes faithfully recorded intense seismic activity in the two months before the historic eruption of Mount St.
Robotic submarine snaps first-ever images at foundation of notorious Antarctic glacier
These are the first-ever images taken at the foundations of the glacier that inspires more fear of sea-level rise than any other - Thwaites Glacier.
Salk scientists link rapid brain growth in autism to DNA damage
Researchers at the Salk Institute have discovered a unique pattern of DNA damage that arises in brain cells derived from individuals with a macrocephalic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Lost in translation: Organic matter cuts plant-microbe links
Soil scientists from Cornell and Rice Universities have dug around and found that although adding carbon organic matter to agricultural fields is usually advantageous, it may muddle the beneficial underground communication between legume plants and microorganisms.
A multicentric study identifies a new biomarker for vascular dementias
Lipocalin 2 strongly emerges as a possible new biomarker for vascular dementia.
Advanced medical imaging combined with genomic analysis could help treat cancer patients
Melding the genetic and cellular analysis of tumors with how they appear in medical images could give physicians new insights into how to best treat patients, especially those with brain cancer, according to a new study led by TGen.
New target identified for repairing the heart after heart attack
An immune cell is shown for the first time to be involved in creating the scar that repairs the heart after damage.
Genetic screen offers new drug targets for Huntington's disease
Using a genetic screen that was previously impossible in the mammalian brain, MIT neuroscientists have identified hundreds of genes that are necessary for neuron survival.
Rapid weather swings increase flu risk
New research from a team of Florida State University scientists shows that rapid weather variability as a result of climate change could increase the risk of a flu epidemic in some highly populated regions in the late 21st century.
IU study looks at the effect of Medicaid expansion on the SUD treatment workforce
Medicaid expansion has led to substantial increases in Medicaid reimbursement for substance use treatment, it has not specifically led to a detectable increase in hiring attempts to increase the substance use disorder and behavioral health treatment workforce, according to a study by Indiana University researchers.
High and low exercise intensity found to influence brain function differently
A new study shows for the first time that low and high exercise intensities differentially influence brain function.
KU Leuven researchers discover new piece of the puzzle for Parkinson's disease
Biomedical scientists at KU Leuven have discovered that a defect in the ATP13A2 gene causes cell death by disrupting the cellular transport of polyamines.
Modern Africans and Europeans may have more Neanderthal ancestry than previously thought
Neanderthal DNA sequences may be more common in modern Africans than previously thought, and different non-African populations have levels of Neanderthal ancestry surprisingly similar to each other, finds a study publishing Jan.
Hemp 'goes hot' due to genetics, not growing conditions
As the hemp industry grows, producers face the risk of cultivating a crop that can become unusable -- and illegal -- if it develops too much of the psychoactive chemical THC.
Machine learning automates identification of crystal structures in new materials
Providing a method for eliminating some of the guesswork from crystal structure determination, a machine learning-based approach to determining crystal symmetry and structure from unknown samples may greatly improve the speed and accuracy of this process.
Your gums reveal your diet
Sweet soft drinks and lots of sugar increase the risk of both dental cavities and inflammation of the gums -- known as periodontal diseases -- and if this is the case, then healthy eating habits should be prioritized even more.
New research establishes how first exposure to flu virus sets on our immunity for life
The first type of influenza virus we are exposed to in early childhood dictates our ability to fight the flu for the rest of our lives, according to a new study from a team of infectious disease researchers at McMaster University and Université de Montréal.
HIV outcomes improved by state-purchased insurance plans, study finds
Increasing enrollment in the plans could save millions in healthcare costs and even reduce HIV transmission, the researchers say.
Self-learning heat­ing control system saves energy
Can buildings learn to save all by themselves? Empa researchers think so.
Health: Daily smoking and drinking may be associated with advanced brain age
Daily drinking and smoking may be associated with modest increases in relative brain age compared to those who drink and smoke less, according to a study published in Scientific Reports.
Bacteria engineered to protect bees from pests and pathogens
Scientists from The University of Texas at Austin report in the journal Science that they have developed a new strategy to protect honey bees from a deadly trend known as colony collapse: genetically engineered strains of bacteria.
Poliovirus therapy shows potential as cancer vaccine in lab studies
A modified form of poliovirus, pioneered at Duke Cancer Institute as a therapy for glioblastoma brain tumors, appears in laboratory studies to also have applicability for pediatric brain tumors when used as part of a cancer vaccine.
The Atlantic Ocean fingerprint on the climate of the Middle East
The fluctuation in sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic basin has an influence on the summer temperatures variability in the Middle East, and the current warming trend observed over the region could persist as the North Atlantic remains anomalously warm, adding to the global warming effects.
Health: Vegetarian diet linked with lower risk of urinary tract infections
A vegetarian diet may be associated with a lower risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs), a study in Scientific Reports suggests.
Pulsar-white dwarf binary system confirms general relativistic frame-dragging
A century after it was first theorized, researchers have detected the effects of Lense-Thirring precession -- an effect of relativistic frame-dragging -- in the motion of a distant binary star system, a new study reports.
Biological diversity as a factor of production
Can the biodiversity of ecosystems be considered a factor of production?
Movement study could be significant in helping understand brain rehabilitation
Researchers from the University of Plymouth (UK) and Technical University of Munich (Germany) say their study could be particularly important for those working in rehabilitation and helping people to recover after neurological conditions.
Autonomous microtrap for pathogens
Antibiotics are more efficient when they can act on their target directly at the site of infestation, without dilution.
Giving some pregnant women progesterone could prevent 8,450 miscarriages a year -- experts
Researchers at the University of Birmingham and Tommy's National Centre for Miscarriage Research say giving progesterone to women with early pregnancy bleeding and a history of miscarriage could lead to 8,450 more babies being born each year.
Wearable health tech gets efficiency upgrade
North Carolina State University engineers have demonstrated a flexible device that harvests the heat energy from the human body to monitor health.
What makes fear decrease
In uncanny situations, the mere presence of an unknown person can have a calming effect.
Autonomous vehicles could benefit health if cars are electric and shared
A new ISGlobal study analyzes the potential health impact of self-driving cars -- the transport of the future.
Solving the riddle of strigolactone biosynthesis in plants
Researchers from Kobe University's Graduate School of Agricultural Science have discovered the orobanchol synthase responsible for converting the strigolactone (SL) carlactonoic acid, which promotes symbiotic relationships with fungi, into the SL orobanchol, which causes root parasitic weeds to germinate.
New research shows sustainability can be a selling point for new ingredients
The first UK consumer study on the use of Bambara Groundnut as an ingredient in products has shown that sharing information on its sustainable features increased consumers' positive emotional connection to food.
Ketamine use is underreported -- likely due to unknown exposure -- among EDM partygoers
Nearly 37% of electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees test positive for ketamine use when samples of their hair are tested -- despite only 14.6% disclosing that they have used the drug in the past year.
UNC Lineberger discovery would allow researchers to fine-tune CAR-T activity
In a study published in Cancer Cell, researchers reported new findings about the regulation of co-stimulatory molecules that could be used to activate cancer-killing immune cells - chimeric antigen receptor T-cells, or CAR-T -- or decrease their activity.
A consensus statement establishes the protocols to assess and report stability of perovskite photovoltaic devices
The existing characterization procedures to evaluate emerging photovoltaic devices are not appropriate for halide perovskite solar cells, a new generation of solar cells called to overcome the present state-of-the-art technologies.
How HIV develops resistance to key drugs discovered
The mechanism behind how HIV can develop resistance to a widely-prescribed group of drugs has been uncovered by new research from the Crick and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, with the findings opening the door to the development of more effective treatments.
Role-playing game increases empathy for immigrants, study shows
In a study, college students created a fictional online persona from a randomly assigned country and attempted to navigate the administrative hurdles of obtaining a green card and citizenship.
Physics of giant bubbles bursts secret of fluid mechanics
A study inspired by street performers making gigantic soap bubbles led to a discovery in fluid mechanics: Mixing different molecular sizes of polymers within a solution increases the ability of a thin film to stretch without breaking.
Research zeroing in on electronic nose for monitoring air quality, diagnosing disease
Research has pushed science closer to developing an electronic nose for monitoring air quality, detecting safety threats and diagnosing diseases by measuring gases in a patient's breath.
Patterns in the brain shed new light on how we function
Patterns of brain connectivity take us a step closer to understanding the key principles of cognition.

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