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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | February 07, 2020


Using neutrons and X-rays to analyze the aging of lithium batteries
An international team has used neutron and X-ray tomography to investigate the dynamic processes that lead to capacity degradation at the electrodes in lithium batteries.
Understanding gut microbiota, one cell at a time
Summary: Waseda University scientists devised a novel single-cell genomic sequencing technique that enables detailed, functional analysis of uncultured bacteria and identified bacterial responders of dietary fiber inulin in mouse gut microbiota.
Silver sawtooth creates valley-coherent light for nanophotonics
Scientists at the University of Groningen used a silver sawtooth nanoslit array to produce valley-coherent photoluminescence in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide flakes at room temperature.
Statistical method developed at TUD allows the detection of higher order dependencies
In December, the academic publisher De Gruyter launched its new journal Open Statistics with an opening article by TU Dresden mathematician Dr.
Bacterial influencers -- rhizosphere microbiome mediates root metabolite exudation
The rhizosphere is home to a rich microbial diversity. The metabolites secreted by the roots (products of root exudation) are known to shape the composition of the root microbiota.
NASA analyzes tropical cyclone Damien's water vapor concentration
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Southern Indian Ocean on Feb.
Mediterranean sea urchins are more vulnerable than previously thought
The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, an eatable species of great commercial interest found in the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic, is more vulnerable than so far believed.
Cancer vaccine could boost the effectiveness of immunotherapy
Supercharging the mutation rate in cancer cells can create a powerful vaccine that is able to boost the effectiveness of immunotherapy, a major new study reports.
Engineers mix and match materials to make new stretchy electronics
A process developed by MIT engineers may be the key to manufacturing flexible electronics with multiple functionalities in a cost-effective way.
Middle-aged adults worried about health insurance costs now, uncertain for future
Health insurance costs weigh heavily on the minds of many middle-aged adults, and many are worried for what they'll face in retirement or if federal health policies change, according to a new study.
Simple, solar-powered water desalination
A completely passive solar-powered desalination system developed by researchers at MIT and in China could provide more than 1.5 gallons of fresh drinking water per hour for every square meter of solar collecting area.
HKU team identifies areas of top priority for deep-sea monitoring
Responses were collected from 112 leading deep-sea scientists around the world regarding deep-sea monitoring, conservation and management by an international research team.
Biodiversity yields financial returns
Farmers could increase their revenues by increasing biodiversity on their land.
In vitro organ model research trends
Two distinct approaches are predominantly used to recapitulate physiologically relevant in vitro human organ models.
The power of going small: Copper oxide subnanoparticle catalysts prove most superior
Scientists at Tokyo Tech have shown that copper oxide particles on the sub-nanoscale are more powerful catalysts than those on the nanoscale.
NASA sees Tropical Storm Damien form off Australia's Pilbara Coast
The low-pressure area that formed off Australia's Kimberley coast and lingered there for a couple of days has moved west and developed into Tropical Cyclone Damien off the Pilbara coastline (also known as the northwest coast of Western Australia).
Synthetic biology: Risk reduction, uncertainty and ethics
Joyce Tait, Founder and co-Director of the Innogen Institute -- a partnership with the University of Edinburgh and The Open University in the United Kingdom to speak during the AAAS 2020 session on 'Synthetic Biology: Digital Design of Living Systems.' She will explore the re-engineering of biological components through computational modelling and bio-systems design technologies and how they will require new frameworks for adaptive and responsible regulation.
Protein closely linked to commonest cause of blindness
An international team of scientists has identified a protein which is strongly linked to the commonest cause of blindness in developed countries when its levels are raised in the blood.
Neurobiological mechanisms involved in the loss of control in a study in mice revealed
The study conducted in rodents reveals a specific mechanism in this crucial cortical circuit for food addiction that involves a loss of control over intake.
Mayo researchers discover way to prime cancer tumors for immunotherapy
A cancer tumor's ability to mutate allows it to escape from chemotherapy and other attempts to kill it.
Mindfulness helps obese children lose weight
Mindfulness-based therapy may help reduce stress, appetite and body weight in children with obesity and anxiety, according to a study published in Endocrine Connections.
Study shows social media and search engines are better than their reputation suggests
A recent study undertaken by researchers from Germany contradicts the assumption that the use of social networks and search engines has had a negative impact on the diversity of news that people access.
Supervisors share effective ways to include people with disabilities in the workplace
Among the 201 7 survey's findings were processes that were effective, but underutilized by organizations, according to Dr.
Light burns with new acids
Photo-acid generators (PAG) use light to generate acids as catalysts for various chemical reactions.
Next generation of greenhouses may be fully solar powered
Many greenhouses could become energy neutral by using see-through solar panels to harvest energy - primarily from the wavelengths of light that plants don't use for photosynthesis.
Jackiw-Rebbi zero-mode: Realizing non-Abelian braiding in non-Majorana system
Topological quantum computation is widely considered as a Holy Grail in the field of condensed matter physics.
Epigenetics: Inheritance of epigenetic markers
A study undertaken by an international team led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich molecular biologist Axel Imhof sheds new light on the mechanisms that control the establishment of epigenetic modifications on newly synthesized histones following cell division.
Inhomogeneous-strain-induced magnetic vortex cluster in one-dimensional manganite wire
Research teams in China in collaboration with German scientists achieved magnetic vortex clusters with flux closure spin configurations in single-crystal La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) wire.
Novel techniques for mining patented gene therapies offer promising treatment options
A team of scientists from Purdue University and other research institutions around the world have come together to better understand the growing number of worldwide patented innovations available for gene therapy treatment.
New progress in turbulent combustion modeling: Filtered flamelet model
Recently, a new modeling idea for turbulent diffusion flame has been proposed by Lipo Wang's group from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Jian Zhang from the Institute of Mechanics, CAS.
Build it and they will come
Migration, both domestic and abroad, is playing a major role in transforming the world's largest cities, and Moscow is no exception.
Bright idea in dentist's office leads to innovative smoking cessation project
Results from this study, recently published online in Addiction, found providing smokers with a free, two week starter kit of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increased quit attempts, use of stop smoking medications, and smoking abstinence as compared with standard care in a primary care setting.
New CAR-T target yields promising results for multiple myeloma
In research published today in the journal Nature Communications, Utah-based scientists describe a novel way to treat cancers using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy.
Fly model offers new approach to unraveling 'difficult' pathogen
Clostridium difficile, a bacterium known to cause symptoms from diarrhea to life-threatening colon damage, is part of a growing epidemic for the elderly and hospitalized patients.
Oligomers observed mimicking the combination of DNA strands: Study
An international research team have for the first time observed dynamic covalent oligomers mimicking the combination of complementary DNA strands, which could lead to exciting developments in electronics and the engineering of interfaces between prostheses and body tissue.
The complex effects of colonial rule in Indonesia
The areas of Indonesia where Dutch colonial rulers built a huge sugar-producing industry in the 1800s remain more economically productive today than other parts of the country, according to a study co-authored by an MIT economist.
Menopause timing hard to determine in every third woman
Is it possible to investigate menopausal age, or not? In more than one in three women aged 50, the body provides no clear answer about the menopause, Swedish study shows.
Minimally-invasive hydrogen therapy of cancer based on in-vivo electrochemistry
The green and conceptually new in-vivo H2 generation electrochemotherapy of tumor has been reported by combined use of Chinese acupuncture Fe needle electrode and in vivo electrochemistry.
New details on how a viral protein puts the brakes on virus replication
Researchers used computational chemistry, biochemistry and virology to uncover new information on how viruses such as West Nile, dengue and Zika replicate.
More people and fewer wild fish lead to an omega-3 supply gap
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential components of healthy diets for both humans and fish.
Evolution of Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and modeling of spike protein for human transmission
The pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019 was caused by a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which was found to belong to Betacoronavirus and share with SARS/SARS-like coronaviruses a common ancestor resembling bat coronavirus HKU9-1.
Seeing blue after the little blue pill: Visual disturbances in Viagra users
Sildenafil, a common treatment for erectile dysfunction, is typically safe with limited side effects.
New commuter concern: Cancerous chemical in car seats
The longer your commute, the more you're exposed to a chemical flame retardant that is a known carcinogen and was phased out of furniture use because it required a Proposition 65 warning label in California.
Cervical cancer screening saves lives
Three-year interval in screening for cervical cancer is as effective as annual checkups, study finds.
International team delivers research breakthrough for leading cause of blindness
Researchers have identified a new protein linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that could offer new hope for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, which affects over 1.5 million people in the UK alone.
Mystery of marine recycling squad solved
Nitrogen cycling in shelf waters is crucial to reduce surplus nutrients, which rivers pour out into the ocean.
Scientists resurrect mammoth's broken genes
Mammoths on Wrangel Island may have been the last of their kind anywhere on Earth.
No clear path for golden rice to reach consumers
Heralded as a genetically modified crop with the potential to save millions of lives, Golden Rice has just been approved as safe for human and animal consumption by regulators in the Philippines.
Plugging into a 6G future with users at the center
For a communications revolution, 6G development needs more human-centric research.
Galaxy formation simulated without dark matter
For the first time, researchers from the universities of Bonn and Strasbourg have simulated the formation of galaxies in a universe without dark matter.
Artificial intelligence can analyze myoclonus severity from video footage
Fast, reliable and automatic assessment of the severity of myoclonic jerks from video footage is now possible, thanks to an algorithm using deep convolutional neural network architecture and pretrained models that identify and track keypoints in the human body.
Family dynamics may influence suicidal thoughts in children
Research from Washington University in St. Louis shows a nontrivial rate of children as young as 9- and 10- years old are thinking about suicide.
New platform for composing genetic programs in mammalian cells
A new ensemble of parts for mammalian synthetic biology will enable the design and construction of genetic programs not previously possible.
Combined drug treatment for lung cancer and secondary tumors
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology a promising novel approach for a combined treatment of the most common type of lung cancer and associated secondary cancers in the central nervous system.
Burrowing mayfly's decline may serve as a warning system for the health of our environment
But scientists from Virginia Tech and the University of Notre Dame recently discovered that a particular species -- the burrowing mayfly -- had a population decrease of nearly 84 percent from 2015 to 2019.
Linguistics: The pronunciation paradox
Learners of foreign languages can hear the errors in pronunciation that fellow learners tend to make, but continue to fall foul of them themselves despite years of practice.
Discovery paves path forward in the fight against the deadliest form of malaria
Scientists have identified a key molecule involved in the development of cerebral malaria, a deadly form of the tropical disease.
Inequitable medicare reimbursements threaten care of most vulnerable
Hospitals, doctors and Medicare Advantage insurance plans that care for some of the most vulnerable patients are not reimbursed fairly by Medicare, according to recent findings in JAMA.
Invisible X-rays turn blue
A new reaction system can detect X-rays at the highest sensitivity ever recorded by using organic molecules.
Russian scientists propose a technology reducing the cost of high-efficiency solar cells
A group of St. Petersburg scientists has proposed and experimentally tested a technology for the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells based on A3B5 semiconductors integrated on a silicon substrate, which in the future may increase the efficiency of the existing single-junction photovoltaic converters by 1.5 times.
Caught soap-handed: Understanding how soap molecules help proteins get in and out of shape
Controlling protein structure is crucial in the production of detergents and cosmetics.
Study resurrects mammoth DNA to explore the cause of their extinction
A new study in Genome Biology and Evolution, published by Oxford University Press, resurrected the mutated genes of the last herd of woolly mammoths and found that their small population had developed a number of genetic defects that may have proved fatal for the species.
Mapping the future direction for bioprinting research
The way research in bioprinting will be taken forward has been laid out in a roadmap for the field.
Generalist diet helps invasive crayfish thrive where it's introduced
An invasive species of crayfish that is taking over streams from Wisconsin to Maine might be successful because it's not a fussy eater, according to biologists with the University of Cincinnati.
Children with ADHD more likely to receive medication if they live in poorer areas
Children with ADHD from the poorest areas are significantly more likely to receive medication as children with ADHD from the most affluent areas, according to the first UK study of its kind.
New method to detect early-stage cancer identified by Georgia State, Emory research team
A new method to detect cancer in its early stages using a targeted MRI contrast agent that binds to proteins has been identified by a team of researchers led by Georgia State University Regents' Professor Jenny Yang.
One small grain of moon dust, one giant leap for lunar studies
Scientists have found a new way to analyze the chemistry of the moon's soil using a single grain of dust brought back by Apollo 17 astronauts in 1972.
Scientists identify new biochemical 'warning sign' of early-stage depression
Major depressive disorder affects over 300 million people worldwide, but so far there have been no established biomarkers that clinicians can rely on to detect early-stage depression symptoms.
High levels of PFAS affect immune, liver functions in cape fear river striped bass
Researchers have found elevated levels of 11 per- and polyfluoroalkyl (PFAS) chemicals in the blood of Cape Fear River striped bass.
Designer proteins
David Baker, Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Washington to speak at the AAAS 2020 session, 'Synthetic Biology: Digital Design of Living Systems.' Prof.
Microscopic eye movements vital for 20/20 vision
Visual acuity--the ability to discern letters, numbers, and objects from a distance--is essential for tasks including recognizing a friend across a room and driving.
Few consumers understand THC levels in cannabis edibles
Few cannabis consumers understand what the THC numbers on packages of cannabis edibles really mean, according to a new University of Waterloo study.
How long coronaviruses persist on surfaces and how to inactivate them
How long do corona viruses persist on surfaces such as door handles or hospital bedside tables?
Understanding unexplained low blood sugar in children: More than normal variation
Idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia (IKH) is often relatively mild and may remain undiagnosed.
Pneumococcal vaccines are effective -- But new strategies needed to reduce meningitis
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been highly effective in reducing pneumonia and other invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria.
Large dipole moment induced wide-spectrum bismuth chromate for efficient photocatalytic performance
Herein, a wide-spectrum (~678 nm) responsive Bi8(CrO4)O11 photocatalyst with a theoretical solar spectrum efficiency of 42.0% was successfully constructed.
Bovine embryo completely regenerates placenta-forming cells
A calf was born from an embryo lacking cells which form a large part of the placenta, providing new insight into the regenerative capacity of mammalian embryos.

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