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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | February 10, 2020


More teens coming out as LGBQ, but suicide attempts still high: BU study
A new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study finds that the proportion of high school students identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) doubled from 2009 to 2017, while the LGBQ teen rate of attempted suicide went from five times the rate for their straight peers to nearly four times the rate.
The brain of migraine sufferers is hyper-excitable, new study suggests
Individuals who suffer from migraine headaches appear to have a hyper-excitable visual cortex researchers at the Universities of Birmingham and Lancaster suggest.
A happy partner leads to a healthier future
Michigan State University research found that those who are optimistic contribute to the health of their partners, staving off the risk factors leading to Alzheimer's disease, dementia and cognitive decline as they grow old together.
Study: It's devastatingly common for African mothers to experience child loss
University of Southern California and University of Chicago sociologists propose new indicators to estimate how common it is for mothers to have experienced the death of a child.
Statins: Researchers uncover how cholesterol-lowering drugs cause muscle pain
Patients who take statins in order to lower their blood cholesterol levels often complain about muscle problems, typically muscle pain.
Cervical cancer elimination possible within two decades in the US
At current levels of screening and HPV vaccination, cervical cancer incidence in the US is projected to fall below the threshold of elimination by 2038-2046.
Study examines the impact of oil contaminated water on tubeworms and brittlestars
A new study published by Dauphin Island Sea Lab researchers adds a new layer to understanding how an oil spill could impact marine life.
But what about flow? The effect of hydrodynamics on liquid-liquid transitions
The University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science researchers modeled the role of hydrodynamics in liquid-liquid transitions of a single-component system.
Human gut-in-a-dish model helps define 'leaky gut,' and outline a pathway to treatment
UC San Diego researchers use 3D human gut organoids to reveal the molecular system that keeps intestinal linings sealed, demonstrate how the system breaks down and how it can be strengthened with the diabetes drug metformin.
Coronavirus outbreak raises question: Why are bat viruses so deadly?
A UC Berkeley study of cultured bat cells shows that their strong immune responses, constantly primed to respond to viruses, can drive viruses to greater virulence.
Review of evidence finds excessive smartphone, social media use may be linked to youth mental health
A new article in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) reviews evidence that suggests an association between excessive smartphone and social media use and mental distress and suicidality among adolescents.
'Reverse fuel cell' converts waste carbon to valuable products at record rates
Fuel cells turn chemicals into electricity. Now, a U of T Engineering team has adapted technology from fuel cells to do the reverse: harness electricity to make valuable chemicals from waste carbon (CO2).
Is it hemp or marijuana? New scanner gives instant answer
Hemp is technically legal in Texas, but proving that hemp is not marijuana can be a hurdle, requiring testing in a licensed laboratory.
Testosterone levels affect risk of metabolic disease and cancers
Having genetically higher testosterone levels increases the risk of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes in women, while reducing the risk in men.
How China's one-child policy helped shrink the education gap
A new study uses China's one-child policy to show that having fewer children leads women to achieve higher levels of education.The research found that the one-child policy alone accounted for about half of the additional education that women in China achieved after the policy was put in place.
How some mammals pause their pregnancies
Some species of mammals can delay the implantation of their embryos until conditions are better for bearing and rearing offspring.
Sensory perception is not superficial brain work
How does the brain decide which of the senses it will focus attention on when two interact?
New threads: Nanowires made of tellurium and nanotubes hold promise for wearable tech
Wearable tech requires both strength and flexibility. A new nanowire design -- a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) filled with tellurium atomic chains -- holds promise for electronics triggered by light and pressure.
Adding sewage sludge on soils does not promote antibiotic resistance, Swedish study shows
Adding sewage sludge on soils does not promote antibiotic resistance, a study from University of Gothenburg shows.
Experimental measurement of the quantum geometric tensor using coupled qubits in diamond
Geometry and topology are fundamental concepts in matter science. In quantum mechanics, the geometry of quantum states is fully captured by the quantum geometric tensor.
New repair mechanism for DNA breaks
Researchers from the University of Seville and the Andalusian Centre of Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER) have identified new factors that are necessary for the repair of these breaks.
Model shows how to make on-farm sustainable energy projects profitable
Researchers have developed a model that could boost investment in farm-based sustainable energy projects by allowing investors to more accurately predict whether a project will turn a profit.
New technology could help solve AI's 'memory bottleneck'
Electrical engineers have developed a new magnetic memory device that could potentially support the surge of data-centric computing, which requires ever-increasing power, storage and speed.
Global warming and extinction risk
How can fossils predict the consequences of climate change? A German research team from Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), the Museum of Natural History Berlin and the Alfred Wegener Institute compared data from fossil and marine organisms living today to predict which groups of animals are most at risk from climate change.
New method offers more stable, efficient electrocatalytic reactions
By fluidizing catalyst particles in electrolyte instead of gluing them to electrodes, researchers made electrocatalytic reactions that are more efficient and longer lasting, which play an important role in energy storage.
Five things to know about egg freezing
Egg freezing for age-related fertility is becoming more common, and a short article in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) provides quick reference points on the topic for primary care providers.
Geothermal energy: Drilling a 3,000 meters deep well
Destabilising the precarious equilibrium at depth with geothermal wells may reactivate the geological layers causing earthquakes.
Quantum technologies: New insights into superconducting processes
Superconductors are regarded as promising components for quantum computers, but so far they only function at very low temperatures.
Sensitive and specific potassium nanosensors to detect epileptic seizures
IBS scientists in collaboration with collaborators at Zhejiang University,have reported a highly sensitive and specific nanosensor that can monitor dynamic changes of potassium ion in mice undergoing epileptic seizures, indicating their intensity and origin in the brain.
NASA analyzes ex-Tropical Cyclone Damien's rainfall in Western Australia
Tropical Cyclone Damien made landfall on Feb. 9 along the northern Pilbara coast of Western Australia.
Daily exposure to ozone pollution linked to increased risk of death
Daily exposure to ground level ozone in cities worldwide is associated with an increased risk of death, finds the largest study of its kind published by The BMJ today.
Single HPV vaccine dose may be effective against cervical cancer
New research published in CANCER indicates that a single dose of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is as effective as multiple doses for preventing preinvasive cervical disease, which can later develop into cervical cancer.
Diabetes more common in First Nations people, especially women, than in other people
Diabetes is more common in First Nations people, especially women, and occurs at younger ages than in other people in Ontario, found a new study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Chemistry technique is 'warp drive' for creating better synthetic molecules for medicine
In a study with implications for the future of drug discovery, Scripps Research scientists showed they were able to turn simple chemicals into unique 3-D structures resembling those found in nature -- structures with desirable properties for medicines.
Scientists warn humanity about worldwide insect decline
Insect declines and extinctions are accelerating in many parts of the world.
Adapting to climate change: We're doing it wrong
When it comes to adapting to the effects of climate change, scientists and policymakers are thinking too small, according to a new research review.
'Women my age tend to drink -- it's normal'
New Edith Cowan University (ECU) research has found that despite the potential health risks of exceeding national drinking guidelines, many middle-aged and young-old women who consume alcohol at high risk levels tend to perceive their drinking as normal and acceptable, so long as they appear respectable and in control.
Seurat therapeutics announces novel mechanisms from rat migraine model of intranasal IGF-1
Studies demonstrated intranasal Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) safely and effectively dampens activation of the trigeminal system pain pathway in rats, a known site of pain origin in migraine headaches The results support further development of nasal IGF-1 as a novel treatment for migraines, which afflict 39 million people in the USA.
Rifles and shotguns used more often in youth and rural suicides
The researchers say their findings, published Feb. 3 in Injury Epidemiology, suggest that adopting safety measures for rifles or shotguns may prevent suicides, particularly among young people and rural-area residents.
Statins may lower mortality in high-risk prostate cancer patients
Statin use alone or with metformin is associated with lower prostate cancer mortality from all causes, among high-risk patients.
Scientists closer to finding the cell of origin for ovarian cancer
Researchers have used a new technique to identify six previously unknown cell types in human Fallopian tubes, paving the way for faster identification and treatment of ovarian cancer.
Finding a cure for Fido's brain cancer may help us find a cure for ourselves
For cancers such as glioma, preclinical research models have failed to provide sufficient insight for medical progress.
Study finds innate protein that restricts HIV replication by targeting lipid rafts
A recent study from the George Washington University suggests that the innate protein AIBP restricts HIV-1 replications by targeting the lipid rafts the virus relies on.
Quantum fluctuations sustain the record superconductor
Calculations performed by an international team of researchers from Spain, Italy, France, Germany, and Japan show that the crystal structure of the record superconducting LaH10 compound is stabilized by atomic quantum fluctuations.
Powering the future: Smallest all-digital circuit opens doors to 5 nm next-gen semiconductor
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Socionext Inc. have designed the world's smallest all-digital phase-locked loop (PLL).
Increases in minimum wage may not have anticipated positive health effects, study shows
A new study by researchers at the University of Washington found that increases in minimum wages primarily had no effect on health overall.
Summary report on small cell lung cancer research points to progress and challenges
In 2017, a group of lung cancer experts posed the question: 'Can recent advances in tumor biology that have led to progress treating non-small cell lung cancer translate into improved outcomes for small cell lung cancer?' According to an article ''New Approaches to Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapy : From the Laboratory to the Clinic,'' published in the February issue of the Journal of Thoracic Oncology, the answer is ''yes.''
Tumor vs. immune system: A battle to decide the host's fate
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba found that soluble CD155 suppresses NK cells of the innate immune system to promote tumor growth by interfering with DNAM-1.
Patient-partnered research finds clues about a rare cancer's genetic roots
Working in close partnership with patients, scientists have identified new causes of a rare cancer of blood vessel walls called angiosarcoma.
City of Hope's Triplex vaccine reduces rate of CMV complications in transplant recipients
Patients who underwent a stem cell transplant and received the Triplex vaccine to prevent a type of herpes virus -- cytomegalovirus (CMV) -- from duplicating out of control were 50% less likely to develop health complications related to the virus than patients who did not take Triplex, according to a City of Hope-led study published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Neural signature identifies people likely to respond to antidepressant medication
Researchers have discovered a neural signature that predicts whether individuals with depression are likely to benefit from sertraline, a commonly prescribed antidepressant medication.
Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy connected to elevated risk of ADHD
According to a study conducted in Finland, the risk of ADHD was 34 percent higher in children whose mother had a vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy than in those children whose mother's vitamin D level was sufficient during the first and second trimesters.
Brain-wave pattern can identify people likely to respond to antidepressant, study finds
A new method of interpreting brain activity could be used in clinics to help determine the best treatment options for depression, according to a Stanford-led trial.
Researchers virtually 'unwind' lithium battery for the first time
An international team led by researchers at UCL has revealed new insights into the workings of a lithium battery by virtually 'unrolling' its coil of electrode layers using an algorithm designed for papyrus scrolls.
Youth with HIV less likely than adults to achieve viral suppression
Despite similar rates of enrollment into medical care, youth with HIV have much lower rates of viral suppression --reducing HIV to undetectable levels -- compared to adults, according to an analysis funded by the National Institutes of Health.
Epigenetics: Inheritance of epigenetic marks
A study undertaken by an international team led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich molecular biologist Axel Imhof sheds new light on the mechanisms that control the establishment of epigenetic modifications on newly synthesized histones following cell division.
AI, brain scans may alter how doctors treat depression
Artificial intelligence may soon play a critical role in choosing which depression therapy is best for patients.
Inner 'clockwork' sets the time for cell division in bacteria
Researchers at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel have discovered a 'clockwork' mechanism that controls cell division in bacteria.
New world map of fish genetic diversity
An international research team from ETH Zurich and French universities has studied genetic diversity among fish around the world for the first time.
NIH scientists link higher maternal blood pressure to placental gene changes
Higher maternal blood pressure in pregnancy is associated with chemical modifications to placental genes, according to a study by researchers from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Initial protective role of nervous system's 'star-shaped cells' in sporadic motor neuron disease uncovered
Support cells in the nervous system help protect motor neurons in the early-stages of sporadic motor neuron disease, according to new research from the Crick and UCL.
It's Iron, Man: ITMO scientists found a way to treat cancer with iron oxide nanoparticles
Particles previously loaded with the antitumor drug are injected in vivo and further accumulate at the tumor areas.
APS tip sheet: Predicting epidemics' speed
New analysis predicts how quickly an epidemic could spread globally.
Simulations identify missing link to determine carbon in deep Earth reservoirs
How much carbon lies deep in the Earth's water reservoirs?
Novel melatonin receptor molecules make possible therapies to adjust biological clock
Researchers have discovered through a vast and novel computational library the first molecules that can modulate circadian rhythms by binding with high selectivity to the MT1 melatonin receptor in the brain.
Lack of transparency in urban sustainability rankings
UPV/EHU researchers have looked at the quality and good methodological practices employed and published in 21 rankings, indexes and similar tools used for classifying and monitoring urban sustainability.
Creating the ideal nasal tip contour
The dramatic shift in how nasal tip surgery is being performed given changes in the intended goals and evolving techniques is highlighted in a Special Communication by and interview with Dean Toriumi, MD, published in the Official Journal of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Facial Plastic Surgery & Aesthetic Medicine, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.
A thermometer can be stretched and crumpled by water
Prof. Taiho Park and his research team developed a flexible ionic conductor that is water-processable and thermal stable.
The Lancet Neurology: Discovery could speed diagnosis and treatment of children with life-threatening neurological diseases
A group of life-threatening neurological conditions affecting children have been linked to an antibody which points to potential treatment, according to an observational multicentre study involving 535 children with central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorders and encephalitis, published in The Lancet Neurology journal.
Common medication may lower risk of 'broken heart' during bereavement
The increased risk of heart attack or 'a broken heart' in early bereavement could be reduced by using common medication in a novel way, according to a world-first study led by the University of Sydney and funded by Heart Research Australia.
Harnessing the domino effect for deployable structures
A team of researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have harnessed the domino effect to design deployable systems that expand quickly with a small push and are stable and locked into place after deployment.
Supercharged light pulverises asteroids, study finds
The majority of stars in the universe will become luminous enough to blast surrounding asteroids into successively smaller fragments using their light alone, according to a University of Warwick astronomer.
Pharmacological migraine prophylaxis shows almost no effect in children
Migraines affect not only adults but frequently also children and adolescents.
The effects of China's one-child policy on women's education
Women's educational attainment has increased tremendously and even exceeded men's all over the world in the late 20th century.
Rare-earth element material could produce world's smallest transistors
A material from a rare earth element, tellurium, could produce the world's smallest transistor, thanks to an Army-funded project.
Alcoholism in the family affects how your brain switches between active and resting states
A new study shows that just having a parent with an alcohol use disorder affects how your brain transitions between active and resting states -- regardless of your own drinking habits.
Who will lead the global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance via sewage?
In the journal Science, a DTU professor calls for someone to carry on a global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and infectious diseases via sewage.
First artificial enzyme created with two non-biological groups
Scientists at the University of Groningen turned a non-enzymatic protein into a new, artificial enzyme by adding two abiological catalytic components: an unnatural amino acid and a catalytic copper complex.
NASA examines Tropical Storm Uesi's heavy rainfall
NASA analyzed Tropical Storm Uesi's rainfall and found moderate to heavy rainfall around the storm's center and in a large band of thunderstorms south of the center.
Distant giant planets form differently than 'failed stars'
Astronomers using two Maunakea Observatories, W. M. Keck Observatory and Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, have probed the formation process of giant exoplanets and brown dwarfs by using a combination of direct imaging of these objects and custom software to model their orbits.
Tropical cyclones: How they contribute to better forecast in the Maritime Continent
Tropical cyclones in the North West Pacific can dry the archipelagos of Southeast Asia, as they reduce humidity in the area with their associated winds.
Financial pressure makes CFOs less likely to blow the whistle
A recent study finds that corporate financial managers do a great job of detecting signs of potential fraud, but are less likely to voice these concerns externally when their company is under pressure to meet a financial target.
Observing proteins in their natural environment
Certain medications, such as those used to treat cancer, lose their effect because proteins in the membrane of the target cell simply expel them again.
There's a twist in the story of volcanism & mass extinctions, say CCNY researchers
An emerging scientific consensus is that gases -- in particular carbon gases -- released by volcanic eruptions millions of years ago contributed to some of Earth's greatest mass extinctions.
Oral traditions and volcanic eruptions in Australia
In Australia, the onset of human occupation (about 65,000 years?) and dispersion across the continent are the subjects of intense debate and are critical to understanding global human migration routes.
New DTU research supports previous studies on global sea level rise
Using data from European satellites, a young student at DTU Space has demonstrated that the global sea level rise has accelerated over the past four decades.
Palliative vs. standard care for Parkinson's disease
This randomized clinical trial that included 210 patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders and 175 caregivers examined whether outpatient palliative care was associated with better patient or caregiver outcomes compared with standard care.
Superior 'bio-ink' for 3D printing pioneered
Rutgers biomedical engineers have developed a 'bio-ink' for 3D printed materials that could serve as scaffolds for growing human tissues to repair or replace damaged ones in the body.
Scientists show solar system processes control the carbon cycle throughout Earth's history
This new work sheds fresh light on the complicated interplay of factors affecting global climate and the carbon cycle -- and on what transpired millions of years ago to spark two of the most devastating extinction events in Earth's history.
Shape-shifting stem cells are key to cancer metastasis and immune evasion
Scientists have discovered that cancer cells rely on the biology of regeneration, wound healing, and embryonic development to spread to other organs and escape detection by the immune system.
Most men do not regret their choices for prostate cancer surgery
Men with localized prostate cancer are faced with deciding among a range of options for treatment - including a choice between robot-assisted versus conventional prostatectomy.
New study examines ways to improve cancer literacy in young students
A new study led by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center researchers suggests that implementing cancer education curricula in middle and high schools may improve cancer literacy in Kentuckians and ultimately help reduce cancer rates.
Gulf coast mollusks rode out past periods of climate change
About 55 million years ago, a rapidly warming climate decimated marine communities around the world.
Hidden donors play significant role in political campaigns
A new analysis of millions of campaign funding records reveals the role of small contributions.
Study: To slow an epidemic, focus on handwashing
A new study estimates that improving the rates of handwashing by travelers passing through just 10 of the world's leading airports could significantly reduce the spread of many infectious diseases.
Casting light on the brain's inner workings
A team of engineers from University of Arizona, George Washington University and Northwestern University have created an ultra-small, wireless, battery-free device that uses light to record individual neurons so neuroscientists can see how the brain is working.
Smartphone apps not accurate enough to spot all skin cancers
Smartphone apps that assess the risk of suspicious moles cannot be relied upon to detect all cases of skin cancer, finds a review of the evidence published by The BMJ today.
Oblique electrostatic inject-deposited TiO2 film leads efficient perovskite solar cells
Kanazawa University researchers used a novel technique to deposit TiO2 layers for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs).
Acid-loving microbe can improve understanding of past climate
Study of an 'extremophile' found in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park can be used to help researchers understand climate change.
Dolphins gather in female family groups
Social clusters including mothers' groups play an important role in the life of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins, a new study shows.
A convex-optimization-based quantum process tomography method for reconstructing quantum channels
Researchers from SJTU have developed a convex-optimization-based quantum process tomography method for reconstructing quantum channels, and have shown the validity to seawater channels and general channels, enabling a more precise and robust estimation of the elements of the process matrix with less demands on preliminary resources.
Reimagining the link between space and species could boost wildlife conservation
University of Kansas investigator Jorge Sobero?n offers a new method for ecologists to calculate the correlation between geographic space and the number of species inhabiting that space.
Human textiles to repair blood vessels
As the leading cause of mortality worldwide, cardiovascular diseases claim over 17 million lives each year, according to World Health Organization estimates.
The many lives of charcoal
In sub-Saharan Africa, charcoal dominates as an energy resource for cooking.
CCNY chemists develop safer hydrogenation processes
Safe and environmentally-friendly hydrogen gas on demand could be on the horizon following a new 'hydrogenation' chemical process in development at The City College of New York.
The human brain's meticulous interface with the bloodstream now on a precision chip
It can be the bain of brain drug developers: The interface between the human brain and the bloodstream, the blood-brain-barrier, is so meticulous that animal models often fail to represent it.
AAAS panel focuses on roadmap to 'radical transformation of the AI research enterprise'
At an upcoming panel at AAAS, Lehigh University's Dan Lopresti and the Computing Community Consortium will present a twenty-year roadmap for artificial intelligence (AI) research in the U.S., offering a vision of a strategic path to unleashing the full potential of AI for the greatest societal benefit
Eternygen presents data demonstrating INDY inhibition as novel therapeutic option in NASH
Study to be presented at 3rd Global NASH Congress in London, U.K., February 10, 11.
Not everything is ferromagnetic in high magnetic fields
High magnetic fields have a potential to modify the microscopic arrangement of magnetic moments because they overcome interactions existing in zero field.
DNA-like material could bring even smaller transistors
A material shaped like a one-dimensional DNA helix might further push the limits on a transistor's size.
Long-term learning requires new nerve insulation
In a study published Feb. 10, 2020 in Nature Neuroscience, UC San Francisco scientists have discovered that mice quickly learn a fearful response to a situation perceived as threatening, but for such a conditioned response to become long-lasting requires brain cells to increase amounts of an insulating material called myelin.
What makes a 'good Samaritan' good? That opinion depends on the beneficiary
New research suggests that someone who helps a total stranger is generally viewed as morally better and more trustworthy than someone who helps a family member.
Himalayan glacier shows evidence of start of Industrial Revolution
Human beings altered one of the highest peaks in the Himalayas hundreds of years before a person ever set foot there, new research has found.

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