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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | February 21, 2020


The integrated catalysts can simplify pharmaceutical manufacturing
Prof. In Su Lee and his research team from POSTECH developed catalytic platforms based on metal organic frameworks.
Guidelines for thyroid surgery published in Annals of Surgery
The first set of comprehensive, evidence-based clinical guidelines for surgical treatment of thyroid disease -- developed by an expert panel assembled by the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES) -- was published today by Annals of Surgery.
Osteosarcoma profiling reveals why immunotherapy remains ineffective
Comprehensive profiling of tumor samples taken from patients with osteosarcoma shows that multiple factors contribute to the traditionally poor responses observed from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, according to new research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
The strategy of cells to deal with the accumulation of misfolded proteins is identified
In the paper, published in the journal Cell Reports, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast model has been used to investigate the protein quality control process.
ER patients may care less about a doctor's race and gender than previously thought
When a patient goes to an ER today, they have a higher chance than before of seeing a doctor who's a woman or a person of color.
Why do whales migrate? They return to the tropics to shed their skin, scientists say
Whales undertake some of the longest migrations on earth, often swimming many thousands of miles, over many months, to breed in the tropics.
Where is the greatest risk to our mineral resource supplies?
Risk tool identified 23 mineral commodities whose supply poses the greatest risk, including those used in consumer electronics, renewable energy, aerospace, and defense applications.
Lipid signaling from beta cells can potentiate an inflammatory macrophage polarization
The insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas unwittingly produce a signal that may aid their own demise in Type 1 diabetes, according to a study of the lipid signals that drive macrophage cells in the body to two different phenotypes of activated immune cells.
A little good is good enough -- excuses and 'indulgence effects' in consumption
Ecofriendly materials, produced under good work conditions -- convincing arguments for most of us.
Walking together: Personal traits and first impressions affects step synchronization
Walking is one of our most natural, daily actions. Now, a new study led by a Tohoku University researcher suggests that walkers use step synchronization as a form of non-verbal social communication.
How decline in memory, gait speed are associated with dementia risk
The risk of dementia in adults 60 and older who experience declines in both memory and gait speed was compared with adults who experience no decline or decline in either memory or gait speed only in this observational meta-analysis that included six studies with about 8,700 participants from the US and Europe.
Antidepressant harms baby neurons in lab-grown 'mini-brains'
Researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have demonstrated the use of stem-cell-derived 'mini-brains' to detect harmful side effects of a common drug on the developing brain.
Hormone adjustment may lead to new ways to prevent and treat lung damage in premature infants
Prematurely born babies often need oxygen therapy to prevent brain damage or death.
Global database for Karst spring discharges
For the first time researchers present comprehensive records that facilitate sustainable water management.
Deciphering the mechanism that determines organ size and shape
The study, published in the journal Developmental Cell and performed in Drosophila, unravels how developmental genes regulate organ size and proportions.
Social accounting, a different perspective when analysing public spending efficiency
A UPV/EHU's research group has shown that it is possible to express in terms of money the social value generated by a hospital.
The practice of meditation leaves marks in the brain
The study conducted at IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca shows that the practice of Transcendental Meditation has positive effects on psychological well-being and that these effects are correlated with measurable changes in the brain.
Surgeons successfully treat brain aneurysms using a robot
A robot was used to treat brain aneurysms for the first time.
How earthquakes deform gravity
Researchers at the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam have developed an algorithm that for the first time can describe a gravitational signal caused by earthquakes with high accuracy.
Shaping the rings of molecules
Canadian chemists discover a natural process to control the shape of 'macrocycles,' molecules of large rings of atoms, for use in pharmaceuticals and electronics.
Opportunity blows for offshore wind in China
If China is to meet and exceed its Paris Climate Agreement goal by 2030, it's going to need to find a way to increase its wind capacity.
Study finds certain genetic test not useful in predicting heart disease risk
A Polygenic Risk Score -- a genetic assessment that doctors have hoped could predict coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients -- has been found not to be a useful predictive biomarker for disease risk, according to a Vanderbilt study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Mechanical clot removal without clot busters may be sufficient stroke treatment
Mechanical clot removal alone may be as effective as combining it with intravenous (IV) clot-busting medications for stroke patients.
Changing what heart cells eat could help them regenerate
Switching what the powerhouses of heart cells consume for energy could help the heart regenerate when cells die.
Major discovery in the genetics of Down syndrome
New research highlights the RCAN1 gene's effect on memory and learning.
For weight-loss surgery patients who quit smoking, relapse is common
Although 1 in 7 adults smoke cigarettes the year prior to undergoing weight-loss surgery, nearly all successfully quit at least a month before their operation.
Telemonitoring plus phone counseling lowers blood pressure among black and Hispanic stroke survivors
Minority stroke survivors experience better blood pressure control when lifestyle counseling by phone from a nurse is added to home blood pressure telemonitoring.
Drug cocktail holds promise for spinal injuries
Scientists have discovered a combination of two commonly available drugs that could help the body heal spinal fractures.
Secondary analysis confirms safety of blood thinning agent
The blood thinner apixaban, which treats and prevents blood clots in some people with irregular heart rhythm, is safe and effective in stroke patients.
Despite burdens most pediatricians very supportive of national vaccination program
Despite bureaucratic hurdles, the vast majority of pediatricians want to keep participating in a national program that provides vaccinations at no cost to children who are on Medicaid, uninsured, or who are American Indian/Alaska Native, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
New probe developed to detect a common target of anti-inflammatory drugs
Researchers at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology have recently developed a new probe to detect the activity of Cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme that plays a major role in driving the progression of cancer.
Study examines why colon cancer is more deadly in pediatric and young adult patients
Colon cancer is more likely to be lethal in children and young adults than middle-aged adults.
A genetic map for maize
Researchers have decoded the genetic map for how maize from tropical environments can be adapted to the temperate US summer growing season.
Frozen bird turns out to be 46,000-year-old horned lark
Scientists have recovered DNA from a well-preserved horned lark found in Siberian permafrost.
Mental health challenges four times higher in young mothers
The study, recently published in the Journal of Adolescent Health, says identifying and treating mental health issues in young mothers is especially important as their health also affects the wellbeing of their children.
Ethnobotanical medicine is effective against the bacterium causing Lyme disease
A preclinical in vitro study shows that selected plant-based herbal medicines, especially Ghanaian quinine and Japanese knotweed, work better than antibiotics against the bacterium that causes Lyme disease.
A better diagnosis of rare diabetes to adapt treatment
Monogenic diabetes affects 1% to 4% of all cases of diabetes.
KIST researchers develop high-capacity EV battery materials that double driving range
Dr. Hun-Gi Jung and his research team at the Center for Energy Storage Research of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology have announced the development of silicon anode materials that can increase battery capacity four-fold in comparison to graphite anode materials and enable rapid charging to more than 80% capacity in only five minutes.
New research challenges theory explaining the effects of diet on lifespan
New research from the University of Sheffield has discovered that switching to a rich diet after eating a restricted diet can decrease life expectancy and have negative effects on health.
Scientists crack the mystery of liquid light interactions in organic materials, laying the ground
A team of scientists from the Hybrid Photonics Laboratory at the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech) and the University of Sheffield (UK) made a breakthrough in understanding nonlinear physics of the strong interaction of organic molecules with light.
A plan to save Earth's oceans
At least 26 per cent of our oceans need urgent conservation attention to preserve Earth's marine biodiversity, a University of Queensland-led international study has found.
NUI Galway highlights reproductive flexibility in hydractinia, a Galway bay jellyfish
A new study, led by Dr Tim DuBuc and Professor Uri Frank from the Centre for Chromosome Biology at NUI Galway, has found that Hydractinia, a North Atlantic jellyfish that also lives in Galway Bay, reproduces in a similar way to humans but does so far more flexibly.
Alcohol-induced deaths in US
National vital statistics data from 2000 to 2016 were used to examine how rates of alcohol-induced deaths (defined as those deaths due to alcohol consumption that could be avoided if alcohol weren't involved) have changed in the US and to compare the results by demographic groups including sex, race/ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status and geographic location.
Study detects abnormally low levels of a key protein in brains of young men with autism
Brains of young men with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have low levels of a protein that appears to play a role in inflammation and metabolism.
Antibiotics in animals: More research urgently needed
Resistance to antibiotics has been declared a global health emergency -- and it's not just humans who are impacted by this public health crisis.
NASA measures rainfall rates in two American Samoa Tropical Cyclones
There are two tropical cyclones affecting American Samoa in the South Pacific Ocean on Feb.
Essential oil components can be tested as drug candidates
A research team at the VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology and the KU Leuven Department of Biology showed that, contrary to generally held belief, most components of essential oils could meet the criteria set for drug candidates.
Cross-talk between enzymes that read and correct recipes in the cookbook of life
Even the best chef can make mistakes - even when using the recipes (genes) from the 'cookbook of life' -- DNA.
Intervention is essential for reducing loneliness and social isolation in ASD
Researchers evaluated the efficacy of the Preschool Peer Social Intervention in facilitating peer engagement among preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with a primary goal of increasing their social engagement during mixed interactions with their peers with ASD and peers with typical development.
Study finds trend toward benefit in using blood-clotting agent for bleeding stroke
There are few treatment options for bleeding stroke. There was a trend towards reduced growth of brain bleeds in those treated with the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid within 4.5 hours of stroke onset, compared to those treated with placebo.
TMI: More information doesn't necessarily help people make better decisions
New research from Stevens Institute of Technology suggests that too much knowledge can lead people to make worse decisions, pointing to a critical gap in our understanding of how new information interacts with prior knowledge and beliefs.
Brain cells protect muscles from wasting away
Several processes in the roundworm C. elegans boost the stress response in cells, incidentally making worms resistant to a high-fat diet and extending their lifespan.
Computer vision is used for boosting pest control efficacy via sterile insect technique
By means of an imaging analysis system made available by FAPESP, a Brazilian research group succeeds at facilitating the selection of sterilized male specimens reared to combat a South American fruit fly known as pest of apple and peach orchards.
Greener spring, warmer air
Advanced leaf-out enhances annual surface warming in the Northern Hemisphere
Traditional biomass stoves shown to cause lung inflammation
Traditional stoves that burn biomass materials and are not properly ventilated, which are widely used in developing nations where cooking is done indoors, have been shown to significantly increase indoor levels of harmful PM2.5 (miniscule atmospheric particulates) and carbon monoxide (CO) and to stimulate biological processes that cause lung inflammation and may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
NASA sees tropical cyclone 18p form near American Samoa
The low-pressure area that has been lingering west-northwest of American Samoa for several days has organized into a tropical depression.
Leg pain medication may prevent re-blockage of neck arteries after a stent
Adding cilostazol, an antiplatelet medication for leg pain, to other drugs tended to prevent re-blockage of carotid artery stents within two years.
Social isolation during adolescence drives long-term disruptions in social behavior
Mount Sinai Researchers find social isolation during key developmental windows drives long term changes to activity patterns of neurons involved in initiating social approach in an animal model.
Bariatric surgery effective against early-onset obesity too
Surgical treatment of obesity is as effective for individuals who developed the disorder early, by the age of 20, as for those who have developed obesity later in life, a study from the University of Gothenburg shows.
New torula yeast product as digestible as fish meal in weanling pig diets
Starting weanling pigs off with the right diet can make all the difference for the health and productivity of the animal.
University of Minnesota researchers discover Mediterranean diet ingredient may extend life
Researchers at the University of Minnesota Medical School discover a potential new way in which diet influences aging-related diseases.
Fossilized wing gives clues about Labrador's biodiversity during the Cretaceous
A fossilised insect wing discovered in an abandoned mine in Labrador has led palaeontologists from McGill University and the University of Gda?sk to identify a new hairy cicada species that lived around 100 million years ago.

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