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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | February 25, 2020


Community support groups vital to African american women with breast cancer
Shelley White-Means, Ph.D., a professor at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, is the principal investigator of a paper published this month in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health that found breast cancer support groups play a major role in helping underserved African-American women at risk for or diagnosed with breast cancer in Memphis.
Adaptation: Competition and predation may not be the driving force scientists thought
Species adapt to their local climates, but how often they adapt to their local communities remains a mystery.
Using social media to understand the vaccine debate in China
Vaccine acceptance is a crucial public health issue, which has been exacerbated by the use of social media to spread content expressing vaccine hesitancy.
Bee brain/human brain: New link
In a discovery which could open new avenues for understanding of the brain, researchers have found similarities between the brain activity of honey bees and humans.
Observation of non-trivial superconductivity on surface of type II Weyl semimetal TaIrTe4
The search for unconventional superconductivity in Weyl semimetal materials is currently an exciting pursuit, since such superconducting phases could potentially be topologically non-trivial and host exotic Majorana modes.
Social banks rely on their motivated investors
The main reason for the existence of social banks is to fund other social enterprises.
Tropical nations worst hit by climate-related fish shifts
Policymakers will need to step up to the challenges caused by significant shifts in fish species distributions caused by climate change.
New metabolic engineering strategy for effective sugar utilization by microbes improves bioproduction of polymer raw materials
Using biomass and microbes to synthesize useful chemical compounds is an environmentally friendly alternative to petrochemical production, however it is difficult to produce sufficient amounts.
Stanford research maps a faster, easier way to build diamond
With the right amount of pressure and surprisingly little heat, a substance found in fossil fuels can transform into pure diamond.
Stanford scientists link ulcerative colitis to missing gut microbes
About 1 million people in the United States have ulcerative colitis, a serious disease of the colon that has no cure and whose cause is obscure.
When it comes to conservation, ditch the 'canary in the coal mine'
With habitat loss threatening the extinction of an ever-growing number of species around the world, many wildlife advocates and conservation professionals rely on the proverbial 'canary in the coal mine'--monitoring and protecting a single representative species--to maintain healthy wildlife biodiversity.
Study finds key mechanism for how typhoid bacteria infects
A new study has uncovered key details for how the Salmonella bacteria that causes typhoid fever identifies a host's immune cells and delivers toxins that disrupt the immune system and allow the pathogen to spread.
Cellular metabolism regulates the fate decision between pathogenic and regulatory T cells
Preclinical research shows a pivotal role for cellular metabolism to regulate the fate decision of naïve CD4 T cells as they differentiate into either destructive Th17 cells that mediate chronic inflammation or regulatory Treg T cells, a decision that occurs very early in the activation of CD4 T cells.
Researchers develop framework that improves Firefox security
Researchers from the University of California San Diego, University of Texas at Austin, Stanford University and Mozilla have developed a new framework to improve web browser security.
Tel Aviv University researchers discover unique non-oxygen breathing animal
Researchers at Tel Aviv University (TAU) have discovered a non-oxygen breathing animal.
UTSA finds the best method to teach children augmented reality
Researchers at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) identified the best approach to help children operate augmented reality (AR).
Electrolyte supplements don't prevent illness in athletes, study finds
Electrolyte supplements popular with endurance runners can't be relied on to keep essential sodium levels in balance, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and their collaborators.
By gum! Scientists find new 110-million-year-old treasure
A remarkable new treasure has been found by scientists from the University of Portsmouth -- the first fossil plant gum on record.
New sandboxing approach in web browser increases security
A powerful new approach to securing web browsers, using a tool called WebAssembly, is getting its first real-world application in the Firefox browser.
Noninvasive, self-adhesive sensor predicted worsening heart failure in veterans
A removable, noninvasive, self-adhesive sensor successfully predicted worsening heart failure and the need for hospitalization in veterans several days before hospitalization occurred.
Allergists encourage parents of food-allergic kids to recognize their own anxiety
Allergists in the study said thoughtful and balanced communication and having credible information to share with your child go a long way toward helping your child with fears about their food allergy.
Desire for excitement fuels young offenders to commit crime, then skill takes over
Young burglars are driven by a desire for excitement when they initially commit crime, new research from the University of Portsmouth has found.
Simple self-charging battery offers power solutions for devices
A new type of battery combines negative capacitance and negative resistance within the same cell, allowing the cell to self-charge without losing energy, which has important implications for long-term storage and improved output power for batteries.
Breaking the temperature barrier in small-scale materials testing
Researchers have demonstrated a new method for testing microscopic aeronautical materials at ultra-high temperatures.
New study associates intake of dairy milk with greater risk of breast cancer
Intake of dairy milk is associated with a greater risk of breast cancer in women -- up to 80% depending on the amount consumed -- according to a new study conducted by researchers at Loma Linda University Health.
Insulin signaling suppressed by decoys
The discovery of an insulin 'decoy' molecule from the lab of Matthew Gill, PhD, in Florida shakes up understanding of insulin signaling, with implications for diabetes, longevity and aging research.
Adults don't need tetanus, diphtheria boosters if fully vaccinated as children
Adults do not need tetanus or diphtheria booster shots if they've already completed their childhood vaccination series against these rare, but debilitating diseases, research published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases indicates.
Mid-life weight gain linked to faster decline in lung capacity in older age
Mid-life weight gain is linked to an acceleration in the natural decline in lung capacity that comes with ageing, reveals a 20-year study published online in the journal Thorax.
NUS-led study suggests mangrove forests provide cause for conservation optimism, for now
An international team of researchers led by Associate Professor Daniel Friess and Dr Erik Yando of the National University of Singapore has found that globally, mangrove loss rates have reduced by almost an order of magnitude between the late 20th and early 21st century -- from what was previously estimated at one to three per cent per year, to about 0.3 to 0.6 per cent per year, thanks in large part to successful mangrove conservation efforts.
Scientists call on government to increase ambition to save our ocean
A team of marine scientists from across the UK, led by the Marine Conservation Research Group at the University of Plymouth, has called on the Government to increase its ambition to save the oceans by overhauling its approach to marine conservation management.
Lava flows tell 600-year story of biodiversity loss on tropical island
A natural experiment created by an active volcano gives new insight into the long-term negative impacts of human colonization of tropical forest islands.
Heatwave exposure linked to increased risk of preterm birth in California
A new study at UC San Diego, published February 11, 2020, found that exposure to heatwaves during the last week of pregnancy was strongly linked to an increased risk of preterm delivery -- the hotter the temperature or the longer the heatwave, the greater the risk.
Regioselective magnetization enabled chiral semiconducting heteronanorods
Researchers demonstrated a regioselective magnetization strategy, achieving a library of semiconducting heteronanorods with chiroptical activities.
Psychiatry: Five clearly defined patterns
Psychiatrists led by Nikolaos Koutsouleris from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have used a computer-based approach to assign psychotic patients diagnosed as bipolar or schizophrenic to five different subgroups.
The do's and don'ts of monitoring many wildlife species at once
A new analysis of 92 studies from 27 countries conducted by ecologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst suggests that many recent multi-species studies of wildlife communities often incorrectly use the analytical tools and methods available.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine: New therapy could help relieve persistent cough
A new treatment - called gefapixant - may reduce the frequency of coughing, including in patients who have suffered from a chronic cough for more than 15 years, according to results from a phase 2b clinical trial which lasted 12 weeks and included 253 people, published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine journal.
Researchers improve safety of lead-based perovskite solar cells
Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Northern Illinois University (NIU) have developed a technique to sequester the lead used to make perovskite solar cells, a highly efficient emerging photovoltaic technology.
Turbomachine expander offers efficient, safe strategy for heating, cooling
Purdue University researchers developed a device to decrease energy consumption of the vapor-compression heat pump cycle, which is commonly used in homes, businesses and vehicles for cooling and heating.
Synthesizing a superatom: Opening doors to their use as substitutes for elemental atoms
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and ERATO Japan Science and Technology have demonstrated how superatoms of a desired valency, stability, and volume can be synthesized in a solution medium by altering the number of atoms in a cluster structure.
Cynicism and disrespect: A vicious cycle
An international study with data from Europe and the USA has found that disrespectful treatment leads to cynical beliefs about human nature.
Chronic inflammation in pregnancy linked to childhood neurodevelopmental delays
A new study reported in the journal Biological Psychiatry, published by Elsevier, strengthens evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation, common to these maternal conditions, may be partly to blame for the higher risk of childhood neurodevelopmental delays.
Can 360 video experiences benefit affect?
A new study has shown that experiencing personalized experiences in a virtual reality setting can improve affect among university students.
Instrument may enable mail-in testing to detect heavy metals in water
MIT researchers have developed an approach called SEPSTAT, for solid-phase extraction, preservation, storage, transportation, and analysis of trace contaminants.
Scientists develop enzyme produced from agricultural waste for use as laundry detergent
An international team of researchers has developed an enzyme produced from agricultural waste that could be used as an important additive in laundry detergents.
Parasitic worms have armies, and produce more soldiers when needed
In a new study published Feb. 26, 2020 in Biology Letters, the research team demonstrated for the first time that the number of soldiers in a trematode colony depends on the local invasion threat, showing that such societies produce greater standing armies in areas of greater threat.
Still a fan of the golden tan?
Social media smarts could make you less susceptible to skin cancer as new research shows that media literacy skills can help change people's attitudes about what is believed to be the 'tanned ideal.'
Spending time in nature reduces stress, research finds
New research from an interdisciplinary Cornell team has found that as little as 10 minutes in a natural setting can help college students feel happier and lessen the effects of both physical and mental stress.
Seagulls favor food humans have handled
Seagulls favor food that has been handled by humans, new research shows.
Opioids for chronic non-cancer pain doubled in quarter century
A review of 24 years of global research has shown opioid prescribing doubled between 1991-2015, with demand most common for chronic conditions such as chronic lower back pain, finds University of Sydney-led research.
From China to the South Pole: Joining forces to solve the neutrino mass puzzle
Study by Mainz physicists indicates that the next generation of neutrino experiments may well find the answer to one of the most pressing issues in neutrino physics.
Exceptional catapulting jump mechanism in a tiny beetle could be applied in robotic limbs
The fascinating and highly efficient jumping mechanism in flea beetles is described in a new research article in the open-access journal ZooKeys.
What makes an Airbnb host look trustworthy?
Professors Eyal Ert and Aliza Fleischer analyzed 320 Airbnb listings in Stockholm, Sweden and gleaned two main criteria that determine 'visual trustworthiness': One, is the host's characteristics (e.g., gender, facial expression) and the second is the quality of the image itself (e.g., blurry or clear).
A better starting point for exploring entanglement
Non-Gaussian curves are necessary for studying quantum systems, but they can also be composed of mixtures of regular Gaussian curves, producing difficulties for physicists studying quantum entanglement.
New study shows significant increase in weight after breast cancer
New study findings suggest that weight gain after breast cancer is a greater problem than previously thought.
Human Populations survived the Toba volcanic super-eruption 74,000 years ago
In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History's Department of Archaeology, together with international partners, present evidence that Middle Palaeolithic tool-users were present in India before and after the Toba super-eruption 74,000 years ago.
Study investigates moral distress of physicians who care for older adults
Researchers from Regenstrief Institute and Indiana University School of Medicine report that about four of 10 doctors caring for older adult patients who require a surrogate decision-maker experienced moral distress.
The discovery of ancient Salmonella
Oldest reconstructed bacterial genomes link agriculture and herding with emergence of new disease.
USTC realizes the first quantum-entangling-measurements-enhanced quantum orienteering
Researchers enhanced the performance of quantum orienteering with entangling measurements via photonic quantum walks.
Wearable sensor powered by AI predicts worsening heart failure before hospitalization
A new wearable sensor that works in conjunction with artificial intelligence technology could help doctors remotely detect critical changes in heart failure patients days before a health crisis occurs and could prevent hospitalization, according to a study led by University of Utah Health and VA Salt Lake City Health Care System scientists.
Shrinking sea ice is creating an ecological trap for polar bears
The decision of each individual bear to stay on the ice or to move to land appears to be linked to the energetic cost or benefit of either option, and the potential of having to swim to reach land.
New study shows the effects of obesity mirror those of aging
In their paper published in the journal Obesity Reviews, researchers argue that obesity should be considered premature aging.
Big data could yield big discoveries in archaeology, Brown scholar says
Parker VanValkenburgh, an assistant professor of anthropology, curated a journal issue that explores the opportunities and challenges big data could bring to the field of archaeology.
AI has helped to better understand how human brain performs face recognition
Scientists from Salk Institute (USA), Skoltech (Russia), and Riken Center for Brain Science (Japan) investigated a theoretical model of how populations of neurons in the visual cortex of the brain may recognize and process faces and their different expressions and how they are organized.
Weight-based bullying linked to increased adolescent alcohol, marijuana us
Adolescents who are bullied about their weight or body shape may be more likely to use alcohol or marijuana than those who are not bullied, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
CaPtAs: A new noncentrosymmetric superconductor
A research group from Zhejiang University in China has found that the noncentrosymmetric compound CaPtAs is a superconductor, which shows evidence for unconventional properties.
USPSTF statement on screening for cognitive impairment in older adults
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concludes that current evidence is insufficient to make a recommendation about screening for cognitive impairment in adults 65 or older.
New RNA mapping technique shows how RNA interacts with chromatin in the genome
A group led by scientists from the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS) in Japan have developed a new method, RADICL-seq, which allows scientists to better understand how RNA interacts with the genome through chromatin--the structure in which the genome is organized.
Treatment to reset immune cells markedly improves TBI symptoms
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) found that targeting overactive immune cells in the brain with an experimental drug could limit brain cell loss and reverse cognitive and motor difficulties caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Babies from bilingual homes switch attention faster
Babies born into bilingual homes change the focus of their attention more quickly and more frequently than babies in homes where only one language is spoken, according to new research published in the journal Royal Society Open Science.
Lights, camera, action... the super-fast world of droplet dynamics
Cameras shooting up to 25,000 frames a second have been used to capture the moment two droplets of liquid come together and mix -- and it is opening up research into new applications for 3D printing.
What to expect when you're expecting electric transportation
While electric vehicles alone may not reduce carbon emissions, a new study reveals that when electric vehicles are powered with renewable energy and coupled with carbon policy strategies, they can help combat climate change without sacrificing economic growth.
Deaf moths evolved noise-cancelling scales to evade prey
Some species of deaf moths can absorb as much as 85 per cent of the incoming sound energy from predatory bats -- who use echolocation to detect them.
Lab-free infection test could eliminate guesswork for doctors
A new infection test, made up of sheets of paper patterned by lasers, has been developed by University of Southampton researchers to allow diagnosis at the point of care -- helping doctors give patients the right treatment, faster.
England off track to meet government's 2030 smoke-free target
England will fail to be smoke-free by 2030 if current smoking trends continue, according to a report released today from Cancer Research UK.
New pieces added to the molecular puzzle of rheumatoid arthritis
researchers have revealed new details about how joint inflammation evolves in rheumatoid arthritis, and the cells that prolong the inflammatory attack.
Stimulating resonance with two very different forces
In some specialised oscillators, two driving forces with significantly different frequencies can work together to make the whole system resonate.
Discovery of bacterial ancestor yields new insight on calcium channels
The discovery of a calcium channel that is likely a 'missing link' in the evolution of mammalian calcium channels has been reported today in the open-access journal eLife.
Trials show new drug can ease symptoms of chronic cough
Two trials of a new drug have shown that at low doses, it can ease the often distressing symptoms of chronic cough with minimal side effects.
Abbreviated MRI outperforms 3D mammograms at finding cancer in dense breasts
According to a study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association, when screening women at average risk with dense breast tissue, abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected significantly more cancers (almost two and a half times as many) than digital breast tomosynthesis (3D mammography).
Regular walnut consumption linked to health and longevity in women, according to new study
According to a new epidemiological study, women in their late 50s and early 60s who consumed at least two servings of walnuts per week had a greater likelihood of healthy aging compared to those who did not eat walnuts.
Study finds gender disparities in hematology research success
Hematologists who complete a mentored training program experience greater levels of academic success than those who do not; however, a study published today in Blood Advances suggests a slight discrepancy in success levels between male and female hematologists.
MicroRNA regulates process vital to placenta growth in early pregnancy
A study by University of South Florida Health (USF Health) researchers discovered how a very large human non-protein coding gene regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) -- a process that contributes to placental implantation during early pregnancy, as well as cancer progression and spread.
Diabetes drug reduces complications of long-term steroid therapy
A drug used to treat type 2 diabetes could offer a simple and cheap solution to reduce dangerous side effects of steroid treatment, new research from Queen Mary University of London suggests.
Study finds picking up a pingpong paddle may benefit people with Parkinson's
Pingpong may hold promise as a possible form of physical therapy for Parkinson's disease.
Radio waves detect particle showers in a block of plastic
A cheap technique could detect neutrinos in polar ice, eventually allowing researchers to expand the energy reach of IceCube without breaking the bank.
Genetic resistance to lethal virus found in key farmed fish species
Resistance to a deadly disease that is affecting the second most farmed fish in the world has been found to be mainly due to differences in genes between families of the same fish.
Mortality decreased with further treatment for opioid use disorder after detox
A new study shows that people with opioid use disorder who enter inpatient medically managed withdrawal treatment (detox) do not usually receive further treatment, including medication for opioid use disorder or additional inpatient treatment.
Powerful mantis shrimp pull punches in air for self-preservation
Mantis shrimps are able to fire off high power punches in water at the speed of a bullet, but it now turns out that they are nowhere near as fast in air, only striking with blows that are a tenth of the power at just 18km/h.
Age at menopause not linked to conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors
The age at which a woman's periods stop, and the menopause starts, doesn't seem to be linked to the development of the risk factors typically associated with cardiovascular disease, suggests research published online in the journal Heart.
Stabilizing freeze-dried cellular machinery unlocks cell-free biotechnology
A low-cost approach improves cell-free biotechnology's utility for bio-manufacturing and portability for field applications.
Seeds in Tibet face impacts from climate change
A new study published in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecological Applications examines how warming and increased precipitation (rain and snow) harms the seeds in the ground of the Tibetan Plateau and elsewhere.
Small farmers sink or swim in globalization's tsunami
From a synthesis of 12 cases, researchers found when smallholder farmers are connected to faraway systems, the key is to empower them to higher agency and more livelihood opportunities.
Medication treatments led to 80% lower risk of fatal overdose for patients with opioid use disorder
Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving treatment with opioid agonists (medications such as methadone or buprenorphine) had an 80 percent lower risk of dying from an opioid overdose compared to patients in treatment without the use of medications.
How your romantic attachment style affects your finances, well-being
Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance can both have negative consequences for well-being due, at least in part, to financial reasons, University of Arizona researchers found.
Reduced stress changes profile of various lipid compounds
Reduced stress is linked to changes in the profile of plasma metabolites, a new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows.
Portable 'electronic nose' can accurately pick up esophageal cancer precursor
A portable 'electronic nose' can accurately pick up the precursor condition to food pipe (esophageal) cancer, known as Barrett's esophagus, indicates a proof of principle study, published online in the journal Gut.
A nacre-inspired separator coating for impact-tolerant lithium batteries
Recently, a research team from University of Science and Technology of China proposed a nacre-inspired coating on the separator to improve the safety of lithium battery under external impact.
Scientists develop algorithm for researching evolution of species with WGD
An international team of scientists from ITMO University and George Washington University (USA) created an algorithm for studying the evolutionary history of species with whole-genome duplications, chiefly yeast and plants.
Otago researchers shed light on 'arms race' between bacteria and viruses
University of Otago researchers have contributed to an international study which helps improve the understanding of bacteria and viruses.

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