Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

March 06, 2020
Moderate-to-high posttraumatic stress common after exposure to trauma, violence
Over 30 percent of injury survivors who are treated in hospital emergency departments will have moderate-to-severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at some point in the first year following the initial incident, new research led by the Yale School of Public Health finds.

The complex biology behind your love (or hatred) of coffee
Why do some people feel like they need three cups of coffee just to get through the day when others are happy with only one?

Don't blame the messenger -- unless it's all stats and no story
In some cases of ineffective messaging, it might be appropriate, despite the aphorism to the contrary, to blame the messenger.

Unwanted behaviour in dogs is common, with great variance between breeds
All dog breeds have unwanted behaviour, such as noise sensitivity, aggressiveness and separation anxiety, but differences in frequency between breeds are great.

Biomarker tests for decision-making on chemotherapy for breast cancer: No evidence of transferability
Biomarker tests for decision-making on chemotherapy for breast cancer: No evidence of transferability 27.02.2020 The tests assign different women to the group 'low risk of recurrence.' It thus remains unclear who could omit chemotherapy.

Machine learning illuminates material's hidden order
A Cornell collaboration led by physicist Brad Ramshaw, the Dick & Dale Reis Johnson Assistant Professor in the College of Arts and Sciences, used a combination of ultrasound and machine learning to narrow the possible explanations for what happens to this quantum material when it enters this so-called ''hidden order.''

Radar and ice could help detect an elusive subatomic particle
A new study published today in the journal Physical Review Letters shows, for the first time, an experiment that could detect a class of ultra-high-energy neutrinos using radar echoes.

Scholars explore role of digital environments in international marketing
Journal of International Marketing launched its 2020 volume with a special issue examining new implications of the digital environment related to the study of international marketing.

Healthcare innovators focus on 'quality as a business strategy' -- update from Journal of Healthcare Quality
Despite two decades of effort -- targeting care processes, outcomes, and most recently the value of care - progress has been slow in closing the gap between quality and cost in the US healthcare system.

Individual response to COVID-19 'as important' as government action
How individuals respond to government advice on preventing the spread of COVID-19 will be at least as important, if not more important, than government action, according to a new commentary from researchers at the University of Oxford and Imperial College London in the UK, and Utrecht University and the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands.

Study reveals breast cancer cells shift their metabolic strategy to metastasize
New discovery in breast cancer could lead to better strategies for preventing the spread of cancer cells to other organs in the body, effectively reducing mortality in breast cancer patients.

Comprehensive review of heterogeneously integrated 2D materials
In a paper published in NANO, a group of researchers from Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea provide a comprehensive review of heterogeneously integrated two dimensional (2D) materials from an extensive library of atomic 2D materials with selectable material properties to open up fascinating possibilities for the design of functional novel devices.

Gut bacteria can penetrate tumors and aid cancer therapy, study suggests
Researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and University of Chicago have discovered that bacteria that usually live in the gut can accumulate in tumors and improve the effectiveness of immunotherapy in mice.

Caltech & JPL launch hybrid high rate quantum communication systems
In the Caltech-JPL tradition of intermixing in unique ways fundamental science, technology and engineering they develop a collaborative multi-disciplinary cross-agency research program to advance and accelerate scalable hybrid quantum networking and communications technologies.

World-first system forecasts warming of lakes globally
Pioneering research led by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH) has devised the first system that classifies lakes globally, placing each of them in one of nine 'thermal regions.' This will enable scientists to better predict future warming of the world's lakes due to climate change, and the potential threat to cold-water species such as salmon and trout.

Low blood pressure linked to high mortality in older adults
A large-scale study led by the University of Exeter analyzed 415,980 electronic medical records of older adults in England.

Topology protects light propagation in photonic crystal
Researchers of AMOLF and TU Delft have seen light propagate in a special material without it suffering from reflections.

Dimming Betelgeuse likely isn't cold, just dusty, new study shows
In a paper published on the preprint site arXiv, scientists at the University of Washington and Lowell Observatory report that the average surface temperature of Betelgeuse, calculated using observations taken Feb.

How communication about environmental issues can bridge the political divide
A relatively new theory that identifies universal concerns underlying human judgment could be key to helping people with opposing views on an issue coax each other to a different way of thinking, new research suggests.

Support communities key for military wives and partners facing employment and social challenges
Military spouses can struggle to find and maintain employment and face severe restrictions on their social lives because of their partners' working patterns.

Endangered species on supermarket shelves
Imagine purchasing products from your local grocer, only to find out that those products are comprised of critically endangered species!

Alcohol marketing and underage drinking
A new study by a research team including scientists from the Prevention Research Center of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation provides a systematic review of research that examines relationships between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents and young adults.

How waves of 'clutches' in the motor cortex help our brains initiate movement
University of Chicago scientists have discovered that signals in the motor cortex act like a series of clutches when it comes to moving, and that these signals can be disrupted to slow the brain's initiation of movement.

Music intervention and mindfulness reduces the effect of mental fatigue
The study demonstrates that just 12 minutes of binaural beats and 4 weeks of mindfulness training are effective recovery strategies to counteract the negative effects of mental fatigue on sustained attention.

Exploring the deep tissues using photoacoustic imaging
Prof. Chulhong Kim and his research team developed a photoacoustic imaging modality, using a nickel-based nanoparticle and cheap laser.

Scientists propose nanoparticles that can treat cancer with magnetic fluid hyperthermia
A group of Russian scientists have synthesized manganese-zinc ferrite nanoparticles that can potentially be used in cancer treatment.

Depressed, rural moms face greater health challenges--and so do their kids
WSU Research has linked chronic depression with increased health problems for moms and children in poor rural communities, revealing the need for better treatment based on teamwork and trust.

Older beetle parents 'less flexible'
Older parents are less flexible when it comes to raising their offspring, according to a new study of beetles.

Thinking in acids and bases
Researchers from the National Institute for Physiological Sciences in Okazaki designed and tested a probe to track brain pH in mice during a visual task.

New 'real world' data reveal potential opportunities for blood pressure improvement
The PCORnet Blood Pressure Control Laboratory, a new collaborative partnership, analyzed electronic health record data from nearly 1.5 million patients including almost 6 million ambulatory visits with blood pressure measures.

Fire from the sky
Before the Taqba Dam impounded the Euphrates River in northern Syria in the 1970s, an archaeological site named Abu Hureyra bore witness to the moment ancient nomadic people first settled down and started cultivating crops.

Specialized helper cells contribute to immunological memory
Helper T cells play an important role in the immune response against pathogens.

Using technology during mealtimes may decrease food intake, study finds
When 119 young adults consumed a meal while playing a simple computer game for 15 minutes, they ate significantly less than when they ate the same meal without distractions, said lead author Carli A.

Space lettuce
Astronauts have now managed to grow lettuce inside specially designed chambers on the International Space Station.

Improving the vision of self-driving vehicles
There may be a better way for autonomous vehicles to learn how to drive themselves: by watching humans.

Could cancer immunotherapy success depend on gut bacteria?
Gut bacteria can penetrate tumor cells and boost the effectiveness of an experimental immunotherapy that targets the CD47 protein.

Seismic imaging technology could deliver finely detailed images of the human brain
Scientists have developed a new computational technique that could lead to fast, finely detailed brain imaging with a compact device that uses only sound waves.

Types of vaping products used by hospitalized patients with severe lung injury
This report describes the kinds of vaping products used by and the clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in California last year with e-cigarette or vaping-associated lung injury.

SARS influencing response to novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic in Singapore
This latest installment in the open-access AJR Collection regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) explains how a tertiary hospital in Singapore responded to the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)--offering a thorough summary of ground operational considerations for diagnostic, vascular, and interventional radiologists, nuclear medicine and molecular imaging specialists, as well as radiographers and nursing units presently reacting to the COVID-19 epidemic.

Super magnets from a 3D printer
Magnetic materials are an important component of mechatronic devices such as wind power stations, electric motors, sensors and magnetic switch systems.

The impact of energy development on bird populations
The greater sage-grouse is an iconic bird that lives in the western United States, and its populations are in decline.

What women really want
Earlier research purported to show links between a woman's cycle and how attracted she was to men's behavior.

Recovering phosphorus from corn ethanol production can help reduce groundwater pollution
Dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product from corn ethanol processing, is commonly used as feed for cattle, swine and poultry.

Neuroscientists discover new structure of important protein in the brain
A novel structure of a so-called 'neurotransmitter: sodium symporter' has been mapped at the University of Copenhagen.

Nanoscale 4D printing technique may speed development of new therapeutics
Researchers at the Advanced Science Research Center at The Graduate Center, CUNY (CUNY ASRC) and Northwestern University have created a 4D printer capable of constructing patterned surfaces that recreate the complexity of cell surfaces.

Showing robots how to do your chores
By observing humans, robots learn to perform complex tasks, such as setting a table.

New aerial image dataset to help provide farmers with actionable insights
A dataset of large-scale aerial images produced by Intelinair, a spinout from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, aims to give farmers visibility into the conditions of their fields.

Skills training opens 'DOORS' to digital mental health for patients with serious mental illness
Digital technologies, especially smartphone apps, have great promise for increasing access to care for patients with serious mental illness such as schizophrenia.

Argonne's pioneering user facility to add magic number factory
A forthcoming N = 126 Factory will investigate one of the great questions in physics and chemistry: how were the heavy elements from iron to uranium created?

Biomarker in saliva predicts childhood obesity risk
The intriguing discovery, reported in the journal BMC Medical Genetics, supports ongoing efforts to identify biomarkers associated with the emergence of childhood obesity before body mass index (BMI) is designated as obese, said Shari Barkin, MD, MSHS, director of Pediatric Obesity Research at Monroe Carell Jr.

NASA satellite offers urban carbon dioxide insights
Using data from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2, researchers found connections between the population density of cities and how much carbon dioxide they produce per person.

Aggressive features in some small thyroid tumors increase the risk for metastasis
Results from a new large-scale study show that in nearly 20% of patients, papillary thyroid tumors less than 1 cm in size had pathological signs of more aggressive disease that increased the risk that these patients might develop distant metastasis.

Adjustable even and odd harmonic radiation characteristics of crystal target by strain engineering
The study on solid harmonics has been in focus in the fields of strong field ultrafast physics, condensed matter physics and nonlinear optics.

Making puffer fish toxin in a flask
In Japan, puffer fish is considered a delicacy, but the tickle to the taste buds comes with a tickle to the nerves: fugu contains tetrodotoxin, a strong nerve toxin.

New imaging technique enables the study of 3D printed brain tumors
In research published in Science Advances, Xavier Intes, a professor of biomedical engineering at Rensselaer, joined a multidisciplinary team from Northeastern University and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai to demonstrate a methodology that combines the bioprinting and imaging of glioblastoma cells in a cost-effective way that more closely models what happens inside the human body.

Gene regulatory factors enable bacteria to kill rivals and establish symbiosis in a squid
Two factors that control the expression of a key gene required by luminescent bacteria to kill competing bacterial cells have been identified.

FSU researchers help discover new genetic variants that cause heart disease in infants
Florida State University researchers working in an international collaboration have identified new genetic variants that cause heart disease in infants, and their research has led to novel insights into the role of a protein that affects how the heart pumps blood.

The brain has two systems for thinking about others' thoughts
The brain seems to have two different systems through which we can put ourselves into the shoes of someone else.

Liver fibrosis tied to specific heart failure, regardless of HIV or hepatitis C status
While there is an association between liver fibrosis and heart failure, the mechanisms for this association are currently unclear but may be of particular importance for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis C, both of which are chronic infections that affect the liver and heart.

Resurrecting ancient protein partners reveals origin of protein regulation
After reconstructing the ancient forms of two cellular proteins, scientists discovered the earliest known instance of a complex form of protein regulation.

Study: Cough that spreads tuberculosis has pain-linked trigger
University of Texas System researchers have pinpointed a molecule that the tuberculosis bacterium manufactures to induce the coughing that spreads the disease by triggering a pain-receptor response.

An ultimate one-dimensional electronic channel in hexagonal boron nitride
IBS scientists have reported that stacking of ultrathin sheets of hBN in a particular way creates a conducting boundary with zero bandgap.

How drones can hear walls
One drone, four microphones and a loudspeaker: nothing more is needed to determine the position of walls and other flat surfaces within a room.

Confusing standards lead to extra sugar in kids' breakfast cereals
Parents may let their children consume more sugar from their breakfast cereal than intended due to insufficient industry nutritional guidelines.

A filter for cleaner qubits
Researchers at the Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), RIKEN, and the University of Tokyo show theoretically how coupling an additional filter qubit to the control line of a quantum computer can greatly increase the lifetime of the information stored in it.

Damaging impacts of warming moderated by migration of rainfed crops
Many studies seek to estimate the adverse effects of climate change on crops, but most research assumes that the geographic distribution of crops will remain unchanged in the future.

One species to four: New analysis documents new bird diversity in the Pacific
New findings from UMBC researchers and colleagues suggest several island bird populations in the Pacific that were previously designated as a single species actually comprise up to four distinct species.

West coast dungeness crab stable or increasing even with intensive harvest, research shows
Fishermen from California to Washington caught almost all the available legal-size male Dungeness crab each year in the last few decades.

Machine sucks up tiny tissue spheroids and prints them precisely
A new method of bioprinting uses aspiration of tiny biologics such as spheroids, cells and tissue strands, to precisely place them in 3D patterns either on scaffolding or without to create artificial tissues with natural properties, according to Penn State researchers.
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