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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | March 16, 2020


A more balanced protein intake can reduce age-related muscle loss
Eating more protein at breakfast or lunchtime could help older people maintain muscle mass with advancing age -- but most people eat proteins fairly unevenly throughout the day, new research at the University of Birmingham has found.
Scientists optimize prime editing for rice and wheat
Recently, a research team led by Prof. GAO Caixia of the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the optimization of a prime editing system (PPE system) for creating desired point mutations, insertions and deletions in two major cereal crops, namely, rice and wheat.
Inflammation in the brain linked to several forms of dementia
Inflammation in the brain may be more widely implicated in dementias than was previously thought, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.
'Stealth transmission' fuels fast spread of coronavirus outbreak
Undetected cases, many of which were likely not severely symptomatic, were largely responsible for the rapid spread of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, according to new research by scientists at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.
Unraveling the puzzle of Madagascar's forest cats
Michelle Sauther has long wondered where Madagascar's mysterious wild cats came from.
Immunotherapy combo achieves reservoir shrinkage in HIV model
Stimulating immune cells with two cancer immunotherapies together can shrink the size of the viral 'reservoir' in SIV-infected non-human primates treated with antiviral drugs.
Transgender adults holding gender-affirming IDs have better mental health
Having gender-affirming documents, such as a passport, driver's license, or birth certificate, may improve mental health among transgender adults, according to findings published today in The Lancet Public Health from researchers at Drexel University's Dornsife School of Public Health.
Scientists can now edit multiple genome fragments at a time
Toronto scientists have developed CHyMErA, a new CRISPR-based tool for more versatile genome editing applications to help shed light on how multiple genes cooperate in health and disease.
Scientists have discovered the origins of the building blocks of life
Rutgers researchers have discovered the origins of the protein structures responsible for metabolism: simple molecules that powered early life on Earth and serve as chemical signals that NASA could use to search for life on other planets.
Is your child getting enough sleep?
A study of almost 800 children followed over several years shows that those who get the fewest hours of sleep are at greatest risk of developing psychiatric difficulties later, including ADHD, anxiety and depression.
New study reveals early evolution of cortex
Their researches on the lamprey brain has enabled researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden to push the birth of the cortex back in time by some 300 million years to over 500 million years ago, providing new insights into brain evolution.
Earliest age gender dysphoria experienced by transgender adults seeking gender-affirming surgery
Data collected from 155 adult transgender women and 55 transgender men were used to identify the earliest age at which gender dysphoria was experienced in this patient population seeking genital gender-affirming surgery at a California hospital.
National Poll: Many parents delay talking to kids about inappropriate touching
Experts recommend starting conversations about inappropriate touching during the preschool years, but less than half of parents of preschoolers in a national poll say they've begun that discussion.
'Toxic,' but still successful professionally?
Toxic personality is a term used to describe people who behave greedily, immodestly and unfairly and take the truth very lightly.
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde -- Enzyme targeted by TB antibiotic later stops the drug destroying it
Crick and Imperial researchers have found that a key antibiotic widely used to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis does not work as expected - a finding which could be used to develop new drugs.
Coronavirus-infected patients needing emergency surgery: Anesthesia standards
Physicians describe the standardized procedure of surgical anesthesia for patients with COVID-19 infection requiring emergency surgery to minimize the risk of virus spread and reduce lung injury in a Letter to the Editor published in Surgical Infections, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers.
NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Herold's eye
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Southern Indian Ocean and captured an image of a well-developed Tropical Cyclone Herold at hurricane strength, east of Madagascar.
Elucidation of mechanisms that coordinate cell memory inheritance with DNA replication
Why normal cells turn into cancer cells? One of the factors is deeply related to the failure of the cell differentiation mechanism called DNA methylation.
Study shows widely used machine learning methods don't work as claimed
Models and algorithms for analyzing complex networks are widely used in research and affect society at large through their applications in online social networks, search engines, and recommender systems.
Chinese case study suggests COVID-19 is not transmitted from pregnant mothers to newborns
A paper in the journal Frontiers in Pediatrics reported that four infants born to mothers infected with COVID-19 did not show signs of inheriting the viral disease.
Selective killing of cancer cells by cluttering their waste disposal system
Mixed-charge nanoparticles assemble into crystals and cause the death of thirteen types of cancer lines.
Magnetic component in e-cigarettes found to interfere with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator function
An e-cigarette carried in the left breast shirt pocket of a patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) caused magnetic reversion, interrupting the ICD's ability to detect and treat dangerous heart rhythm problems, clinicians report in HeartRhythm Case Reports, published by Elsevier.
Ancient mantis-man petroglyph discovered in Iran
A rare rock carving of an insect found in the Teymareh site of Central Iran has been jointly described by a team of entomologists and archaeologists in a paper now published in the open access Journal of Orthoptera Research.
Scientists can see the bias in your brain
The strength of alpha brain waves reveals if you are about to make a biased decision, according to research recently published in JNeurosci.
Aversion to risk by R&D managers may hurt US economic prospects
Research and Development (R&D) has long been key in the nation's economic prospects and according to new research from the University of California San Diego, the country's ability to maintain its competitive edge in this area largely depends on managers in R&D being less averse to risk.
Majority in national survey against separating immigrant families at US/Mexico Border
A clear majority of participants in a national survey about the zero-tolerance policy on the United States/Mexico border strongly opposed separating immigrant families and charging the parents as criminals, according to Baylor University research.
Blinded by the light
A new paper researching a framework for understanding how light and noise pollution affects wildlife.
If you're poor, poverty is an environmental issue
A survey from Cornell researchers -- conducted among more than 1,100 US residents -- found that there were, in fact, demographic differences in how people viewed environmental issues, with racial and ethnic minorities and lower-income people more likely to consider human factors such as racism and poverty as environmental, in addition to more ecological issues like toxic fumes from factories or car exhaust.
A nuclear conflict anywhere on Earth would cause global crop crisis, study finds
Inflamed tensions between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region have raised concerns about the potential for a limited nuclear war between the two countries.
Experts stress radiology preparedness for COVID-19
Today, the journal Radiology published the policies and recommendations of a panel of experts on radiology preparedness during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) public health crisis.
Shifts in deep geologic structure may have magnified great 2011 Japan tsunami
Researchers say they have identified the origins of an unusual fault that probably magnified the catastrophic 2011 Japan tsunami.
Shining a light on international energy inequality
A new study examines energy inequality for income classes across 86 countries, from highly industrialized to developing ones, revealing extreme disparity in energy footprints, both within nations and globally.
Technology to screen for higher-yielding crop traits is now more accessible to scientists
To drive progress toward higher-yielding crops, a team from the University of Illinois is revolutionizing the ability to screen plants for key traits across an entire field.
Cancer drug with better staying power, reduced toxicity promising in preclinical trial
A drug candidate has been found in preclinical trials to stop tumor growth entirely, deliver more cancer-busting power than many commonly used chemotherapy drugs and do so with fewer toxic side effects and more ability to overcome resistance.
New research on brain structure highlights cells linked to Alzheimer's and autism
New insights into the architecture of the brain have been revealed by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute and their collaborators.
Machine learning technique sharpens prediction of material's mechanical properties
Scientists at NTU Singapore, MIT, and Brown University have developed new approaches that significantly improve the accuracy of an important material testing technique by harnessing the power of machine learning.
New Yorkers and Coronavirus -- Support for school closures, while most feel not at risk
A new CUNY SPH survey released today found that 60% of New York State residents believe their chances of contracting the novel Coronavirus are low or very low.
Young adults don't know what's in nicotine products they vape, Stanford study finds
Young adults don't know what's in the products they vape and often don't know what brand of vaping products they use, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Bargain-hunting for biodiversity
The best bargains for conserving some of the world's most vulnerable salamanders and other vertebrate species can be found in Central Texas and the Appalachians, according to new conservation tools developed at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Soft corals near Virgin Islands recover from hurricanes, but stony corals declining
Soft corals at three sites in the US Virgin Islands were able to recover from the destructive effects of nearly back-to-back Category 5 storms in 2017, but research by a UB marine ecologist puts that seemingly good news in the context of an ecosystem that is dramatically changing.
New research first to relate Antarctic sea ice melt to weather change in tropics
While there is a growing body of research showing how the loss of Arctic sea ice affects other parts of the planet, a new study is the first to also consider the long-range effect of Antarctic sea ice melt.
NASA finds Gretel becoming extra-tropical
NASA's Terra satellite passed over the Southern Pacific Ocean and captured an image of Tropical Storm Gretel as it was transitioning into an extra-tropical cyclone, northwest of New Zealand.
Regional nuclear war a risk for global food security
Even a limited nuclear war could have dangerous effects far beyond the region that is fatally hit.
Instagram makes it easier to exercise
People who followed researchers' motivational posts on Instagram got more enjoyment out of their training sessions.
The Lancet Public Health: Access to identification documents reflecting gender identity may improve trans mental health
Results from a survey of over 20,000 American trans adults suggest that having access to identification documents which reflect their identified gender helps to improve their mental health and may reduce suicidal thoughts, according to a study published in The Lancet Public Health journal.
Getting groundbreaking medical technology out of the lab
New medical technologies hold immense promise for treating a range of conditions.
SFU research uses simulation game to alter beliefs about poverty
In advancing research to tackle the problem of burgeoning global economic inequality, researchers at Simon Fraser University used a poverty simulation game called SPENT to foster greater understanding of what causes poverty and economic inequality.
App detects harsh side effect of breast cancer treatment
Many breast cancer survivors suffer from lymph collection known as lymphedema.
Mysterious bone circles made from the remains of mammoths reveal clues about Ice Age
Mysterious bone circles made from the remains of dozens of mammoths have revealed clues about how ancient communities survived Europe's ice age.
Nanostructured rubber-like material with optimal properties could replace human tissue
Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have created a new, rubber-like material with a unique set of properties, which could act as a replacement for human tissue in medical procedures.
Are women using e-cigarettes during preconception and/or pregnancy?
A new study of 1,365 racially/ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women found that 4% reported e-cigarette use.
Biophysicists blend incompatible components in one nanofiber
Russian researchers showed the possibility of blending two incompatible components -- a protein and a polymer -- in one electrospun fiber.
Why is appendicitis not always diagnosed in the emergency department?
A new study examines the factors associated with a potentially missed diagnosis of appendicitis in children and adults in the emergency department.
Tang Dynasty noblewoman buried with her donkeys, for the love of polo
A noblewoman from Imperial China enjoyed playing polo on donkeys so much she had her steeds buried with her so she could keep doing it in the afterlife, archaeologists found.
Limited nuclear war could have big impact on world food supplies
A war between India and Pakistan using less than 1% of nuclear weapons worldwide could lead to the worst global food losses in modern history, according to a Rutgers co-authored study that is the first of its kind.
Ancient hornwort genomes could lead to crop improvement
An international research team led by the University of Zurich and the Boyce Thompson Institute illuminate the origin of land plants by analyzing the first hornwort genomes.
A new strategy for the management of inflammatory pain
A group of researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin has discovered a new mechanism of long-lasting pain relief.
Timing is key for parents who want to help children learn at museums, say researchers
The best way to engage with children in museums is to listen to them, watch what they are doing, and offer explanations as the child is beginning to explore an exhibit--not before or after.
APS tip sheet: Origins of matter and antimatter
Study suggests an 'axiogenesis' mechanism for the explanation of the matter to antimatter ratio in the Universe
Doctors urged to reconsider controversial acne drug
Acne treatment including the highly effective acne medication isotretinoin should be made more readily available despite reports of its association with depression and teen suicide, a study recommends.
Highly efficient, low-cost method developed to reduce DNA errors
A team of researchers from the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) has developed a more efficient and cost-effective way to accurately synthesize DNA than traditionally used methods.
California's strict air quality regulations help farmers prosper, UCI-led study finds
In a new study in Nature Food, scientists from the University of California, Irvine and other institutions found that pollution controls mandated by the government of California have helped perennial crops produce more fruits and nuts, boosting productivity by $600 million per year from 1980 to 2015.
Dual therapy reduces risk for bleeding better than triple therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation
Use of dual therapy with a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) plus P2Y12 inhibitor was associated with reduced risk for major bleeding compared with triple therapy with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) plus aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitor for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Breast milk may help prevent sepsis in preemies
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., have found -- in newborn mice -- that a component of breast milk may help protect premature babies from developing life-threatening sepsis.
Two hormones drive anemonefish fathering, aggression
Two brain-signaling molecules control how anemonefish dads care for their young and respond to nest intruders, researchers report in a new study.
Solving the riddle of superbug toxin damage to gut
A powerful Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) collaboration has revealed that a bacterial superbug can prevent stem cells in the gut from carrying out their vital role of regenerating the inner lining of the intestine.
New low-cost approach detects building deformations with extreme precision in real time
A new camera-based method for measuring building deformations can detect small displacements from 10 meters away.
Effects of family member detention or deportation
Researchers in this survey study of nearly 550 Latino or Latina adolescents looked at how family member detention or deportation was associated with later suicidal thoughts, alcohol use or clinically significant externalizing behaviors such as rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors.
Scientists discover pulsating remains of a star in an eclipsing double star system
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have discovered a pulsating ancient star in a double star system, which will allow them to access important information on the history of how stars like our Sun evolve and eventually die.
Sobering new data on drinking and driving: 15% of US alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities involve alcohol under the legal limit
A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, published by Elsevier, found that motor vehicle crashes involving drivers with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) below the legal limit of 0.08 percent accounted for 15% of alcohol-involved crash deaths in the United States.
Family member deportation puts Latino adolescents at risk of suicidal thoughts
Latino/a adolescents with a family member who was detained or deported beginning as early as 2017 were at high risk of suicidal thoughts, early alcohol use, and risky behaviors that can lead to school failure and chronic health problems.
Silkworms provide new spin on sticky molecules
E-selectin is grown in silkworms for the first time, revealing new aspects of its binding dynamics.
Giant clam shells: Unprecedented natural archives for paleoweather
A research team led by Prof. YAN Hong, from the Institute of Earth Environment found that Tridacna shells have the potential to be used as an unprecedented archive for Paleoweather reconstructions.
Benefits of fish in moderation while pregnant outweigh risks for child
To eat or not to eat fish is a question that has long concerned pregnant women.
New kind of CRISPR technology to target RNA, including RNA viruses like coronavirus
Researchers in the lab of Neville Sanjana, PhD, at the New York Genome Center and New York University have developed a new kind of CRISPR screen technology to target RNA.
Predicting the impacts of white-nose syndrome in bats
Researchers have found that the pathogen levels in the environment play a major role in whether bat populations are stable or experience severe declines from white-nose syndrome.
Microplastic fibers linked to respiratory, reproductive changes in fish
Chronic exposure to microplastic fibers causes aneurysms, erosion of surface layers and other serious damage to fish gills, and increases egg production in female fish, a sign that chemicals in the fibers may be acting as endocrine disruptors, a new study by researchers at Duke University and China's Zhejiang University of Technology finds.
Peppered with gold
Terahertz waves are becoming more important in science and technology.
Not finding new goals post-retirement associated with greater cognitive decline
Certain middle-aged and older adults, especially women who tend to disengage from difficult tasks and goals after they retire, may be at greater risk of cognitive decline as they age, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
A tale of shepherds and helices
A salt formed due to corrosion on a restored artwork features a structure that is known from the world of biology.
Cancer diagnostics
A good indicator of dysregulation in live cells is a change in their RNA expression.
Researchers sniff out AI breakthroughs in mammal brains
New Cornell research explains some of these functions through a computer algorithm inspired by the mammalian olfactory system.
Researchers expose vulnerabilities of password managers
Researchers at the University of York have shown that some commercial password managers may not be a watertight way to ensure cyber security.
Study suggests LEGO bricks could survive in ocean for up to 1,300 years
By measuring the mass of individual bricks found on beaches against equivalent unused pieces and the age of blocks obtained from storage, researchers estimated that the items could endure for anywhere between 100 and 1,300 years
Against overfishing: save the oldies!
Measures against overfishing tend to protect young, immature fish through measures such as minimum-landing sizes.
Love rivals risk having offspring with a greater number of harmful mutations
Males that face tougher competition for females risk having offspring with a greater number of harmful mutations in their genome than males without rivals.
New findings boost understanding of arterial aneurysm
Abdominal arterial (or aortic) aneurysm in older men is associated with levels of certain subtypes of white blood cells, a study from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, shows.
Food systems are fodder for curbing cities' environmental impacts
Focusing on urbanization as a key driver of environmental change in the 21st century, researchers at Princeton University have created a framework to understand and compare cities' food systems and their effects on climate change, water use and land use.
Data from Sweden used to examine PPI use, risk of fracture in children
Data from Sweden were used to compare 115,933 pairs of children who did or didn't use proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to examine the association between PPI use and risk of fracture in children.
Even a limited India-Pakistan nuclear war would bring global famine, says study
A new multinational study incorporating the latest models of global climate, crop production and trade examines the possible effects of a nuclear exchange between two longtime enemies: India and Pakistan.
Nonmedical opioid prescription use among transgender girls, young women
This observational study looked at how common nonmedical prescription opioid use was among transgender girls and young women and risk factors associated with it.
People fearful of taking part in vital clinical research
A review, led by researchers at the University of York and Hull York Medical School, has found that fear about testing new treatments and possible side effects was the most common reason given by patients for not wanting to participate.

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