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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | March 23, 2020


Among wild mammals too, females live longer
In all human populations, average lifespans are longer for women than for men.
Study sheds light on fatty acid's role in 'chemobrain' and multiple sclerosis
Medical experts have always known myelin, the protective coating of nerve cells, to be metabolically inert.
World's first ultrasound biosensor created in Australia
Most implantable monitors for drug levels and biomarkers invented so far rely on high tech and expensive detectors such as CT scans or MRI.
Towards an unhackable quantum internet
Harvard and MIT researchers have found a way to correct for signal loss with a prototype quantum node that can catch, store and entangle bits of quantum information.
System trains driverless cars in simulation before they hit the road
A simulation system invented at MIT to train driverless cars creates a photorealistic world with infinite steering possibilities, helping the cars learn to navigate a host of worse-case scenarios before cruising down real streets.
Development of novel oral formulation to treat systemic fungal infections
The Wasan Laboratory in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of British Columbia in partnership with iCo Therapeutics Inc.
Study reveals an inherited origin of prostate cancer in families
Vanderbilt researchers have identified haplotypes, ancestral fragments of DNA, that are associated with hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) in a first-of-its-kind genomic study made possible by the study of prostate cancer patients with family histories of the disease.
Electric cars better for climate in 95% of the world
Fears that electric cars could actually increase carbon emissions are unfounded in almost all parts of the world, news research shows.
Advanced 'super-planckian' material exhibits LED-like light when heated
Could there be a new kind of light in the universe?
Wearable strain sensor using light transmittance helps measure physical signals better
KAIST researchers have developed a novel wearable strain sensor based on the modulation of optical transmittance of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-embedded elastomer.
Associations between screen use, language skills
Researchers combined the results of 42 studies in this analysis to examine associations between the quantity, quality and onset of screen use by children and language skills.
Water-induced MAPbBr3@PbBr(OH) with enhanced luminescence and stability
Lead halide perovskites are materials that emit light with a range of colors, but also suffer from poor moisture stability.
Ancestor of all animals identified in Australian fossils
A team led by UC Riverside geologists has discovered the first ancestor on the family tree that contains most animals today, including humans.
Study suggests men more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if they go through puberty early
Boys who enter puberty at an early age are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes as adults than later developing boys, irrespective of their weight in childhood, according to an observational study following more than 30,600 Swedish men born between 1945 and 1961, published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes).
Skulls gone wild: How and why some frogs evolved extreme heads
Beneath slick skin, some frogs sport spines, spikes and other skeletal secrets.
New genetic editing powers discovered in squid
Revealing yet another super-power in the skillful squid, scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory have discovered that squid massively edit their own genetic instructions not only within the nucleus of their neurons, but also within the axon -- the long, slender neural projections that transmit electrical impulses to other neurons.
Coal exit benefits outweigh its costs
Coal combustion is not only the single most important source of CO2 -- accounting for more than a third of global emissions, but also a major contributor to detrimental effects on public health and biodiversity.
Covid-19, a prominent role for UniTrento in ultrasound diagnosis
ULTRa - Ultrasound Laboratory Trento, which develops ultrasound diagnostic tools for health applications, is one of the research groups that are at work at the University of Trento to fight the spread of Covid-19.
Study examines association of sleep-disordered breathing with Alzheimer's disease biomarkers
This study used data and brain imaging from a randomized clinical trial for older adults who are cognitively unimpaired and examined brain changes, including the presence of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease, between those with sleep-disordered breathing and those without.
Chatty kids do better at school
A study from the University of York found that children from families of higher socioeconomic status had better language abilities at nursery school age and that these verbal skills boosted their later academic performance throughout school.
NYU Abu Dhabi researchers develop new tool for performing cancer liquid biopsies
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. When caught in its early stages, before metastasis (which is the growth of a secondary tumor separate to the primary site of cancer), it is known that cancer survival rates are higher.
April's SLAS Technology is now available
April's Edition of SLAS Technology Features Cover Article, 'CURATE.AI: Optimizing Personalized Medicine with Artificial Intelligence'.
Small, precise and affordable gyroscope for navigating without GPS
A small, inexpensive and highly accurate gyroscope, developed at the University of Michigan, could help drones and autonomous cars stay on track without a GPS signal.
Vibes before it bites: 10 types of defensive behaviour for the false coral snake
The False Coral Snake (Oxyrhopus rhombifer) may be capable of recognising various threat levels and demonstrates ten different defensive behaviours, seven of which are registered for the first time for the species.
East Antarctica's Denman Glacier has retreated almost 3 miles over last 22 years
East Antarctica's Denman Glacier has retreated 5 kilometers, nearly 3 miles, in the past 22 years, and researchers at the University of California, Irvine and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are concerned that the shape of the ground surface beneath the ice sheet could make it even more susceptible to climate-driven collapse.
UCI team demonstrates ability to supercharge cells with mitochondrial transplantation
UCI researchers have shown that they can give cells a short-term boost of energy through mitochondrial transplantation.
Skoltech scientists developed a new cathode material for metal-ion batteries
Researchers from the Skoltech Center for Energy Science and Technology (CEST) created a new cathode material based on titanium fluoride phosphate, which enabled achieving superior energy performance and stable operation at high discharge currents.
Seeing is believing: Visualizing differences in RNA biology between single cells
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba developed the novel and publicly available computational tool Millefy to visualize heterogeneity in RNA biology between single cells.
Ultrafast and broadband perovskite photodetectors for large-dynamic-range imaging
A solution-processed broadband photodetector based on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite and organic bulk heterojunction has been demonstrated, achieving broadband response spectra up to 1000 nm with a high EQE in the NIR region, an ultrafast response speed of 5.6 ns and a wide linear dynamic range of 191 dB.
Is Niagara Falls a barrier against fish movement?
New research shows that fishes on either side of Niagara Falls--one of the most powerful waterfalls in the world -- are unlikely to breed with one another.
April's SLAS Discovery now available
'Maximizing the Value of Cancer Drug Screening in Multicellular Tumor Spheroid Cultures: A Case Study in Five Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines' Leads April's SLAS Discovery.
Five language outcome measures evaluated for intellectual disabilities studies
Expressive language sampling yielded five language-related outcome measures that may be useful for treatment studies in intellectual disabilities, especially fragile X syndrome.
NUS scientists invent symmetry-breaking in a nanoscale device that can mimic human brain
In a paper published in Nature Nanotechnology on March 23, 2020, researchers from the National University of Singapore reported the invention of a nanoscale device based on a unique material platform that can achieve optimal digital in-memory computing while being extremely energy efficient.
CAR macrophages go beyond T cells to fight solid tumors
Penn Medicine research shows genetically engineering macrophages -- an immune cell that eats invaders in the body -- could be the key to unlocking cellular therapies that effectively target solid tumors
New 3D view of methane tracks sources
NASA's new 3-dimensional portrait of methane concentrations shows the world's second largest contributor to greenhouse warming.
It's in our genome: Uncovering clues to longevity from human genetics
Researchers from Osaka University found that high blood pressure and obesity are the strongest factors reducing lifespan based on genetic and clinical information of 700,000 patients in the UK, Finland and Japan.
Clemson researcher's novel MOF is potential next-gen semiconductor
Clemson professor Sourav Saha demonstrated a novel double-helical metal organic framework architecture in a partially oxidized form that conducts electricity, potentially making it a next-generation semiconductor.
UM scientists play a direct role in identification of forests for protection in Borneo
An international team of researchers, including two from the University of Montana, are working to help identify priority forest areas for protection on Borneo.
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of severe COVID-19
James Diaz, MD, MHA, MPH & TM, Dr PH, Professor and Head of Environmental Health Sciences at LSU Health New Orleans School of Public Health, has proposed a possible explanation for the severe lung complications being seen in some people diagnosed with COVID-19.
To sleep deeply: The brainstem neurons that regulate non-REM sleep
University of Tsukuba researchers identified neurons that promote non-REM sleep in the brainstem in mice.
Taking a break helps drosophila germline cells reach their destination
Quiescence, or breaks during cell cycling, are common during germ cell development in many animals but the mechanisms regulating these periods are unclear.
Female mice respond differently to fasting, showing the importance of studying both sexes
In response to short, six-hour fasts in mice, female mice put on more liver fat than males, but also seemed to be better at using it up, according to research published in The Journal of Physiology.
Comparing opioid-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations before, after ACA Medicaid expansion
This observational study compared changes in opioid-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations before and after the 2014 Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion in states that implemented expansions with states that didn't.
Study: Climatic-niche evolution strikingly similar in plants and animals
Dr. LIU Hui and Dr. YE Qing from the South China Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, together with Dr.
Pablo Escobar's hippos may help counteract a legacy of extinctions
When cocaine kingpin Pablo Escobar was shot dead in 1993, the four hippos in his private zoo in Colombia were left behind.
'Thermometer' protein regulates blooming
As average temperatures rise every year, it is no longer rare to see plants flower as early as February.
Study uncovers increasing global rates of liver cancer
New research reveals rising rates of liver cancer around the world, despite advances aimed at preventing the disease.
Obesity alert for April 2020
All print, broadcast and online journalists who receive the Obesity embargo alert agree to abide by the embargo and may not publish, post, broadcast or distribute embargoed news releases or details of the embargoed studies before the embargo date and time.
Lactation changes how mom's neurons communicate -- but it's reversible
Lactation temporarily changes how a mother's neurons behave, according to new research in mice published in JNeurosci.
Organellogenesis still a work in progress in novel dinoflagellates
Organellogenesis, where an endosymbiont is transformed into an organelle within the host, is not well understood.
Concrete solutions that lower both emissions and air pollution
Some common strategies to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of concrete production could have unintended consequences for local air pollution and related health damages, according to a study from the University of California, Davis.
Mental health of health care workers in china in hospitals with patients with COVID-19
This survey study of almost 1,300 health care workers in China at 34 hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 reports on their mental health outcomes, including symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia and distress.
The growth of an organism rides on a pattern of waves
Study shows ripples across a newly fertilized egg are similar to other systems, from ocean and atmospheric circulations to quantum fluids.
Identifying fatty acid-binding protein 4 as a responsible gene for renal stone formation
The present study revealed impairment of lipid metabolism in papillae with calcified plaque tissue and down-regulation of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) associated with plaque formation.
Microbiome search engine can increase efficiency in disease detection and diagnosis
An international team of researchers has proposed a microbiome search-based method, via Microbiome Search Engine, to analyze the wealth of available health data to detect and diagnose human diseases.  
OncoMX knowledgebase enables research of cancer biomarkers and related evidence
Researchers at the George Washington University published a new knowledgebase and web portal, OncoMX, which will improve the exploration and research of cancer biomarkers in the context of related evidence.
Flat-panel technology could transform antennas, wireless and cell phone communications
Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are reinventing the mirror, at least for microwaves, potentially replacing the familiar 3-D dishes and microwave horns we see on rooftops and cell towers with flat panels that are compact, versatile, and better adapted for modern communication technologies.
Star formation project maps nearby interstellar clouds
Astronomers have captured new, detailed maps of three nearby interstellar gas clouds containing regions of ongoing high-mass star formation.
Challenge and desire in Antarctic meteorology and climate
The outcomes of the 13th and 14th Workshop on Antarctic Meteorology and Climate (WAMC), as well as the 3rd and 4th Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) Meetings, was discussed in an article published in the peer-reviewed journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences.
3D genetic structure in blood cancer important beyond DNA code changes
Children with aggressive blood cancers have differences -- not just in the DNA code of their blood cells -- but also in the heavily twisted protein superstructure that controls access to genes.
Researchers develop method for measuring quality of life for people on autism spectrum
A new study led by researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) shows that a set of simple questionnaires can help clinicians and families better evaluate the quality of life of people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Analyzing patients shortly after stroke can help link brain regions to speech functions
New research from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine shows analyzing the brains of stroke victims just days after the stroke allows researchers to link various speech functions to different parts of the brain, an important breakthrough that may lead to better treatment and recovery.
Interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts promote metastasis
In order to colonize other organs and grow into metastases, tumor cells that detach from the parent tumor need to manipulate their new microenvironment and create a 'metastatic niche'.
Underweight diabetic patients in Singapore have increased risk of tuberculosis
Nested in the long-running Singapore Chinese Health Study, a new study by researchers in Singapore, based on data from over 60,000 middle-aged to older adults, has found that people who suffer from diabetes and who are also underweight have a much higher risk of active tuberculosis (TB) than their heavier counterparts, supporting calls for TB screening among these patients.
Sensing internal organ temperature with shining lights
A cheap, biocompatible white powder that luminesces when heated could be used for non-invasively monitoring the temperature of specific organs within the body.
Even bacteria need their space: Squished cells may shut down photosynthesis
Introverts take heart: When cells, like some people, get too squished, they can go into defense mode, even shutting down photosynthesis.
Can migration, workforce participation, and education balance the cost of aging in Europe?
New IIASA research shows that higher levels of education and increasing workforce participation in both migrant and local populations are needed to compensate for the negative economic impacts of aging populations in EU countries.
Scientists reveal hidden catalytic surface of Ni-Au core-shell in CO2 hydrogenation
Dr. LIU Wei and his colleagues from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have found that the core-shell configuration of a Ni-Au catalyst was lost during the actual reaction and recovered afterwards.
Stroke: When the system fails for the second time
After a stroke, there is an increased risk of suffering a second one.
Labor after previous cesarean should be considered
Labor after cesarean may be successful in over 90% of cases and thus may be considered a reasonable option for both mother and child, a study published in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth suggests.
Stem cells and nerves interact in tissue regeneration and cancer progression
Researchers at the University of Zurich show that different stem cell populations are innervated in distinct ways.
Clinicians should consider screening for TSH-R-Abs before pregnancy in patients with history of autoimmune thyroid disorders
Clinicians should consider screening for thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSH-R-Abs) before pregnancy when the patient has a history of autoimmune thyroid disease or a history of radioactive iodine treatment or thyroidectomy.
Beyond your doorstep: What you buy and where you live shapes land-use footprint
Princeton researchers developed a tool for examining consumption-based land footprints and found that when direct land-use such as housing is combined with indirect land-use through the consumption of goods and services, each of our imprints on the land could be significantly higher than most people are aware.
Counteracting a legacy of extinctions
Now a new study, comparing the traits of introduced herbivores to those of the past, reveals that introductions have restored many important ecological traits that have been lost for thousands of years.
Cumulative doses of oral steroids linked to increased blood pressure
Cumulative doses of oral steroids in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increased hypertension (blood pressure) for those who take them regularly, found new research in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Supermassive black holes shortly after the Big Bang: How to seed them
They are billions of times larger than our Sun: how is it possible that supermassive black holes were already present when the Universe was 'just' 800 million years old?
A key development in the drive for energy-efficient electronics
Scientists have made a breakthrough in the development of a new generation of electronics that will require less power and generate less heat.
Pushing periodic disorder induced phase-matching into deep-ultraviolet spectral region
Phase matching condition is the key criteria for the efficient nonlinear frequency conversion.
Research: Teacher evaluations weed out low-performing teachers in urban schools
New research by NYU Steinhardt's Assistant Professor Luis A. Rodriguez finds that statewide K-12 teacher evaluation systems have proven to phase out lower performing teachers and retain more effective teachers for longer periods of time -- particularly in urban districts and low-performing schools.
Anxious about COVID-19? Stress can have lasting impacts on sperm and future offspring
Prolonged fear and anxiety brought on by major stressors, like the coronavirus pandemic, can not only take a toll on a person's mental health, but may also have a lasting impact on a man's sperm composition that could affect his future offspring.
Stanford researcher investigates how squid communicate in the dark
Researchers begin to reveal how social squid communicate in the near-blackness of the deep sea.
How do you power billions of sensors? By converting waste heat into electricity
Osaka University researchers found that thermoelectric power generators lose a great deal of their possible output power because of thermal and electrical contact resistance.
Ultrathin but fully packaged high-resolution camera
The unique structures of biological vision systems in nature inspired scientists to design ultracompact imaging systems.
Can soap really 'kill' the coronavirus? (video)
Constantly being told to wash your hands? Us too. So we're diving into the chemistry behind why soap is so effective against viruses like the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.
A new 'gold standard' for safer ceramic coatings
Making your own ceramics can be a way to express your creativity, but some techniques and materials used in the process could be harmful.
Extract from seeds of the Melinjo tree may improve obesity and diabetes
In Southeast Asia, the fruit, flowers, and leaves of Indonesia's 'Melinjo' tree are traditional foods.
Keeping lower back pain at bay: Exercises designed by Lithuanians are 3 times more efficient
Lithuanian scientists have devised a spinal stabilization exercise program for managing lower back pain for people who perform a sedentary job.
Estimating breast cancer screening use, costs among women in 40s with private insurance
Researchers used a large commercial claims database to estimate the percentage of US women in their 40s with private insurance who were eligible and received screening mammography in 2017 and national costs for this screening.
Teamwork in a cell
For the first time ever, researchers are looking at the molecular processes in the cell's skeleton -- the cytoskeleton -- from a bird's eye perspective.
Study finds more mental heath visits decreases risk of suicide among youths
A multistate study of Medicaid enrollees led by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center found that suicide risk was highest among youth with epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, substance use and bipolar disorder.
Uncertainty about facts can be reported without damaging public trust in news -- study
A series of experiments -- including one on the BBC News website -- finds the use of numerical ranges in news reports helps people grasp the uncertainty of stats while maintaining trust in data and its sources.
Simple framework helps future ocean studies
A framework that helps marine scientists select localized carbon dioxide levels for experiments aims to improve robustness in global warming studies.
New material developed could help clean energy revolution
Researchers developed a promising graphene-carbon nanotube catalyst, giving them better control over hugely important chemical reactions for producing green technology and clean energy
Unlocking schizophrenia
New research, led by Prof. LIU Bing and Prof. JIANG Tianzi from the Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their collaborators have recently developed a novel imaging marker that may help in the personalized medicine of psychiatric disorders.
Graphite nanoplatelets on medical devices kill bacteria and prevent infections
Graphite nanoplatelets integrated into plastic medical surfaces can prevent infections, killing 99.99 per cent of bacteria which try to attach -- a cheap and viable potential solution to a problem which affects millions, costs huge amounts of time and money, and accelerates antibiotic resistance.
Pain in a well-toned body
They are young and well-trained - but a fourth of sport science students suffers from pain in combination with psychosocial stresses.
Solar system acquired current configuration not long after its formation
Model developed by Brazilian researchers shows chaotic phase that placed objects in current orbits beginning within first 100 million years after formation of giant planets.
Isoflavones, in tofu and plant proteins, associated with lower heart disease risk
People who regularly ate tofu and other foods containing isoflavones had a moderately lower risk of developing heart disease.
Researchers observe ultrafast processes of single molecules for the first time
Graz University of Technology researchers describe in Physical Review Letters how a molecule moves in the protective environment of a quantum fluid.
Arctic light pollution affects fish, zooplankton up to 200 metres deep
If artificial light shines into the Arctic Ocean during the polar night, does it matter?
Immunotherapy using 'young cells' offers promising option against cancer
A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Jets of bacteria carry microscopic cargoes
It is a longstanding challenge to be able to control biological systems to perform specific tasks.
Using cannabinoids to treat acute pain
A new systematic review and meta-analysis showed a small but significant reduction in subjective pain scores for cannabinoid treatment compared to placebo in patients experiencing acute pain.
New device quickly detects harmful bacteria in blood
Engineers have created a tiny device that can rapidly detect harmful bacteria in blood, allowing health care professionals to pinpoint the cause of potentially deadly infections and fight them with drugs.
Peak district grasslands hold key to global plant diversity
Scientists at the University of Sheffield have found that plants are able to co-exist because they share key nutrients, using grasslands from the Peak District.
A new low-cost solar technology for environmental cooling
A study conducted by the Politecnico di Torino (Italy), in collaboration with the National Metrological Research Institute (INRiM) and recently published on Science Advances, proposes a new technology for space cooling.

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