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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | March 24, 2020


Study challenges common view of oxygen scarcity on Earth 2 billion years ago
Geologists at University of Tartu and University of Alberta in collaboration with an international research team found evidence for elevated oxygen levels 2 billion years ago, in contradiction to previously accepted models that predict low oxygen at that time.
Discovery that cells inject each other opens new line of attack on cancer
Discovery of an entirely new source of cancer cell diversity has profound implications for cancer research and treatment, research from the University of Sydney has found.
Plants and animals aren't so different when it comes to climate
A new study reveals that plants and animals are remarkably similar in their responses to changing environmental conditions across the globe, which may help explain how they are distributed today and how they will respond to climate change in the future.
Changing how we think about warm perception
Perceiving warmth requires input from a surprising source: cool receptors.
Old human cells rejuvenated with stem cell technology, Stanford-led study finds
Old human cells return to a more youthful and vigorous state after being induced to briefly express a panel of proteins involved in embryonic development, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Creating stretchable thermoelectric generators
For the first time, a soft and stretchable organic thermoelectric module has been created that can harvest energy from body heat.
Obama's 2008 election improved mental health of black men, research shows
Barack Obama's election to the nation's highest office in 2008 improved the mental health of black men, according to new research from Rice University.
Past your bedtime? Inconsistency may increase risk to cardiovascular health
Researchers at Notre Dame found that individuals going to bed even 30 minutes later than their usual bedtime presented a significantly higher resting heart rate that lasted into the following day.
Higher daily step count linked with lower all-cause mortality
In a new study, higher daily step counts were associated with lower mortality risk from all causes.
Teaching old transition metals new tricks: Chemists activate palladium catalysis by light
In the production of compounds, chemists have the goal of finding strategies that are most selective and avoid waste products.
Half of 65+ adults lack dental insurance; poll finds strong support for Medicare coverage
Nearly all older Americans support adding a dental benefit to the Medicare program that covers most people over age 65, according to a new national poll that also reveals how often costs get in the way of oral health for older adults.
Whole body ownership is not just the sum of each part of the body
Differences between whole body and body part ownership were clarified using scrambled body stimulation in a virtual environment, wherein the observer's hands and feet were presented in randomized spatial arrangements.
Brain or muscles, what do we lose first?
From the age of 50, there is a decline not just in physical activity but also in cognitive abilities since the two are correlated.
Diet quality of young people in US
This observational study used national survey data from young people up to age 19 to estimate the overall diet quality of children and teens in the United States and to explore how diet quality has changed from 1999 to 2016.
Molecule co-discovered at UL leads to breakthrough on how data is stored
Scientists at University of Limerick's (Ireland) Bernal Institute have helped discover a molecule that could have a major impact on how data is stored and processed.
Unequal access codes
Researchers at the HSE Institute of Education have used regional data to describe, for the first time in Russia, how inequality in access to education affects different parts of the Russian Federation.
Regular tub bathing linked to lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease
Regular tub bathing is linked to a lower risk of death from heart disease and stroke, indicates a long term study, published online in the journal Heart.
Rats give more generously in response to the smell of hunger
How do animals that help their brethren manage to prioritize those most in need?
Thirty risk factors found during and after pregnancy for children developing psychosis
More than 30 significant risk factors have been identified for the development of psychotic disorders in offspring in research led by the NIHR Maudsley BRC.
COVID-19: The time is now to prepare for people affected by humanitarian crises
With over 300,000 COVID-19 cases across the globe, including recent cases in Syria and the Gaza Strip, the data continues to demonstrate how the disease has no borders.
What motivates sales of pollinator-friendly plants?
Pollinator issues have emerged as critical within public awareness. As a result, many consumers and activists have advocated for the removal of commonly used pesticides.
Bacterial protein fragment kills lung cells in pulmonary fibrosis, study finds
A bacterial protein fragment instigates lung tissue death in pulmonary fibrosis, a mysterious disease affecting millions of people worldwide, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Mie University in Japan.
But you don't look sick? How broad categories like autoimmune impact patient experience
Patients with autoimmune diseases often have an illness experience riddled with symptom ambiguities and shifting diagnoses.
How well do you know the back of your hand, really?
Many of us are spending a lot of time looking at our hands lately and we think we know them pretty well.
Infections still responsible for 1 in 5 childhood deaths in England and Wales
Infections are still responsible for one in five childhood deaths in England and Wales, with respiratory infections topping the league table of known causes, reveals an analysis of the most up to date figures, published online in Archives of Disease in Childhood.
Efficiency of non-invasive brain stimulation for memory improvement: Embracing the challenge
A group of scientists from the Research Center of Neurology and Skoltech showed that human working memory can be tweaked using non-invasive magnetic stimulation of the brain.
National study finds diets remain poor for most American children; disparities persist
A study of national dietary trends over 18 years finds some improvements in the diets of US children, but the majority still have a poor-quality diet.
All microgastrinae wasps from around the world finally together in a 1,089-page monograph
With 3,000 known species and thousands more left to describe, the wasps of the subfamily Microgastrinae are the single most important group of parasitoids attacking the larvae of butterflies and moths, many of which are economically important pests.
Mechanical forces shape bacterial biofilms' puzzling patterns
Belying their slimy natures, the sticky patches of bacteria called biofilms often form intricate, starburst-like patterns as they grow.
New study: Cannabis helps fight resistant bacteria
Bacteria are increasingly becoming resistant to antibiotics. By combining antibiotics with the cannabis compound, cannabidiol, researchers have found a way to enhance the antibiotic effect.
Development of a solid material capable of slowly releasing H2S and NO
NIMS has developed a solid material capable of slowly releasing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) when exposed to air.
Adjusting processing temperature results in better hydrogels for biomedical applications
Biohydrogels have been studied closely for their potential use in biomedical applications, but they often move between sols and gels, depending on their temperature, changes that can pose issues depending on the intended use.
More men, more problems? Not necessarily, FSU study finds
Men are more prone to competitive risk taking and violent behavior, so what happens when the number of men is greater than the number of women in a population?
Manipulating ligands
Chemists at TU Dresden succeeded in fabricating surface-clean noble metal aerogels boosting the electrocatalysis performance by revisiting ligand chemistry.
A study investigating genetic mechanisms underlying resistance to leishmaniasis
The study was conducted in Brazil and mapped the genes that are activated when mice resistant to Leishmania are infected.
Antibodies in the brain trigger epilepsy
Certain forms of epilepsy are accompanied by inflammation of important brain regions.
Wuhan study shows lying face down improves breathing in severe COVID-19
In a new study of patients with severe COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) hospitalized on ventilators, researchers found that lying face down was better for the lungs.
Is step count associated with lower risk of death?
Researchers looked at whether taking more steps and higher intensity stepping were associated with reduced risk of death in this observational study that included almost 4,900 adults (40 and over) who wore a device called an accelerometer to measure their step count and step intensity (steps/minute).
Simulated 'frankenfish brain-swaps' reveal senses control body movement
In a new study, researchers have computationally modeled the various brains and bodies of a species of weakly electric fish, the glass knifefish (Eigenmannia virescens), to successfully simulate 'fish brain transplants' and investigate.
Many buds to a blossom: A synchronization approach to sensing using many oscillators
Engineers at the Tokyo Tech have found a new approach of taking a measurement over an extended area.
Researchers develop early warning system to fight disinformation online
The Notre Dame project is an effort to combat the rise of coordinated social media campaigns to incite violence, sew discord and threaten the integrity of democratic elections.
Lack of media skepticism tied to belief in rape myths
People who tend to recognize similarities between people they know and people depicted in the media are more likely to believe common myths about sexual assault, according to a new study co-led by a Cornell researcher.
Changes in surface sugarlike molecules help cancer metastasize
Changes in a specific type of sugarlike molecule, or glycan, on the surface of cancer cells help them to spread into other tissues, according to researchers at UC Davis.
Research institutes careers media about us high-efficiency laser for silicon chips
Transistors work electrically, but data can be transmitted more quickly by using light.
Images reveal how bacteria form communities on the human tongue
Using a recently developed fluorescent imaging technique, researchers in the United States have developed high-resolution maps of microbial communities on the human tongue.
Study shows commonly used mouthwash could make saliva significantly more acidic
The first study looking at the effect of chlorhexidine mouthwash on the entire oral microbiome has found its use significantly increases the abundance of lactate-producing bacteria that lower saliva pH, and may increase the risk of tooth damage.
Study uses AI to estimate unexploded bombs from Vietnam War
Researchers have used artificial intelligence to detect Vietnam War-era bomb craters in Cambodia from satellite images - with the hope that it can help find unexploded bombs.
Study indicates vaporized cannabis creates drug-seeking behavior
The WSU research team found that rats with regular access to cannabis seek more of the substance and tend to show increased drug-seeking behavior when cannabis is absent.
Telemedicine reduces mental health burden of COVID-19
Telemental health services are a practical and feasible way to support patients, family members, and healthcare providers who may experience psychological side-effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including anxiety, fear, depression, and the impact of long-term isolation.
How personalization and machine learning can improve cancer outreach ROI
The effectiveness of outreach programs varies widely over time and across patients.
Scientists reveal how proteins team up to repair DNA
Scientists have revealed an important mechanism in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, according to new research published today in eLife.
Research breakthrough: Humans are not the first to repurpose CRISPR
We humans are far from the first to exploit the benefits of CRISPR.
Eye blinking on-a-chip
Researchers at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) have developed a device that moves fluids over corneal cells similarly to the movement of tears over a blinking eye.
Bristol team develops photosynthetic proteins for expanded solar energy conversion
A team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has developed a new photosynthetic protein system enabling an enhanced and more sustainable approach to solar-powered technological devices.
Ships' emissions create measurable regional change in clouds
Years of cloud data over a shipping route between Europe and South Africa shows that pollution from ships has significantly increased the reflectivity of the clouds.
Recipe for neuromorphic processing systems?
The field of 'brain-mimicking' neuromorphic electronics shows great potential for basic research and commercial applications, and researchers in Germany and Switzerland recently explored the possibility of reproducing the physics of real neural circuits by using the physics of silicon.
The physics that drives periodic economic downturns
A professor at Duke University says that the way spilled milk spreads across the floor can explain why economic downturns regularly occur.
Shining light on sleeping cataclysmic binaries
Almost 35 years ago, scientists made the then-radical proposal that colossal hydrogen bombs called novae go through a very long-term life cycle after erupting, fading to obscurity for hundreds of thousands of years and then building up to become full-fledged novae once more.
Coronavirus massive simulations completed on Frontera supercomputer
Coronavirus envelope all-atom computer model being developed by Amaro Lab of UC San Diego on NSF-funded Frontera supercomputer of TACC at UT Austin.
eDNA provides researchers with 'more than meets the eye'
Researchers from Curtin University have used next generation DNA sequencing to learn more about the different species of plants, insects and animals present in the Pilbara and Perth regions of Western Australia.
How to win more B2B contracts with effective e-sales
A 30% increase in buyer attention increases the likelihood of a contract award by seven times.
Planning for future water security in China
China's fast economic growth and accompanying rise in food demand is driving an increase in water use for agriculture and industry, thus threatening the country's water security.
Distance to transplant center and likelihood of being considered for transplantation
In an analysis of information on adults who began treatment for kidney failure at any Georgia, North Carolina, or South Carolina dialysis facility, the distance from a patient's residence to the nearest transplant center did not appear to affect the likelihood of transplant-related referrals and evaluations.
Researchers unveil framework for sharing clinical data in AI era
Clinical data should be treated as a public good when it is used for secondary purposes, such as research or the development of AI algorithms, according to a new special report.
New model helps explain seasonal variations in urban heat islands
Rising temperatures and shifting rainfall patterns linked to climate change may alter the seasonality of urban heat islands in coming decades.
Study shows key factors for reducing brain damage from cardiac arrest
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) can improve blood flow to the brain after cardiac arrest and preserve neurological function.
A molecule that directs neurons
A research team coordinated by the University of Trento studied a mass of brain cells, the habenula, linked to disorders like autism, schizophrenia and depression.
Small horses got smaller, big tapirs got bigger 47 million years ago
The former coalfield of Geiseltal in Saxony-Anhalt has yielded large numbers of exceptionally preserved fossil animals, giving palaeontologists a unique window into the evolution of mammals 47 million years ago.
Crumpled graphene makes ultra-sensitive cancer DNA detector
Graphene-based biosensors could usher in an era of liquid biopsy, detecting DNA cancer markers circulating in a patient's blood or serum.
CUNY New York City COVID-19 Survey week 2
Nearly three in ten New York City residents (29%) report that either they or someone in their household has lost their job as a result of coronavirus over the last two weeks.
Entanglement by identity, or interaction without ever touching
What is interaction and when does it occur? Intuition suggests that the necessary condition for the interaction of independently created particles is their direct touch or contact through physical force carriers.
Engineers model mutations causing drug resistance
Whether it is a drug-resistant strain of bacteria, or cancer cells that no longer react to the drugs intended to kill them, diverse mutations make cells resistant to chemicals, and 'second generation' approaches are needed.
Scientists investigate why females live longer than males
An international team of scientists found that, like humans, female wild animals tend to live longer than males.
First high sensitivity dark matter axion hunting results from south Korea
IBS researchers raising their flag in the axion dark matter field.
A genetic nano-toolkit for the generation of new biomaterials
Magnetic bacteria might soon be used for the production of novel biomaterials.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Singapore modelling study estimates impact of physical distancing on reducing spread of COVID-19
A new modelling study conducted in a simulated Singapore setting has estimated that a combined approach of physical distancing [2] interventions, comprising quarantine (for infected individuals and their families), school closure, and workplace distancing, is most effective at reducing the number of SARS-CoV-2 cases compared with other intervention scenarios included in the study.
How fire causes office-building floors to collapse
NIST researchers spent months meticulously recreating the long concrete floors supported by steel beams commonly found in high-rise office buildings, only to set the structures ablaze.
Co-occurring contaminants may increase NC groundwater risks
Eighty-four percent of the wells sampled in the Kings Mountain Belt and the Charlotte and Milton Belts of the Piedmont region of North Carolina contained concentrations of vanadium and hexavalent chromium that exceeded health recommendations from the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services.
Older people generally more emotionally healthy, better able to resist daily temptations
Older people are generally more emotionally stable and better able to resist temptations in their daily lives, a new study says.
Researchers develop language test for people with Fragile X syndrome
Researchers have developed a test to measure the expressive language skills of people with Fragile X syndrome, a genetic disorder that may result in intellectual disability, cognitive impairment and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.
Modeling the human eye in a dish
Researchers from Osaka University developed and validated a novel PITX2-eGFP hiPSC reporter line to model the development of periocular mesenchymal cells.

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