Nav: Home

Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 01, 2020


Uncertain climate future could disrupt energy systems
An international team of scientists has published a new study proposing an optimization methodology for designing climate-resilient energy systems and to help ensure that communities will be able to meet future energy needs given weather and climate variability.
New supramolecular copolymers driven by self-sorting of molecules
Researchers in Japan have succeeded in creating a new type of helicoidal supramolecular polymer.
Skull scans reveal evolutionary secrets of fossil brains
Three-million-year old brain imprints in fossil skulls of the species Australopithecus afarensis (famous for 'Lucy' and 'Selam' from Ethiopia) shed new light on the evolution of brain growth and organization.
Babies with brain tumors could benefit from targeted treatment
Brain cancer in infants is biologically distinct from other childhood brain tumors and could be successfully treated with targeted drugs, a new study has shown.
Brain tumors in children: Hereditary genetic defect destabilizes protein regulation
The causes of 40 percent of all cases of certain medulloblastoma - dangerous brain tumors affecting children - are hereditary.
Homo naledi juvenile remains offers clues to how our ancestors grew up
A partial skeleton of Homo naledi represents a rare case of an immature individual, shedding light on the evolution of growth and development in human ancestry, according to a study published April 1, 2020, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Debra Bolter of Modesto Junior College in California and the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, and colleagues.
Stable perovskite LEDs one step closer
Researchers at Linköping University, working with colleagues in Great Britain, China and the Czech Republic, have developed a perovskite light-emitting diode (LED) with both high efficiency and long operational stability.
The candy-cola soda geyser experiment, at different altitudes
Dropping Mentos® candies into a bottle of soda causes a foamy jet to erupt.
Tiny fly from Los Angeles has a taste for crushed invasive snails
As part of their project BioSCAN the scientists at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (USA) have already discovered plenty of minute insects that are new to science, but they are still only guessing what the lifestyles of these species are.
Global nuclear medicine community shares COVID-19 strategies and experiences
In an effort to provide safer working environments for nuclear medicine professionals and their patients, clinics across five continents have shared their approaches to containing the spread of COVID-19 in a series of editorials, published ahead of print in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
Climate change may be making migration harder by shortening nightingales' wings
The Common Nightingale, known for its beautiful song, breeds in Europe and parts of Asia and migrates to sub-Saharan Africa every winter.
An affordable and fast clinical test that can save human lives and spares at-risk population
LAL is an essential biotech resource for sterility testing of medical devices, but harvesting horseshoe crabs from the ocean to produce it puts pressure on vulnerable animal populations.
Most diets lead to weight loss and lower blood pressure, but effects largely disappear after a year
Reasonably good evidence suggests that most diets result in similar modest weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors over a period of six months, compared with a usual diet, finds a study published by The BMJ today.
New CT scoring criteria for timely diagnosis, treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
Updated CT scoring criteria that considers lobe involvement, as well as changes in CT findings (i.e., ground-glass opacity, crazy-paving pattern, and consolidation), could quantitatively and accurately evaluate the progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia, according to an open-access article in the American Journal of Roentgenology.
Tracking tau
In the fight against neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, the tau protein is a major culprit.
Quantitative reconstruction of formation paleo-pressure and case studies
As the paleo-pressure is significant for hydrocarbon accumulation and reservoir formation, geologists are eager for an accurate reconstruction of paleo-pressure, although that is very hard.
Consumption of 3-6 eggs/week lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and death
Eggs are nutrient-dense while also loaded with abundant cholesterol, thus making the public hesitant about consumption.
New sensors could offer early detection of lung tumors
MIT researchers have developed a urine test that can offer early detection of proteins linked to lung cancer.
Our oceans are suffering, but we can rebuild marine life
It's not too late to rescue global marine life, according to a study outlining the steps needed for marine ecosystems to recover from damage by 2050.
PKU's Zhou Feng and collaborators report the performance of water conservation in China
The deceleration of water use revealed in this study partly challenges the results from global hydrological models, which commonly suggest an increase of total water use across China over the period 1971 to 2010.
Models explain changes in cooking meat
In new research published in EPJ Plus, a team of mathematicians show that by modelling meat as a fluid-saturated matrix of elastic proteins, which are deformed as the fluid moves, cooking behaviours can be simulated more precisely.
Shining a spotlight on the history of gender imbalance in Hollywood
A new analysis reveals long-term trends in female representation in the US movie industry, including a sharp decline associated with the 'Studio System' era that dominated Hollywood from 1922 to 1950.
Discovery by UMass Lowell-led team challenges nuclear theory
A discovery by a team of researchers led by UMass Lowell nuclear physicists could change how atoms are understood by scientists and help explain extreme phenomena in outer space.
New discovery: Evidence for a 90-million-year-old rainforest near the South Pole
Researchers have found unexpected fossil traces of a temperate rainforest near the South Pole 90 million years ago, suggesting the continent had an exceptionally warm climate in prehistoric times.
Fashion designers in a country of shortages
Why was there always a shortage of fashionable clothing in the USSR?
Benefits of exercise on metabolism: More profound than previously reported
The effects of exercise on metabolism are even greater than scientists believed.
AI finds 2D materials in the blink of an eye
A research team at The University of Tokyo has introduced a machine-learning algorithm that can scan through microscope images to find 2D materials like graphene.
Scientists see energy gap modulations in a cuprate superconductor
Scientists studying high-Tc superconductors at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have definitive evidence for the existence of a state of matter known as a pair density wave -- first predicted by theorists some 50 years ago.
New 3D cultured cells mimic the progress of NASH
A research team led by scientists from Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT), Japan, has successfully established 3D cultured tissue that mimics liver fibrosis, a key characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
Plant disease primarily spreads via roadsides
A precise statistical analysis reveals that on the Åland Islands a powdery mildew fungus that is a common parasite of the ribwort plantain primarily spreads via roadsides because traffic raises the spores found on roadsides efficiently into the air.
American robins now migrate 12 days earlier than in 1994
A new study, published in Environmental Research Letters, concludes that robin migration is kicking off earlier by about five days each decade.
Stanford researchers forecast longer, more extreme wildfire seasons
Stanford-led study finds that autumn days with extreme fire weather have more than doubled in California since the early 1980s due to climate change.
Graphene-based actuator swarm enables programmable deformation
Graphene-based actuators featuring fast and reversible deformation under various external stimuli are promising for soft robotics and MEMS.
A sensational discovery: Traces of rainforests in West Antarctica
An international team of researchers led by geoscientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have now provided a new and unprecedented perspective on the climate history of Antarctica.
Study shows six decades of change in plankton communities
New research published in Global Change Biology shows that some species have experienced a 75% population decrease in the past 60 years, while others are more than twice as abundant due to rises in sea surface temperatures.
New guidelines on caring for ICU patients with COVID-19
An international team including McMaster University researchers has come together to issue guidelines for health-care workers treating intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19.
Evolutionary adaptation helped cave bears hibernate, but may have caused extinction
A study published in Science Advances reveals a new hypothesis that may explain why European cave bears went extinct during past climate change periods.
Overcoming carbon loss from farming in peatlands
Miscanthus, willow found as good biomass crops to add carbon to vulnerable soils.
Blocking the iron transport could stop tuberculosis
The bacteria that cause tuberculosis need iron to survive. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now solved the first detailed structure of the transport protein responsible for the iron supply.
Study: Therapy by phone is effective for depression in people with Parkinson's
Depression is common in people with Parkinson's disease and contributes to faster physical and mental decline, but it is often overlooked and undertreated.
How dopamine drives brain activity
Using a specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensor that can track dopamine levels, MIT neuroscientists have discovered how dopamine released deep within the brain influences distant brain regions.
Elephant welfare can be assessed using two indicators
In two new studies, scientists from the University of Turku, Finland, have investigated how to measure stress in semi-captive working elephants.
Smartphone videos produce highly realistic 3D face reconstructions
Normally, it takes pricey equipment and expertise to create an accurate 3D reconstruction of someone's face.
Prehistoric artifacts suggest a Neolithic era independently developed in New Guinea
New artifacts uncovered at the Waim archaeological site in the highlands of New Guinea -- including a fragment of the earliest symbolic stone carving in Oceania -- illustrate a shift in human behavior between 5,050 and 4,200 years ago in response to the widespread emergence of agriculture, ushering in a regional Neolithic Era similar to the Neolithic in Eurasia.
Six million-year-old bird skeleton points to arid past of Tibetan plateau
Researchers from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have found a new species of sandgrouse in six to nine million-year-old rocks in Gansu Province in western China.
Ancient hominins had small brains like apes, but longer childhoods like humans
Using precise imaging technology to scan fossil skulls, researchers found that as early as 3 million years ago, children had a long dependence on caregivers.
Physical activity contributes to positive mental well-being in menopausal women
Late menopausal status is associated with an elevated level of depressive symptoms that indicate the negative dimension of mental well-being.
The discovery of new compounds for acting on the circadian clock
The research team comprised of Designated Associate Professor Tsuyoshi Hirota and Postdoctoral Fellows Simon Miller and Yoshiki Aikawa, of the Nagoya University Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules, has succeeded in the discovery of novel compounds to lengthen the period of the circadian clock, and has shed light on their mechanisms of action.
Golden age of Hollywood was not so golden for women
By analyzing a century of data (1910 to 2010) in the American Film Institute Archive and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb), the researchers found that female representation in the film industry hit an all-time low during the so-called Golden Age.
Surprising hearing talents in cormorants
The great cormorant has more sensitive hearing under water than in air.
Understanding brain tumors in children
The causes of 40% of all cases of certain medulloblastomas -- dangerous brain tumors affecting children -- are hereditary.
First complete German shepherd DNA offers new tool to fight disease
The DNA sequencing of a healthy German shepherd offers scientists new insight into the evolution of the domestic dog while also enabling dogs to be screened for hip and other diseases much more accurately.
Almond orchard recycling a climate-smart strategy
Recycling orchard trees onsite can sequester carbon, save water and increase crop yields, making it a climate-smart practice for California's irrigated almond orchards, finds a study from the University of California, Davis.
Traces of ancient rainforest in Antarctica point to a warmer prehistoric world
Researchers have found evidence of rainforests near the South Pole 90 million years ago, suggesting the climate was exceptionally warm at the time.
Mindfulness app may help address physician anxiety, burnout
Many physicians live with significant anxiety -- now more than ever -- but a new study from Brown researchers suggests that app-based mindfulness training can help.
Oldest ever human genetic evidence clarifies dispute over our ancestors
Genetic information from an 800.000-year-old human fossil has been retrieved for the first time.
Mayo Clinic research finds spina bifida surgery before birth restores brain structure
Surgery performed on a fetus in the womb to repair defects from spina bifida triggers the body's ability to restore normal brain structure, Mayo Clinic research discovered.
Study finds fish have diverse, distinct gut microbiomes
The rich biodiversity of coral reefs even extends to microbial communities within fish, according to new research.
Vermont has conserved one third of the land needed for an ecologically functional future
In a new study, forest conservation experts at the University of Vermont (UVM) confirmed that the state has already protected 33%, or 1.3 million acres, of highest priority targeted lands needed to protect and connect valuable wildlife habitats and corridors.
Major new study charts course to net zero industrial emissions
A major new study by an interdisciplinary team of researchers finds that it is possible -- and critical -- to bring industrial greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by 2070.
Managing negative thoughts helps combat depression in Parkinson's patients
People with Parkinson's disease who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy -- a form of psychotherapy that increases awareness of negative thinking and teaches coping skills -- are more likely to overcome depression and anxiety, according to a Rutgers study.
Immunotherapy effective in metastatic prostate cancers with specific markers of immune activation
A subset of patients with metastatic prostate cancer and specific markers of immune activity responded well to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, according to results of a Phase II trial.
Urban dogs are more fearful than their cousins from the country
Inadequate socialisation, inactivity and an urban living environment are associated with social fearfulness in dogs.
Coercive measures are still frequently used in psychiatric care
The use of coercive measures in psychiatric care has decreased over the past years.
About the distribution of biodiversity on our planet
Large open-water fish predators such as tunas or sharks hunt for prey more intensively in the temperate zone than near the equator.
Effective options for quitting smoking during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic
A new Cochrane Special Collection, COVID-19: Effective options for quitting smoking during the pandemic, published today in the Cochrane Library.
Outcomes of coronavirus patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in China offers guidance for management of critically ill COVID-19 patients worldwide
The initial experience of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) management for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Shanghai, China provides guidance for management of critically ill COVID-19 patients worldwide, reports a study in the ASAIO Journal.
Landmark study concludes marine life can be rebuilt by 2050
An international study recently published in the journal Nature that was led by KAUST professors Carlos Duarte and Susana Agustí lays out the essential roadmap of actions required for the planet's marine life to recover to full abundance by 2050.
Predicting in-flight air density for more accurate landing
Knowing the air density outside of a spacecraft can have a substantial effect on its angle of descent and ability to hit a specific landing spot.
Measures for care of cancer patients during COVID-19 outbreak in China
The authors describe measures taken to reduce the risk of transmitting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to medical staff and cancer patients seeking treatment during the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
AGA issues formal recommendations for PPE during gastrointestinal procedures
Today, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) published new COVID-19 recommendations in Gastroenterology, the official journal of the AGA: AGA Institute Rapid Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Natural light flicker can help prevent detection
Movement breaks camouflage, making it risky for anything trying to hide.
Possible lives for food waste from restaurants
The BIOSAHE research group at the University of Cordoba developed a methodology to assess waste and determine the most appropriate valorization paths.
Reconstructing the clock of human development
Researchers used iPS cells to reconstructed the human 'segmentation clock,' a key point in early embryonic development that determines how the body gets segmented.
Study offers new insight into the impact of ancient migrations on the European landscape
Scientists from the University of Plymouth and the University of Copenhagen led research tracing how the two major human migrations recorded in Holocene Europe -- the northwestward movement of Anatolian farmer populations during the Neolithic and the westward movement of Yamnaya steppe peoples during the Bronze Age -- unfolded.
Risk of HIV-related heart disease risk varies by geography, income
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people without HIV.
Majority of patients responded in CAR T-cell trial for mantle cell lymphoma
Majority of patients responded in CAR T-cell trial for mantle cell lymphoma.
Study finds that Pilates significantly improves blood pressure in young, obese women
A new paper in the American Journal of Hypertension, published by Oxford University Press, finds that mat Pilates may be an effective strategy to improve cardiovascular health for young obese women, a population that is at risk for hypertension and early vascular complications.
Physical force alone spurs gene expression, study reveals
Cells will ramp up gene expression in response to physical forces alone, a new study finds.
Health warning labels on alcohol and snacks may reduce consumption
Image-and-text health warning labels, similar to those on cigarette boxes, show potential for reducing the consumption of alcoholic drinks and energy-dense snacks, such as chocolate bars, according to a study published in the open-access journal BMC Public Health.
Non-invasive method to predict brain pressure
The only way to accurately measure pressure inside the skull is to insert a catheter or sensor inside.
Lucy had an ape-like brain
A new study led by paleoanthropologists Philipp Gunz and Simon Neubauer from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, reveals that Lucy's species Australopithecus afarensis had an ape-like brain.
Guidelines on caring for ICU patients with COVID-19
An international team including McMaster University researchers has come together to issue guidelines for health-care workers treating intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19.
Modern humans, Neanderthals share a tangled genetic history, study affirms
A new study reinforces the concept that Neanderthal DNA has been woven into the modern human genome on multiple occasions as our ancestors met Neanderthals time and again in different parts of the world.
BESSY II: Ultra-fast switching of helicity of circularly polarized light pulses
At the BESSY II storage ring, a team has shown how the helicity of circularly polarized synchrotron radiation can be switched faster - up to a million times faster than before.
Fatty acid in triglycerides proves an effective platform for biological drug delivery
Houston Methodist nanomedicine researchers are studying a new drug delivery system that transports oral medication via triglycerides that could eliminate the need for injections or IV treatments of some biologic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.
Inherited mutation can predispose children to a type of brain tumor
Collaboration co-led by researchers at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital discovers a novel predisposition gene in pediatric medulloblastoma.
Significant global investment could save 11 million children
Spending $20 million per year for 30 years would yield a 3-to-1 productivity gain of almost $2 trillion to the global economy according to St.

Trending Science News

Current Coronavirus (COVID-19) News

Top Science Podcasts

We have hand picked the top science podcasts of 2020.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Listen Again: IRL Online
Original broadcast date: March 20, 2020. Our online lives are now entirely interwoven with our real lives. But the laws that govern real life don't apply online. This hour, TED speakers explore rules to navigate this vast virtual space.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#574 State of the Heart
This week we focus on heart disease, heart failure, what blood pressure is and why it's bad when it's high. Host Rachelle Saunders talks with physician, clinical researcher, and writer Haider Warraich about his book "State of the Heart: Exploring the History, Science, and Future of Cardiac Disease" and the ails of our hearts.
Now Playing: Radiolab

Falling
There are so many ways to fall–in love, asleep, even flat on your face. This hour, Radiolab dives into stories of great falls.  We jump into a black hole, take a trip over Niagara Falls, upend some myths about falling cats, and plunge into our favorite songs about falling. Support Radiolab by becoming a member today at Radiolab.org/donate.