Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 07, 2020
Treatment relieves depression in 90% of participants in small study
A new form of magnetic brain stimulation rapidly relieved symptoms of severe depression in 90% of participants in a small study conducted by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Litter problem at England's protected coasts
Beaches in or near England's Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have the same levels of litter as those in unprotected areas, new research shows.

Study demonstrates the need for immediate ICU care for severe COVID-19 pneumonia
Researchers have identified the most common clinical characteristics of 109 patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia who died in Wuhan, China in the early stages of the coronavirus pandemic, according to a new study published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

Atomic force microscopy reveals high heterogeneity in bacterial membrane vesicles
Researchers at Kanazawa University and Tsukuba University report in Nanoscale that the physical properties of extracellular bacterial membrane vesicles are significantly diverse.

RSNA publishes Fleischner Society statement on chest imaging and COVID-19
A multinational consensus statement from the Fleischner Society on the role of chest imaging in the management of patients with COVID-19 was jointly published today in the journals Radiology and Chest.

54.8% of COVID-19 cases imported to Brazil by March 5 came from Italy
In contrast with China and other countries where the disease spread slowly, in Brazil more than 300 people started the epidemic.

Bubble dynamics reveal how to empty bottles faster
Researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee have discovered how to make bottles empty faster, which has wide-ranging implications for many areas beyond the beverage industry.

Making a connection: Two ways that fault segments may overcome their separation
In complex fault zones, multiple seemingly disconnected faults can potentially rupture at once, increasing the chance of a large damaging earthquake.

Protecting the elderly in long-term care facilities from the risks of COVID-19
A new report calls for measures to protect elderly people in long-term care facilities and their caregivers who are particularly vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The evolution of color: Team shows how butterfly wings can shift in hue
A selective mating experiment by a curious butterfly breeder has led scientists to a deeper understanding of how butterfly wing color is created and evolves.

What cells does the novel coronavirus attack?
Scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Thorax Clinic at Heidelberg University Hospital have examined samples from non-virus infected patients to determine which cells of the lungs and bronchi are targets for novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

One of the mechanisms of Staphylococcus antibiotic resistance deciphered
The Russian side is represented by Structural Biology Lab (Kazan Federal University) and Institute of Proteins (Russian Academy of Sciences).

Better plant edits by enhancing DNA repair
A protein hijacked from a bacterial pathogen helps to facilitate more precise genome editing in plants.

Simulations show extreme opinions can lead to polarized groups
In this week's Chaos, researchers use a theoretical model to examine what effect extreme views have on making the entire system more polarized.

Neutron research: Magnetic monopoles detected in Kagome spin ice systems
Magnetic monopoles are actually impossible. At low temperatures, however, certain crystals can contain so-called quasi-particles that behave like magnetic monopoles.

NASA finds Tropical Cyclone Harold between Vanuatu and Fiji
Tropical Cyclone Harold brought heavy rains and hurricane-force winds to Vanuatu and was moving toward Fiji when NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with an image of the storm.

Seeking COVID cures: Scientists find promising first step in antiviral treatment
Researchers from Cornell University have identified a possible target for antiviral treatment for COVID-19.

First-ever photo proof of powerful jet emerging from colliding galaxies
Clemson University researchers and their international colleagues have reported the first detection of a relativistic on-axis jet emerging from two colliding galaxies -- the first photographic proof that merging galaxies can produce jets of fast-moving charged particles.

Pancreatic cancer blocked by disrupting cellular pH balance
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys have found a new way to kill pancreatic cancer cells by disrupting their pH equilibrium.

Locally informed simulation model predicts hospital capacity needs during COVID-19
CHIME includes a user-friendly interface so that hospital leaders can, at any time, independently estimate the time until their hospitals' capacities would likely be exceeded.

Successful MERS vaccine in mice may hold promise for COVID-19 vaccine
In a new study, published April 7 in mBio, researchers from the University of Iowa and the University of Georgia demonstrate that a new vaccine fully protects mice against a lethal dose of MERS, a close cousin of COVID-19.

Dispersion of the quantum many-body states 'Bethe Strings' experimentally resolved
An international research team has resolved important physical characteristics of the quantum many-body states 'Bethe strings'.

Disagreements help team perception, study finds
Team disagreements might be the key to helping Soldiers identify objects in battle, researchers say.

Study redefines exi'STING' dogma of inflammatory mechanism
Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) researchers led by Dr. Dominic De Nardo have discovered the mechanism behind one of two signalling arms involved in the cGAS-STING pathway.

Babies retain even detailed events during a nap
While sleeping the brain goes through previously experienced things, consolidates new memory contents and summarizes similar experiences into more general knowledge.

Some flowers have learned to bounce back after injury
Some flowers have a remarkable and previously unknown ability to bounce back after injury, according to a new study.

Celiac disease linked to increased risk of premature death
People with celiac disease have increased risk of dying prematurely, despite increased awareness of the disease in recent years and better access to gluten-free food.

New practices improved stroke care
A new method of evaluating and prioritising treatment for patients with suspected acute stroke, which has been used by the Stockholm health authority since 2017, has led to faster health interventions and better patient care, shows a new study from Karolinska Institutet published in the journal JAMA Neurology.

How serotonin balances communication within the brain
Our brain is steadily engaged in soliloquies. These internal communications are usually also bombarded with external sensory events.

No need to steer clear of electric cars if you have a pacemaker
A study published in Technology and Health Care shows that four leading brands of e-cars do not trigger electromagnetic interference (EMI) with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED).

Tracking Southern Hemisphere black carbon to Antarctic snow
Biomass burning represents around 80% of all BC emitted to the atmosphere in the Southern Hemisphere, which means that the fires happening in Australia, New Zealand and South America ultimately leave a mark in Antarctic snow.

How wallflowers evolved a complementary pair of plant defenses
A pair of chemicals used by wallflowers and their kin to ward off predators have evolved to complement each other, with one targeting generalist herbivores and the other targeting specialized herbivores that have become resistant to the generalist defense.

Common coronaviruses are highly seasonal, with most cases peaking in winter months
Of the seven coronaviruses known to infect people, four cause common respiratory infections that are sharply seasonal and appear to transmit similarly to influenza, according to a new study by University of Michigan School of Public Health researchers.

Russian scientists has developed and introduced new laser method for cataract surgery
Scientists from ITMO and the S.N. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex came up with a technology where a laser is used both to destroy the clouded eye lens and to stimulate the regeneration of adjacent tissue.

Personalized microrobots swim through biological barriers, deliver drugs to cells
Biohybrid robots on the micrometer scale can swim through the body and deliver drugs to tumors or provide other cargo-carrying functions.

Coquí fossil from Puerto Rico takes title of oldest Caribbean frog
The bright chirp of the coquí frog, the national symbol of Puerto Rico, has likely resounded through Caribbean forests for at least 29 million years.

Common protein in skin can 'turn on' allergic itch
A commonly expressed protein in skin -- periostin -- can directly activate itch-associated neurons in the skin, according to new research.

Lymphoma's different route revealed
Researchers at the MDC observe the very early stages of blood vessel development in lymph node tumors.

Students who listened to Beethoven during lecture -- and in dreamland -- did better on test
College students who listened to classical music by Beethoven and Chopin during a computer-interactive lecture on microeconomics -- and heard the music played again that night -- did better on a test the next day than did peers who heard the same lecture, but instead slept that evening with white noise in the background.

Engineered virus might be able to block coronavirus infections, mouse study shows
No vaccines exist that protect people against infections by coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, or the ones that cause SARS and MERS.

Young children find a parent's hug more calming than a stranger's
For infants as young as four months, a hug from a parent makes all the difference.

Investigating association between preconception exposure to plastics, risk of preterm birth
Researchers used urinary measures of biomarkers of phthalates (a group of chemicals used in plastics) and phthalate substitutes from couples undergoing fertility care and examined if higher concentrations prior to conception were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth.

Lipid gradient that keeps your eyes wet
New understandings of how lipids function within tears could lead to better drugs for treating dry eye disease.

Let's do the twist
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Harvard University designed a polymer known as a liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) that can be 'programmed' to both twist and bend in the presence of light.

After affirmative action bans, underrepresented student enrollment lags demographic trends
In states that have banned affirmative action, the share of underrepresented minorities among students admitted to and enrolling in public universities has steadily lost ground relative to changing demographic trends among those states' high school graduates, according to new research.

New genetic tools expand capacity to investigate microbes
A team of international scientists has developed a suite of more than 200 new genetic techniques for using marine microbes to investigate a host of questions in biology.

Air quality and health impact from the 2018 Saddleworth Moor Fire in Northern England
In a new study, published in Environmental Research Letters, researchers led by the University of Leeds used computer simulations to calculate the effect of the 2018 Saddleworth Moor Fire on air quality and the resulting impact on health.

Study suggests suicide attempt survivors have lower sensitivity to bodily signals
People who have survived a suicide attempt are less sensitive to bodily signals related to their heart and breath, and have a higher tolerance for pain, suggest new findings published today in eLife.

The evolution of arthritic knees
Scientists have identified the genetic switches regulating knee development in mouse and human, explored their evolution, probed their links to bipedalism and osteoarthritis, and confirmed that a mutation in one switch gives rise to the disease.

Are gamma-ray bursts powered by a star's collapsing magnetic fields?
In its final moments of life, a distant massive star releases an intense burst of high-energy gamma radiation - a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) - the brightest sources of energy in the universe, detectable to humans through powerful telescopes.

NASA study adds a pinch of salt to El Niño models
When modeling the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ocean-climate cycle, adding satellite sea surface salinity -- or saltiness -- data significantly improves model accuracy, according to a new NASA study.

Evaluating embryo quality with ultrasensitive protein detection
Infertility is estimated to affect 9% of reproductive-aged couples globally, and many couples turn to assisted reproductive technology.

Marketing researchers identify the three most powerful drivers of effective crowdfunding
While the concept of crowdfunding is still in its early phases of development, a group of marketing researchers have conducted a study that reveals the most powerful drivers behind effective crowdfunding campaigns.

Hangover drug shows wider benefits in USC research
The hangover remedy DHM may have broader applications for substance abuse treatment and liver disease.

New method to monitor Alzheimer's proteins
IBS-CINAP research team has reported a new method to identify the aggregation state of amyloid beta (Aβ) proteins in solution.

Researchers suggest a special diet against asthma
Can a special diet help in certain cases of asthma?

What other countries can learn from Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Exploring the challenges in the Italian health care system during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and how other countries can plan for optimal actions.

Repetitive irradiation with 222nm UVC shown to be non-carcinogenic and safe for sterilizing human skin
Joint research between Kobe University and Ushio Inc. has provided proof for the first time in the world that direct and repetitive illumination from 222nm ultraviolet radiation C (UVC), which is a powerful sterilizer, does not cause skin cancer.

Children have very precise expectations about adults' communicative actions
Adults talk to babies differently from how we would speak to other adults.

USPSTF recommendation on screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against screening for bacterial vaginosis in someone without symptoms and who is pregnant but not at increased risk for preterm delivery.

US public concerns about COVID-19 pandemic
This survey study assessed public concerns about symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 and individual actions in response to the pandemic.

River-groundwater hot spot for arsenic
Naturally occurring groundwater arsenic contamination is a problem of global significance, particularly in South and Southeast Asian aquifers.

It's now or never: Visual events have 100 milliseconds to hit brain target or go unnoticed
Researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) have defined a crucial window of time that mice need to key in on visual events.

Risk based approach will optimize socioeconomic recovery
COVID-19 is not the only public health crisis in the United States.

Depressive disorders are 'under recognized and under treated' in people with HIV/AIDS
People living with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of depressive disorders.

Protecting the high seas
Researchers use big data to identify biodiversity hotspots that could become the first generation of high seas marine protected areas.

Genes sow seeds of neuropsychiatric diseases before birth, in early childhood
From early prenatal development through childhood, the prefrontal cortex of the human brain undergoes an avalanche of developmental activity.

NHS could save £89 million and further fight against antimicrobial resistance
The NHS could save up to £89 million a year on unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics, and further its efforts in the fight against antimicrobial resistance -- if it was to comprehensively introduce already available and accurate point-of-care (POCTs) diagnostic tests.

Calculating early warning scores before they reach hospital can help the sickest patients
Recording National Early Warning Scores (NEWS) when a patient is urgently referred to hospital can improve the process of care for the sickest patients and reduce the time taken to get to hospital, according to a NIHR- funded study at the University of Bristol published in the BJGP today [7 April].

Stanford researchers show how forest loss leads to spread of disease
In Uganda, loss of forested habitat increases the likelihood of interactions between disease-carrying wild primates and humans.

Successful online management of COVID-19 infection
A team of researchers in Wuhan, China have developed a multidisciplinary self-managed home quarantine method that was effective in controlling the source of COVID-19 infection and was useful in alleviating the shortage of medical resources.

Wild tomato resistance to bacterial canker has implications for commercial tomato industry
Bacterial canker is caused by the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis, which infects commercially bred tomatoes by colonizing the xylem, a series of tubes that transports water and minerals throughout the plant.

The link between virus spillover, wildlife extinction and the environment
As COVID-19 spreads across the globe, a common question is, can infectious diseases be connected to environmental change?

Climate change triggers Great Barrier Reef bleaching
The Great Barrier Reef is suffering through its worst bleaching event.

CUNY New York City COVID-19 survey week 4
The majority of New York City residents expect a long disruption to their daily life.

Cancer scientists at Purdue aim to use protein power to stop tumor growth
Purdue University scientists have created a new therapy option that may help halt tumor growth in certain cancers such as prostate, which is among the most common types of cancer in men.

Scientists develop new way to identify the sex of sea turtle hatchlings
A new minimally invasive technique greatly enhances the ability to measure neonate turtle sex ratios.
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