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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 09, 2020


Time to encourage people to wear face masks as a precaution, say experts
It's time to encourage people to wear face masks as a precautionary measure on the grounds that we have little to lose and potentially something to gain, say experts in The BMJ today.
Long-living tropical trees play outsized role in carbon storage
A group of trees that grow fast, live long lives and reproduce slowly account for the bulk of the biomass -- and carbon storage -- in some tropical rainforests, a team of scientists says in a paper published this week in the journal Science.
Researchers reveal important genetic mechanism behind inflammatory bowel disease
Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have pinpointed a genetic variation responsible for driving the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Mayo Clinic offer guidance on treating COVID-19 patients with signs of acute heart attack
Much remains unknown about COVID-19, but many studies already have indicated that people with cardiovascular disease are at greater risk of COVID-19.
Torquato research links elastodynamic and electromagnetic wave phenomena
Princeton's Salvatore Torquato, the Lewis Bernard Professor of Natural Sciences and director of the Complex Materials Theory Group, published research this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) linking wave phenomena that has never previously been linked.
Newly emerged enterovirus-A71 C4 isolates may be more virulent than B5 in northern Vietnam
Researchers from Kanazawa University have found a new sublineage of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) C4 subgenotype with two possible recombinant strains during the 2015-16 outbreak of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Hanoi, northern Vietnam.
Astronomers measure wind speed on a brown dwarf
Using VLA and Spitzer observations, astronomers are able to determine wind speeds on a brown dwarf for the first time.
Risk aversion as a survival strategy in ants
Ants are excellent navigators and always find their way back to the nest.
Identical mice, different gut bacteria, different levels of cancer
Some types of gut bacteria are better than others at stimulating certain immune cells, specifically CD8+ T cells.
Surgeons develop operation-triage plan to reduce OR volume during COVID-19 pandemic
Within a month of the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Health treating its first patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on Feb.
Ear's inner secrets revealed with new technology
What does it actually look like deep inside our ears?
Rare, damaging inherited mutations work together to reduce lifespan
Scientists report that the combined effects of rare, damaging mutations present at birth have a negative impact on healthspan and longevity, according to a study published this week in eLife.
Noninvasive treatment for men suffering from enlarged prostate
Physicians from Sapienza University in Rome have published promising results of a small prospective interventional trial using noninvasive pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) to treat men suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
New study shows how oxygen transfer is altered in diseased lung tissue
A multidisciplinary team of researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed tiny sensors that measure oxygen transport in bovine lung tissue.
Mind-body medicine experts urge full integration of stress reduction into care and research
In a perspective published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers from the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and from UC Davis Health call for broader use of mind-body practices.
Firework-related eye injuries
Emergency department data were used to describe the number, type, severity and factors associated with firework-related eye injuries that occurred in the United States from 1999 to 2017.
Discovery of second primate lineage that crossed the Atlantic to settle in the New World
Analyses of four fossilized molars newly excavated along the left bank of the Yuruá River in the Peruvian Amazon suggest another primate lineage distinct from the Platyrrhini -- until now considered to be the only primate group ever to inhabit the New World -- also occupied the New World for a brief period of time.
Archaeology: Ancient string discovery sheds light on Neanderthal life
The discovery of the oldest known direct evidence of fiber technology -- using natural fibers to create yarn -- is reported in Scientific Reports this week.
JNCCN: Improving COVID-19 safety for cancer patients and healthcare providers
NCCN Best Practices Committee publishes peer-reviewed feature in JNCCN presenting latest insights on how to keep oncology patients and healthcare workers safe during COVID-19 pandemic.
In Israel, public compliance with self-quarantine order tied to compensation
In February 2020, the Israeli government issued emergency rules to contain the spread of COVID-19, ordering individuals considered as exposed to COVID-19 to self-quarantine.
To make or to break: Novel reversible technique produces acyl fluoride using rare metal
Acyl fluorides are organic compounds that contain a fluorine atom in their structure.
How do mantis shrimp find their way home?
New research in Current Biology indicates mantis shrimp use path integration to find their way back to their burrows after leaving to seek food or mates.
Researchers develop one-way street for electrons
The work has shown that these electron ratchets create geometric diodes that operate at room temperature and may unlock unprecedented abilities in the illusive terahertz regime.
Special issue explores consumer access and power
A special issue from the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing explores the definition of consumer access and consumer power with some insights being prophetic as it relates to access during the current global health crisis.
Aha! + Aaaah: Creative insight triggers a neural reward signal
A new neuroimaging study from Drexel University's Creativity Research Lab points to an answer of what may have driven the evolutionary development of creativity.
Future quantum computers may pose threat to today's most-secure communications
Quantum computers that are exponentially faster than any of our current classical computers and are capable of code-breaking applications could be available in 12 to 15 years, posing major risks to the security of current communications systems, according to a new RAND Corporation report.
TAILORx dispels chemo-brain notion: Women on hormone therapy also report cognitive decline
Patient-reported data from TAILORx, the largest ever breast cancer treatment trial, shows three key findings: 1) women on chemotherapy plus hormone therapy reported early and abrupt cognitive decline at 3 and 6 months, that leveled off at 12 and 36 months; 2) women on hormone therapy also reported significant cognitive impairment, although the pace of decline was slower and more gradual; and 3) cognitive function did not return to pre-treatment levels in either group.
TU Dresden chemists develop noble metal aerogels for electrochemical hydrogen production
Alexander von Humboldt research fellow Ran Du fabricates various noble metal aerogels (NMAs), and pioneers demonstrating their impressive performance for pH-universal electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and electrochemical water splitting at TU Dresden.
UPMC led global trial fast tracks testing of hydroxychloroquine, other COVID-19 therapies
Novel 'learning while doing' clinical trial approach called REMAP helps doctors find the optimal trade-off between quickly adopting new therapies during a pandemic, such as the anti-malarial drug hydroxychloroquine, and waiting until they are tested in longer clinical trials.
Women's lifestyle changes, even in middle age, may reduce future stroke risk
Middle age may not be too late for women to substantially lower their stroke risk through lifestyle modifications.
3D-printed corals provide more fertile ground for algae growth
Researchers have 3D-printed coral-inspired structures that are capable of growing dense populations of microscopic algae.
Machine learning reveals new candidate materials for biocompatible electronics
Machine learning tools developed by Andrew Ferguson, Associate Professor of Molecular Engineering at the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, and his collaborators are able to screen self-assembling peptides to find the best candidates for electronic, biocompatible materials.
Construction of sintering resistant Pt based catalyst based on 'composite energy well' model
A recent study reported a new approach that can effectively inhibit the migration and agglomeration of supported nanoparticles by fabrication of a model catalyst Pt/CeO2/NiAl2O4/Al2O3@SiO2.
Fungus-derived gene in wild wheatgrass relative confers fusarium resistance in wheat
In a wild relative of cultivated wheat, researchers have found a gene, likely delivered through horizontal gene transfer from a fungus, they show, that drives resistance to fusarium head blight (FHB) -- an intractable fungal disease devastating wheat crops worldwide.
Reframing biosecurity governance as an experimental space, including as relates to handling COVID-19
Biological science and its applications are rapidly evolving, and to keep up with emerging security concerns, governance of biosecurity applications should evolve as well.
Bayreuth geneticists discover regulatory mechanism of chromosome inheritance
In the course of every single cell division, the genetic information on the chromosomes must be distributed equally between the newly developing daughter cells.
Synchrotron X-ray sheds light on some of the world's oldest dinosaur eggs
An international team of scientists led by the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa, has been able to reconstruct, in the smallest details, the skulls of some of the world's oldest known dinosaur embryos in 3D, using powerful and non-destructive synchrotron techniques at the ESRF, the European Synchrotron in France.
Missing BAP1 gene associated with immunosuppressive molecules in uveal melanoma
New study from researchers in Finland and the United Kingdom reveals that tumors lacking a protein called BAP1 have an ineffective immune reaction against cancer, thus rendering immunotherapies ineffectual, particularly in uveal melanomas (UM).
False-negative COVID-19 test results may lead to false sense of security
As COVID-19 testing becomes more widely available, it's vital that health care providers and public health officials understand its limits and the impact false results can have on efforts to curb the pandemic.
Research sheds light on how silver ions kill bacteria
The antimicrobial properties of silver have been known for centuries.
Rethinking biosecurity governance
In a Science Policy Forum, lead author Sam Weiss Evans joins more than a dozen biosecurity practitioners and analysts in calling for a new approach to biosecurity governance, grounded in experimentation.
Science snapshots from Berkeley Lab: 3D nanoparticles and magnetic spin
Researchers at Berkeley Lab have captured 3D images of nanoparticles in liquid with atomic precision, and developed an ultrathin electrical switch that could further miniaturize computing devices and personal electronics without loss of performance.
Neanderthal cord weaver
Contrary to popular belief, Neanderthals were no less technologically advanced than Homo sapiens.
A glimpse into the future of tropical forests
Tropical forests are a hotspot of biodiversity. Against the backdrop of climate change, their protection plays a special role and it is important to predict how such diverse forests may change over decades and even centuries.
Integrated crop-livestock systems in paddy fields: New strategies for flooded rice nutrition
Integrated crop-livestock system brings more sustainability to flooded rice.
First in-human study of drug targeting brain inflammation supports further development
MW189 blocks abnormal inflammation in the brain that is known to contribute to injury- and disease-induced neurologic impairments in a number of acute and chronic brain disorders.
Moffitt mathematical model predicts patient outcomes to adaptive therapy
In an article published in Nature Communications, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers provide a closer look at a mathematical model and data showing that individual patient alterations in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biomarker early in cancer treatment can predict outcomes to later treatment cycles of adaptive therapy.
New test may help more couples understand why they experience multiple miscarriages
Approximately 5% of women experience two or more miscarriages, a condition known as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).
3D-printed corals could improve bioenergy and help coral reefs
Researchers have designed bionic 3D-printed corals that could help energy production and coral reef research.
Achieving strong structures with carbon fiber reinforced plastics
Researchers of the Structural Engineering Laboratory, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology have developed a new concept for strengthening steel in critical building structures using bond-free carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates to enhance the buckling performance of structural steel elements.
Immunotherapy treatment after chemotherapy significantly slows metastatic bladder cancer
Using immunotherapy immediately after chemotherapy treatment in patients with metastatic bladder cancer significantly slowed the progression of the cancer, according to results of a clinical trial led by Mount Sinai researchers published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology in April, 2020.
Ordering of atoms in liquid gallium under pressure
Liquid metals and alloys have exceptional properties that make them suitable for electrical energy storage and generation applications.
COVID-19 drug lead treatments identified
An international team of researchers has tested more than 10,000 compounds to identify six drug candidates that may help treat COVID-19.
Scientists use the Tokyo Skytree to test Einstein's theory of general relativity
In another verification of the validity of Einstein's theory of general relativity, published in Nature Photonics, scientists from the RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics and Cluster for Pioneering Research, with colleagues, have used two finely tuned optical lattice clocks, one at the base and one on the 450-meter observatory floor of Tokyo Skytree, to make new ultraprecise measurements of the time dilation effect predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity.
Ancient teeth from Peru hint now-extinct monkeys crossed Atlantic from Africa
Four fossilized monkey teeth discovered deep in the Peruvian Amazon provide new evidence that more than one group of ancient primates journeyed across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa.
Looking for dark matter
Dark matter is thought to exist as 'clumps' of tiny particles that pass through the earth, temporarily perturbing some fundamental constants.
Black rhinos eavesdrop on the alarm calls of hitchhiking oxpeckers to avoid humans
In Swahili, red-billed oxpeckers are called Askari wa kifaru, or 'the rhino's guard.' Now, a paper appearing April 9 in the journal Current Biology suggests that this indigenous name rings true: red-billed oxpeckers may behave like sentinels, sounding an alarm to potential danger.
Fungus application thwarts major soybean pest, study finds
The soybean cyst nematode sucks the nutrients out of soybean roots, causing more than $1 billion in soybean yield losses in the U.S. each year.
USC scientists develop a better redox flow battery
USC version of the battery does a better job storing electricity for renewable energy than existing designs.
Researchers demonstrate a platform for future optical transistors
Photons do not interact with each other well, which creates a big problem for microelectronics engineers.
Broad spectrum
Digital cameras as well as many other electronic devices need light-sensitive sensors.
Research identifies critical protein in cancer treatment-related heart damage
Researchers at Washington State University showed that a protein named FOXO1 plays a critical role in heart damage resulting from treatment with anthracycline chemotherapy drugs.
Streaming services flouting India's regulations banning tobacco imagery in all media
Streaming services that are popular with teens and young people in India are flouting the nation's regulations on exposure to tobacco imagery in any media platform, reveals an analysis of 10 on-demand streaming series, published online in the journal Tobacco Control.
Stuttering DNA orchestrates the start of the mosquito's life
There are large parts of the DNA that are not used for making proteins.
World's most complex microparticle: A synthetic that outdoes nature's intricacy
Synthetic microparticles more intricate than some of the most complicated ones found in nature have been produced by a University of Michigan-led international team.
Centring sexual and reproductive health and justice in the global COVID-19 response
The Lancet commentary 'Centring sexual and reproductive health and justice in the global COVID-19 response' highlights the detrimental impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic response on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).
New research insights into how a group of novel organelle-based disorders affects cells
A pioneering study has shed new light on how a group of novel organelle-based disorders affect cells.
Electronic cigarette use among young adult cancer survivors
This study used national survey data from young adults ages 18 to 39 to compare e-cigarette use among cancer survivors with their peers without cancer.
New isomer separation method a boon for research on protein oxidation
Oxidation of the sulfur atom in methionine is an important biomolecular reaction that can have a wide range of biological consequences depending on the context and the protein involved.
Mount Sinai researchers discover a novel role for dopamine that impacts gene expression related to cocaine abuse
Scientists at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have discovered a new role for the brain chemical dopamine that is independent of classic neurotransmission.
Discovery of a novel function for MAP2 in synaptic strengthening
The research team headed by Dr. Kea Joo Lee at KBRI discovered a new role for MAP2 in the synaptic potentiation process and expects to provide key insights into synaptic dysfunction in brain diseases.
Optical imaging technology may help surgeons better treat cancer, brain diseases
Purdue University researchers created technology that uses optical imaging to better help surgeons map out tumors in the body and help them understand how certain diseases affect activity in the brain.
New study finds EPA mercury analysis is 'seriously flawed'
A new study from experts across prominent academic institutions finds that an EPA benefit-cost analysis of its Mercury and Air Toxics Standards is 'seriously flawed.' The authors assert that the analysis disregards public health benefits, recent scientific findings, and transformative change in the electric sector over the past decade.
Greenland ice sheet meltwater can flow in winter, too
Liquid meltwater can sometimes flow deep below the Greenland Ice Sheet in winter, not just in the summer, according to CIRES-led work published in the AGU journal Geophysical Research Letters today.
NASA continues tracking Tropical Cyclone Harold's excessive rainfall
powerful Tropical Cyclone Harold from the Solomon Islands to the island of Tonga in the South Pacific.
Money can't buy love -- or friendship
While researchers have suggested that individuals who base their self-worth on their financial success often feel lonely in everyday life, a newly published study by the University at Buffalo and Harvard Business School has taken initial steps to better understand why this link exists.
Call to action: Traditional, complementary and integrative health COVID-19 support registry
The new, global Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Health and Medicine (TCIHM) COVID-19 Support Registry aims to capture key information on the case, treatment/supportive care, and outcome variables related to the use of integrative health products and practices in patients in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Hormone produced in starved leaves stimulates roots to take up nitrogen
A new study at Nagoya University has highlighted the extraordinary ability of plants to communicate between their shoots and roots to prevent starvation.
Measuring the wind speed on a brown dwarf
Strong winds blow high in the atmosphere of the brown dwarf 2MASS J1047+21, according to a new study, which presents a simple method to deduce the windspeed in other brown dwarf atmospheres, too.
Canada lynx disappearing from Washington state
Canada lynx are losing ground in Washington state, even as federal officials are taking steps to remove the species' threatened status under the Endangered Species Act.
New coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mapped out
IBS scientists report a high resolution gene and reveal many viral RNAs with unknown functions and modifications.
Sweet as: The science of how diet can change the way sugar tastes
Researchers at the University of Sydney have discovered the basic science of how sweet taste perception is fine-tuned in response to different diets.
Marijuana withdrawal symptoms among regular users who quit
This study combined the results of 47 studies with 23,000 participants to estimate how common cannabis withdrawal syndrome (symptoms include irritability, nervousness or anxiety, depression and headache) is among individuals who stop regular use.
Alarming abusive head trauma revealed in computational simulation impact study
Abusive head trauma (AHT), like that of Shaken Baby Syndrome, is the leading cause of fatal brain injuries in children under two.
Now metal surfaces can be instant bacteria killers
Purdue University engineers have created a laser treatment method that could potentially turn any metal surface into a rapid bacteria killer -- just by giving the metal's surface a different texture.

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