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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 14, 2020


Estuaries are warming at twice the rate of oceans and atmosphere
A 12-year study of 166 estuaries in south-east Australia shows that the waters of lakes, creeks, rivers and lagoons increased 2.16 degrees in temperature and increased acidity.
Diet may help preserve cognitive function
According to a recent analysis of data from two major eye disease studies, adherence to the Mediterranean diet - high in vegetables, whole grains, fish, and olive oil -- correlates with higher cognitive function.
How cells recognize uninvited guests
Until now, the immune sensor TLR8 has remained in the shadows of science.
Miller School researchers alert otolaryngologists about high COVID-19 transmission risk
A harsh reality has emerged as COVID-19 has spread around the globe.
Students often do not question online information
According to a study conducted by Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and Goethe University Frankfurt, students struggle to critically assess information from the Internet and are often influenced by unreliable sources.
PTSD and moral injury linked to pregnancy complications
Elevated symptoms of PTSD and moral injury can lead to pregnancy complications, found a Veterans Affairs study of women military veterans.
A talk with your GP may prevent cardiovascular disease
Having a general practitioner (GP) who is trained in motivational interviewing may reduce your risk of getting cardiovascular disease.
Experimental drug offers hope for preventing cancer relapse
A drug that is well-tolerated in patients and prevents cancer coming back in mice has been identified by researchers at the Francis Crick Institute.
Keratin scaffolds could advance regenerative medicine and tissue engineering for humans
Researchers at Mossakowski Medical Research Center of the Polish Academy of Science have developed a simple method for preparing 3D keratin scaffold models which can be used to study the regeneration of tissue.
Electrospun manuka honey nanofibrous wound dressings
Wound dressings are the primary barrier between the wound surface and the outer environement.
Arduous farm labor in the past means longer working hours today
A new study in The Economic Journal finds that societies with a history of farming crops heavily reliant on labor effort prefer harder work and longer hours.
Johns Hopkins experts publish 'guidebook' for blood plasma therapy
A team of Johns Hopkins experts has created a clinical guidebook to help hospitals and medical centers rapidly scale up their ability to deliver so-called convalescent plasma therapy, which leverages immune system components found in the plasma portion of blood from people who have recovered from COVID-19 illness.
Is the Earth's inner core oscillating and translating anomalously?
A theoretical mineral physics approach based on the ab initio methods was adopted to determine the viscosity of hexagonal, close-packed iron at the extreme pressures and temperatures corresponding to the Earth's inner core.
Clemson geneticists zeroing in on genes affecting life span
Trudy Mackay and Robert Anholt's latest research published in PLOS Biology quantified variation in life span in the fruit fly genome, providing valuable insights for understanding human disease and aging.
Flamingos form firm friendships
Flamingos form friendships that last for years, new research shows.
Economic growth is incompatible with biodiversity conservation
A study involving more than 20 specialists in conservation ecology and ecological economics highlights the contradiction between economic growth and biodiversity conservation.Adopting limits to international trade in resources or reducing and sharing the work, are some of the seven alternative proposals that the article notes to stop biodiversity loss.
Big variability in blood pressure readings between anatomical sites
Blood pressure readings taken from neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) patients had marked differences between opposite sides of the body and different anatomical sites in each individual.
Being right-brained or left-brained comes down to molecular switches
Scientists may have solved one of the most puzzling and persistent mysteries in neuroscience: why some people are 'right-brained' while others are 'left-brained.' The answer lies in how certain genes on each side of the brain are switched 'on' and 'off' through a process called epigenetic regulation.
Hierarchically mesoporous TiO2 materials for energy and environmental applications
Mesoporous TiO2 materials, especially those with hierarchically porous structures, have been shown great potentials in the areas of physics, chemistry and material science, owing to their extraordinarily high surface areas, large pore volumes, tunable pore structures and morphologies, and nanoscale effects.
Student led efforts can help make college campuses 'safe and stigma free' zones
The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), reports on a study following a four year effort to change the stigma of mental illness at Indiana University, which drew the attention of students and faculty; increased awareness of discrimination and prejudice; and decreased prejudice and increased inclusion.
Therapies show knockout potential for rare, deadly liver cancer
A new study identifies some of the most critical genes that may drive a rare but deadly liver cancer, providing a road map for developing drugs that target those genes.
Transposable elements play an important role in genetic expression and evolution
A new study published in Nature Communications by Adam Diehl, Ningxin Ouyang, and Alan Boyle, University of Michigan Medical School and members of the University of Michigan Center for RNA Biomedicine, shows that transposable elements play an important role in regulating genetic expression with implications to advance the understanding of genetic evolution.
Soybean Innovation Lab provides knowledge that assists soybean production in Africa
The Soybean Innovation Lab (SIL), housed in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences at the University of Illinois, is funded by USAID's Feed the Future initiative to help bring research-based innovation and technology to develop soybean production in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Your nose may know more when it comes to COVID-19
A University of Cincinnati expert says the loss of smell without nasal obstruction is 'a highly specific indicator of COVID-19.'
Supercomputing future wind power rise
First detailed study of scenarios for how wind energy can expand to 20 percent of total US electrical supply by 2030.
Physically active older veterans fall more, but hurt themselves less
Active older veterans fall more often than their more sedentary peers who never served in the armed forces, but they're less likely to injure themselves when they do, says a University of Michigan researcher.
Switching on a key cancer gene could provide first curative treatment for heart disease
Researchers trying to turn off a gene that allows cancers to spread have made a surprising U-turn.
Turning cold tumors hot: Drug delivery system makes immunotherapy more effective
A new drug delivery system from PME researchers turns 'cold' tumors hot, letting the body's immune system attack hard-to-treat cancers.
'Directing' evolution to identify potential drugs earlier in discovery
Scientists have developed a technique that could significantly reduce the time of discovering potential new antibody-based drugs to treat disease.
Scientists provide new insight on how bacteria share drug resistance genes
Researchers have been able to identify and track the exchange of genes among bacteria that allow them to become resistant to drugs, according to a new study published today in eLife.
Researchers develop synthetic scaffolds to heal injured tendons and ligaments
Top biomedical engineering researcher develops synthetic scaffolds for tendon and ligament regeneration.
Scoring system empowers surgery departments to prioritize medically necessary operations
Journal of the American College of Surgeons article presents an evaluation tool for surgeons to review necessary hospital resources needed for an operation, the effect of treatment delay on a patient's underlying disease, and risk the procedure poses for the surgical team.
Discovery offers new avenue for next-generation data storage
The demands for data storage and processing have grown exponentially as the world becomes increasingly connected, emphasizing the need for new materials capable of more efficient data storage and data processing.
Anesthesiologists on the front lines of treating surgical COVID-19 patients
A new study examined the knowledge and attitudes of anesthesiologists regarding the strategies used to treat suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients needing to be operated on or cared for after surgery in an intensive care unit.
More than a third of medical staff suffered insomnia during the COVID-19 epidemic in China
A survey of more than 1,500 medical staff in China found that about 36 percent experienced trauma and other mental health problems like depression and anxiety.
Development of attachable sticker-type rechargeable batteries
Dr. Yoon Hana at Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), Professor Kim Young-Jin at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology(KAIST) and Professor Kim Seungchul at Pusan National University(PNU) jointly developed 're-attachable micro-supercapacitors(MSCs) using highly swollen laser-induced-graphene electrodes' and their research findings were listed in Chemical Engineering Journal, one of the world-renowned in the field.
Self-isolation or keep calm and carry on -- the plant cell's dilemma
Self-isolation in the face of a pandemic may save lives but it comes at the expense of life-sustaining essentials such as transport, communication and connectivity.
A potential breakthrough in obesity medicine with the help of gold nanoparticles
A team of researchers in Korea believes to have discovered a synthetic gold-based compound which may help patients with obesity.
RNA drugs one step closer to be being used in cancer treatment
In recent years, RNA molecules, with the ability to affect or turn off pathogenic genes, have become promising drug candidates in several areas.
Breastfeeding may lead to fewer human viruses in infants
Even small amounts of breastmilk strongly influences the accumulation of viral populations in the infant gut and provides a protective effect against potentially pathogenic viruses, according to researchers who examined hundreds of babies in a study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Predictability of temporal networks quantified by an entropy-rate-based framework
The temporarily of links encodes the ordering and causality of interactions between nodes and has a profound effect on network dynamics and function, however it is challenging to predict temporal link patterns.
Study reveals unique physical, chemical properties of cicada wings
Biological structures sometimes have unique features that engineers would like to copy.
Particle billiards with three players
Light can be used to knock electrons out of atoms, with light particles and electrons bouncing off each other like two billiard balls - Compton scattering.
Volcanic CO2 emissions helped trigger Triassic climate change
A new study finds volcanic activity played a direct role in triggering extreme climate change at the end of the Triassic period 201 million year ago, wiping out almost half of all existing species.
Timing of large earthquakes follows a 'devil's staircase' pattern
At the regional level and worldwide, the occurrence of large shallow earthquakes appears to follow a mathematical pattern called the Devil's Staircase, where clusters of earthquake events are separated by long but irregular intervals of seismic quiet.
US coronavirus measures are justified, University of Wyoming economists find
The potential benefits of social distancing in saving lives far outweigh the projected damage to the economy, according to the economists from the Department of Economics in the University of Wyoming College of Business.
Researchers design microsystem for faster, more sustainable industrial chemistry
Ryan Hartman, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering, used a lab reactor, liquefied catalyst, and machine learning for more efficient polymerization design.
How robust is e-government in American state election administration?
A new study examined how well American states are using Internet-based platforms to disseminate electoral information and communicate with voters
Study points to evidence of stray dogs as possible origin of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
University of Ottawa biology professor Xuhua Xia, tracing coronavirus signatures across different species, has proposed that stray dogs -- specifically dog intestines -- may have been the origin of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
Solar power plants get help from satellites to predict cloud cover
Cloud cover is often characterized in simple terms, such as cloudy, partly cloudy or clear.
Gene-network analysis is a valuable new tool for understanding Alzheimer's disease
Researchers from Osaka University, Niigata University, and the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology have found that disruption of protein domain networks that are driven by the RAC1 gene is associated with behavioral and neurological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
Asian universities close gap on US schools in world rankings by increasing STEM funding
China and South Korea are surging in the international brain race for world-class universities, as schools in the East Asian nations are replacing institutions in the United States in international college rankings.
Moffitt researchers identify molecular pathway that controls immunosuppression in tumors
In a new article published in the journal Immunity, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers reveas how protein-signaling pathways associated with cellular stress processes turn myeloid cells into tumor-promoting players.
Predicting the evolution of genetic mutations
CSHL quantitative biologists have designed a new machine learning technique for predicting evolutionary pathways.
Boson particles discovery provides insights for quantum computing
Researchers working on a U.S. Army project discovered a key insight for the development of quantum devices and quantum computers.
/LAMA combination therapy more effective for COPD patients with exercise intolerance
Clinicians grappling with the pharmacologic management of COPD in patients complaining of exercise intolerance or dyspnea now have new guidance.
Public policies that target crime reduction around parks can directly benefit communities
Public parks can be valuable assets for communities, but crime in the area can 'lock up' that amenity value.
Autism in males linked to defect in brain immune cells, microglia
Autism disproportionately affects boys. A new study offers a potential mechanism.
LSU Health New Orleans research shows how stress remodels the brain
Research led by Si-Qiong June Liu, MD, Ph.D., Professor of Cell Biology and Anatomy at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, has shown how stress changes the structure of the brain and reveals a potential therapeutic target to the prevent or reverse it.
In wake of COVID-19 pandemic, a crashing wave of neuropsychiatric problems?
Researchers suggest that in the aftermath of the novel coronavirus pandemic, a host of neuropsychiatric challenges may remain -- or emerge -- for those recovering from COVID-19 infections.
Long spaceflights affect astronaut brain volume
Extended periods in space have long been known to cause vision problems in astronauts.
COVID-19 may impact treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes
Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for bacterial, parasitic and viral infections.
Common disease prevention and cancer screening would benefit from genomic risk assessment
A new Finnish study demonstrated the benefits of large-scale genomic information in estimating the risk of onset for cardiac diseases, diabetes and common cancers.
Cosmic tempest
Researchers using the Gemini North telescope on Hawai'i's Maunakea have detected the most energetic wind from any quasar ever measured.
Traditional vegetable diet lowers the risk of premature babies
It turns out we should follow our parent' advice when we're thinking about becoming parents ourselves, with a study finding eating the traditional 'three-vegies' before pregnancy lowers the risk of a premature birth.
Novel high-speed microscope captures brain neuroactivities
A research team led by Dr. Kevin Tsia from the University of Hong Kong (HKU); and Professor Ji Na, from the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) has successfully recorded the millisecond electrical signals in the neurons of an alert mouse with their super high-speed microscope - two-photon fluorescence microscope.
Turned-down temperatures boost crops' penchant for production
Drought and heat put stress on plants and reduce grain yield.
NREL six-junction solar cell sets two world records for efficiency
Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have fabricated a solar cell with an efficiency of nearly 50%.
A new species of black endemic iguanas in Caribbeans is proposed for urgent conservation
A newly discovered endemic species of melanistic black iguana (Iguana melanoderma), discovered in Saba and Montserrat islands, the Lesser Antilles (Eastern Caribbean) appears to be threatened by unsustainable harvesting (including pet trade) and both competition and hybridization from escaped or released invasive alien iguanas from South and Central America.
Blood pressure awareness and control rates in Canadians are slipping alarmingly, particularly among women
In a new study that draws attention to a growing cardiovascular health concern, investigators report that an increasing number of Canadians, particularly women, are unaware that they have high blood pressure, and they are not getting treatment to control their hypertension.
Technologies converge on interacting surfaces in protein complexes
Researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have fine-tuned a method to pinpoint surfaces within large multi-protein complexes that are close to, and likely to be directly interacting with, one another.
Territorial short food supply chains foster food democracy and sustainability
A University of Cordoba study analyzed the governance mechanisms in territorial short food supply chains in Córdoba and Bogotá.
Mindful yoga reduces testosterone by 29% in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
New research shows the regular practice of mindful yoga helps ease symptoms and improve androgen levels in women with PCOS.
The power of light
As COVID-19 continues to ravage global populations, the world is singularly focused on finding ways to battle the novel coronavirus.
Beacon in space: BRITE Constellation observes complete nova eruption for the first time
Satellite images from the BRITE mission with the participation of researchers from TU Graz and the Universities of Innsbruck and Vienna document for the first time the complete development of a nova - from eruption to maximum brightness and burn out.
New study indicates exercise can help prevent liver cancer
Liver cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and is growing rapidly due to the 'diabesity pandemic.' A new study reported in the Journal of Hepatology, published by Elsevier, provides strong evidence that voluntary exercise could help prevent the most common type of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and identifies the molecular signaling pathways involved.
Soot may only be half the problem when it comes to cookstoves
Researchers at the McKelvey School of Engineering spent two weeks in India cooking with local residents.
'A bad time to be alive': Study links ocean deoxygenation to ancient die-off
Researchers present new evidence that the deoxygenation of the ocean wiped out biodiversity during one of the ''Big Five'' mass extinctions in Earth's history - relevant information as climate change contributes to decreasing oxygen in the oceans today.
Reducing the risk to children's health in flood-prone areas of India
Monsoon rainfall has become more unpredictable in India. Floods and droughts have become more common and pose multiple risks to human health and wellbeing, with children under five being particularly vulnerable.
Experience matters for immune cells
The discovery that immune T cells have a spectrum of responsiveness could shed light on how our immune system responds to infections and cancer, and what goes wrong in immune diseases.
New research helps explain why the solar wind is hotter than expected
When the sun expels plasma, the solar wind cools as it expands through space -- but not as much as the laws of physics would predict.
Novel 3D imaging technology makes fluorescence microscopy more efficient
A research team led by Dr Kevin Tsia from the University of Hong Kong (HKU), developed a new optical imaging technology -- Coded Light-sheet Array Microscopy (CLAM) -- which can perform 3D imaging at high speed, and is power efficient and gentle to preserve the living specimens during scanning at a level that is not achieved by existing technologies.
Chinese scientists optimize strontium content to improve bioactive bone cement
Researchers from the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have developed a new strontium-substituted bioactive glass (BG) bone cement that optimizes the concentration of strontium to improve peri-implant bone formation and bone-implant contact.
Automated 'pipeline' improves access to advanced microscopy data
A new data-processing approach created by scientists at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute offers a simpler, faster path to data generated by cryo-electron microscopy instruments, removing a barrier to wider adoption of this powerful technique.
Tandem solar cell world record: New branch in the NREL chart
A special branch in the famous NREL-chart for solar cell world records refers to a newly developed tandem solar cell by HZB teams.
Seeking sounds of superfluids
Sound waves reveal the unique properties of an ultracold quantum gas, a model system for describing certain superconductors and forms of nuclear matter.
Mouse study shows how advancing glioma cells scramble brain function, blood flow
The first sign of trouble for a patient with a growing brain tumor is often a seizure.
Fossil record analysis hints at evolutionary origins of insects' structural colors
Researchers from Yale-NUS College in Singapore and University College Cork have analyzed preserved scales from wing cases of two fossil weevils from the Late Pleistocene era to better understand the origin of light-scattering nanostructures present in present-day insects.

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