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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 15, 2020


Breathing heavy wildfire smoke may increase risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
Heavy wildfire smoke may raise the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Cochrane Rapid Review Update: Protective clothes and equipment for healthcare workers to prevent them catching coronavirus and other highly infectious diseases
The Cochrane Review, 'Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff,' has been updated as a rapid review in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
A more plant-based diet without stomach troubles: getting rid of FODMAPs with enzymes
A plant-based diet is a good choice for both climate and health.
Future dynamics prediction from short-term time series by anticipated learning machine
Predicting short-term time series has significant practical applications over different disciplines.
Study: Frequent cannabis users are way too high ... in their estimates of cannabinoids
Researchers surveyed nearly 500 Hash Bash attendees, asking them to fill out a 24-item questionnaire.
Skin that computes
As our body's largest and most prominent organ, the skin also provides one of our most fundamental connections to the world around us.
ECMO physicians offer guidance in the context of resource-scarce COVID-19 treatment
Rapidly escalating numbers of COVID-19 patients suffering from respiratory failure threaten to overwhelm hospital capacity and force healthcare providers into making challenging decisions about the care they provide.
Substances trapped in nanobubbles exhibit unusual properties
Skoltech scientists modeled the behavior of nanobubbles appearing in van der Waals heterostructures and the behavior of substances trapped inside the bubbles.
Aspirin linked to reduction in risk of several cancers of the digestive tract
The largest and most comprehensive analysis to date of the link between aspirin and cancers of the digestive tract has shown that it is associated not only with a significant reduction in the risk of developing bowel cancer but also of several other cancers that almost invariably fatal, such as pancreatic and liver cancers.
Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way help test dark matter theory
A research team led by physicists at the University of California, Riverside, reports tiny satellite galaxies of the Milky Way can be used to test fundamental properties of 'dark matter' -- nonluminous material thought to constitute 85% of matter in the universe.
Crohn's disease: Preserving inflammation-free phases
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that, in most cases, relapses episodically.
Two is better than one
A collaboration of scientists from the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Yale University, and Arizona State University has designed and tested a new two-dimensional (2-D) catalyst that can be used to improve water purification using hydrogen peroxide.
Nature: Don't hope mature forests to soak up carbon dioxide emissions
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is sometimes described as ''food for plants'' as it is the key ingredient in plant photosynthesis.
Is it bloating or is it a heart attack?
A patient in the hospital for metastatic Hodgkin lymphoma with significant abdominal distention displayed sudden onset of ST-segment elevations -- often an indicator of a heart attack -- however the heart attack symptoms improved when the cardiovascular care team pressed on the abdomen during a standard exam, according to a case published in JACC: Case Reports.
New geochemical tool reveals origin of Earth's nitrogen
Researchers at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and their colleagues used a new geochemical tool to shed light on the origin of nitrogen and other volatile elements on Earth, which may also prove useful as a way to monitor the activity of volcanoes.
Speeding-up quantum computing using giant atomic ions
An international team of researchers have found a new way to speed up quantum computing that could pave the way for huge leaps forward in computer processing power.
Childhood exposure to parental smoking linked to poorer cognitive function in midlife
A Finnish study coordinated by the Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Turku, Finland, shows that exposure to parental smoking in childhood and adolescence is associated with poorer learning ability and memory in midlife.
An antibody treatment combats life-threatening sepsis in rodents
Sepsis -- the body's extreme and organ-damaging response to severe infections -- is a major contributor to death in patients battling infectious disease.
Goals, opportunities, guides for advancing soft tissue and soft materials research
A type of damage in soft materials and tissue called cavitation is one of the least-studied phenomena in physics, materials science and biology, but evidence suggesting that cavitation occurs in the brain during sudden impact leading to traumatic brain injury has accelerated interest, says materials scientist Alfred Crosby at UMass Amherst.
High-res imaging with elastography may accurately detect breast cancer in surgical margins
A high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging technique, when combined with quantitative measurement of tissue elasticity, could accurately detect cancer within the resected margins of surgical specimens taken from patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery.
Shedding light on dark traps
A multi-institutional collaboration, co-led by scientists at the University of Cambridge and Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), has identified the source of efficiency-limiting defects in potential materials for next generation solar cells and LEDs.
Study reveals how 'hypermutated' malignant brain tumors escape chemotherapy and immunotherapy
An analysis of more than 10,000 gliomas and clinical outcomes reported in Nature by scientists in Boston and Paris found that glioma patients whose tumors were hypermutated actually had no significant benefit when treated with checkpoint blockers.
Where did the antimatter go? Neutrinos shed promising new light
We live in a world of matter -- because matter overtook antimatter, though they were both created in equal amounts when our universe began.
Research finds teachers just as likely to have racial bias as non-teachers
Research released today challenges the notion that teachers might be uniquely equipped to instill positive racial attitudes in children or bring about racial justice, without additional support or training from schools.
Applying mathematics to accelerate predictions for capturing fusion energy
PPPL scientists have borrowed a technique from applied mathematics to rapidly predict the behavior of fusion plasma at a much-reduced computational cost.
Questionable stability of dissipative topological models for classical and quantum systems
In a new paper in EPJ D, Rebekka Koch from Amsterdam and Jan Carl Budich from Dresden analyse the spectral instability of energy-dissipative systems caused by their boundaries: A situation that is naturally given in experimental setups.
Face up to eating disorders, and seek help
A new study has found young people are leaving it 'too late' to seek help for eating disorders, citing fear of losing control over their eating or weight, denial, and failure to perceive the severity of the illness as reasons not to get professional advice.
Ludwig MSK study reveals bile metabolite of gut microbes boosts immune cells
A Ludwig Cancer Research study has discovered a novel means by which bacterial colonies in the small intestine support the generation of regulatory T cells--immune cells that suppress autoimmune reactions and inflammation.
Mahogany tree family dates back to last hurrah of the dinosaurs
A new paper by University of Kansas researcher Brian Atkinson in the American Journal of Botany shows the mahogany family goes back to the last hurrah of the dinosaurs, the Cretaceous.
Unusually clear skies drove record loss of Greenland ice in 2019
Last year was one of the worst years on record for the Greenland ice sheet, which shrunk by hundreds of billions of tons.
A gut-to-brain circuit drives sugar preference and may explain sugar cravings
The sensation of sweetness starts on the tongue, but sugar molecules also trip sensors in the gut that directly signal the brain.
What is an individual? Information Theory may provide the answer
Despite the near-universal assumption of individuality in biology, there is little agreement about what individuals are and few rigorous quantitative methods for their identification.
Nanosensor can alert a smartphone when plants are stressed
MIT engineers can closely track how plants respond to stresses such as injury, infection, and light damage using sensors made of carbon nanotubes.
Journey to the center of the Earth
In an effort to investigate conditions found at the Earth's molten outer core, researchers successfully determined the density of liquid iron and sound propagation speed through it at extremely high pressures.
When damaged, the adult brain repairs itself by going back to the beginning
When adult brain cells are injured, they revert to an embryonic state, say researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine.
The retention effect of training
Company training increases the loyalty of its employees. Loyalty also increases if the training improves the employees' chances on the labour market.
Hot qubits break one of the biggest constraints to practical quantum computers
A proof-of-concept published today in Nature promises warmer, cheaper and more robust quantum computing.
Many women vets report adverse pregnancy outcomes, postpartum mental health problems after leaving military service
Women Veterans with more symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or moral injury (guilt, shame or demoralization in response to participating in or witnessing events that violate one's sense of right and wrong), are at greater risk for negative pregnancy outcomes and postpartum depression in the three years following discharge from military service.
Network pharmacology analysis on Zhichan powder in the treatment of Parkinson's disease
Zhichan is a Chinese herb which has been used for its medicinal properties to treat patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD).
Obesity is a critical risk factor for type 2 diabetes, regardless of genetics
Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by at least 6 times, regardless of genetic predisposition to the disease, concludes research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]).
Bornean treeshrews can take the heat
To better understand if small tropical mammals also have increased vulnerability as their environments heat up, Danielle Levesque, University of Maine assistant professor of mammology and mammal health, and collaborators from the University Malaysia Sarawak studied Bornean treeshrews.
Studying pterosaurs and other fossil flyers to better engineer manmade flight
Pterosaurs were the largest animals ever to fly. They soared the skies for 160 million years -- much longer than any species of modern bird.
Bees point to new evolutionary answers
Evolutionary biology aims to explain how new species arise and evolve to occupy myriad niches -- but it is not a singular or simplistic story.
Nature publishes review article heralding multispecific drugs as the next wave of drug discovery
In the article 'Multispecific drugs herald a new era of biopharmaceutical innovation' published today in Nature, Raymond Deshaies, Ph.D., senior vice president of Global Research at Amgen, discusses how the advent of multispecific drugs is leading the next revolution of drug discovery and development.
Researchers create tools to help volunteers do the most good after a disaster
In the wake of a disaster, many people want to help.
'Frailty' from age 40 -- what to look out for
With all eyes on avoiding major illness this year, health researchers are urging people as young as 40 to build physical and mental health to reduce or even avoid 'frailty' and higher mortality risk.
How does sugar drive consumption? Scientists discover gut-brain sugar sensor in mice
Artificial sweeteners have never fully succeeded in impersonating sugar. Now, a Columbia study in mice has identified a brain mechanism that may explain why.
HKU study unlocks the secret of corals' tolerance to climate change: Their diet
Researchers at School of Biological Sciences and Swire Institute of Marine Science, The University of Hong Kong have developed a new method for determining what corals eat, and demonstrated that reliance on certain nutritional sources underpins their bleaching susceptibility in warming oceans.
Logging threatening endangered caribou
University of Guelph researchers found habitat and food web changes from forestry are encouraging more wolf packs to prey on caribou.
Antiviral drug baloxavir reduces transmission of flu virus among ferrets
Baloxavir treatment reduced transmission of the flu virus from infected ferrets to healthy ferrets, suggesting that the antiviral drug could contribute to the early control of influenza outbreaks by limiting community-based viral spread, according to a study published April 15, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Aeron Hurt of F.
How expectations influence learning
During learning, the brain is a prediction engine that continually makes theories about our environment and accurately registers whether an assumption is true or not.
Acoustic growth factor patterning
For optimally engineered tissues, it is important that biological cues are delivered with appropriate timing and to specific locations.
New textile could keep you cool in the heat, warm in the cold
Imagine a single garment that could adapt to changing weather conditions, keeping its wearer cool in the heat of midday but warm when an evening storm blows in.
From deep water to the surface: the nexus between climate, upwelling and marine ecosystems
It is critical for the foundation of the aquatic food web, for the condition of the environment and the biodiversity of the ocean, for fisheries and many activities at sea.
Light from stretchable sheets of atoms for quantum technologies
A team of Australian scientists from the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) and the Australian National University (ANU) believe they have developed a way to address a decades-long challenge in the field of quantum materials - the spectral tuning of proposed quantum light sources.
Mouse study shows 'chaperone protein' protects against autoimmune diseases
Like a parent of teenagers at a party, Mother Nature depends on chaperones to keep one of her charges, the immune system, in line so that it doesn't mistakenly attack normal cells, tissues and organs in our bodies.
NASA observes rainfall from tornado-spawning storms in the southern US
For two days in mid-April, severe storms raced through the southern U.S. and NASA created an animation using satellite data to show the movement and strength of those storms.
Economists find carbon footprint grows with parenthood
Two-adult households with children emit over 25% more carbon dioxide than two-adult households without children, according to researchers with the University of Wyoming and Sweden's Lund University School of Economics and Management.
Prescribing an overdose: A chapter in the opioid epidemic
Research indicates that widespread opioid overprescribing contributed to the opioid epidemic.
New COVID-19 test quickly and accurately detects viral DNA
Millions of people have been tested for the novel coronavirus, most using a kit that relies on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
The Cath Lab during COVID
Interventional cardiologists should prioritize the conservation of medical resources, minimization of potential COVID-19 exposure and reallocation of resources, according to a paper published on April 9 in the Journal of Invasive Cardiology.
Drug prevents cognitive impairment in mice after radiation treatment for brain tumors
UCLA researchers identify a new drug that may help prevent cognitive decline in people who undergo radiation therapy for brain tumors.
Human handling stresses young monarch butterflies
People handle monarch butterflies. A lot. Every year thousands of monarch butterflies are caught, tagged and released during their fall migration by citizen scientists helping to track their movements.
New boron material of high hardness created by plasma chemical vapor deposition
Researchers used microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition to create thin crystal films of a novel boron-rich boron-carbide material.
Low-cost imaging system poised to provide automatic mosquito tracking
Mosquito-transmitted diseases such as malaria, dengue and yellow fever are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
T2K results restrict possible values of neutrino CP phase
The T2K Collaboration has published new results showing the strongest constraint yet on the parameter that governs the breaking of the symmetry between matter and antimatter in neutrino oscillations.
First Gulf-wide survey of oil pollution completed 10 years after Deepwater Horizon
Since the 2010 BP oil spill, marine scientists at the University of South Florida (USF) have sampled more than 2,500 individual fish representing 91 species from 359 locations across the Gulf of Mexico and found evidence of oil exposure in all of them, including some of the most popular types of seafood.
NASA finds Tropical Storm Jeruto develop in Southern Indian Ocean
The latest tropical cyclone to develop in the Southern Indian Ocean is no threat to land areas.
Researchers challenge accuracy of methods that analyze trees of life
When species under a taxonomic umbrella have faced forks in the road, leading to extinction or adaptation, the path taken has been difficult to follow.
Additions to resource industry underwater robots can boost ocean discoveries
Underwater robots are regularly used by the oil and gas industry to inspect and maintain offshore structures.
Alzheimer's patients may need dosing changes in medicines prescribed for other conditions
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often prescribed drugs for other conditions -- including diabetes or high blood pressure -- at the same doses as those without dementia.
Genetics linked to childhood emotional, social and psychiatric problems
Emotional, social and psychiatric problems in children and adolescents have been linked to higher levels of genetic vulnerability for adult depression.
UTSW researchers use snake venom to solve structure of muscle protein
Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have uncovered the detailed shape of a key protein involved in muscle contraction.
Discovering the secrets of the enigmatic caspase-6
Researchers identified the mechanisms underlying the innate immune function of the enzyme caspase-6, offering ways to combat viral infection, inflammatory diseases and cancer.
BU engineers make breakthrough that could open doors to continuous health-monitoring devices
BU biomedical engineers say a new breakthrough could open doors to continuous health-monitoring devices and wearables.
Does primary ovarian insufficiency affect your risks for obesity and diabetes?
Are overweight women less fertile? Does primary ovarian insufficiency increase risks for obesity and diabetes?
Strongest evidence yet that neutrinos explain how the universe exists
New data throws more support behind the theory that neutrinos are the reason the universe is dominated by matter.
Little scientists: Children prefer storybooks that explain why and how things happen
Children have a never-ending curiosity about the world around them and frequently question how and why it works the way it does.
A new tool to predict volcanic eruptions
Earth's atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, a mixture that is unique in the solar system.
The importance of probiotic names -- and why some of them have changed
A global group of scientists has published a paper announcing name changes for some of the bacteria that were historically grouped under the category of Lactobacillus.
Mental health and brain research must be a higher priority in global COVID-19 response
24 experts publish a research roadmap to help keep us mentally healthy through the pandemic.
How common is racial/ethnic discrimination in US surgical residency programs?
Surveys from nearly 7,000 resident surgeons were used to evaluate how common racial/ethnic discrimination is in US general surgery programs and how it's associated with burnout, thoughts of quitting and suicide.
KIST develops nanometer-thick electromagentic shielding film using MXene
A Korean research team has developed a technology to fabricate an ultrathin material for electromagnetic interference(EMI) shielding.
Depression, anxiety may be side effects as nation grapples with COVID-19
Millions of Americans are being impacted by the psychological fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic aftermath.
N-doped porous carbon supported Fe single atom catalysts for highly efficient ORR
Researchers report a precursor-dilution strategy to synthesize Fe SACs through the Schiff-based reaction via co-polycondensation of amino-metalloporphyrin, followed by pyrolysis at high temperature.
Public health systems hold promise for aging populations, journal finds
In 'Aging and Public Health,' a new special issue of the journal Innovation in Aging from The Gerontological Society of America, researchers look at public health interventions that work to foster healthy aging.
WPI researcher's paper on COVID-19 published in Viruses journal
Two months after creating a structural 3D roadmap of the novel coronavirus and sharing it with the scientific community worldwide, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) bioinformatics researcher Dmitry Korkin has published a paper on the topic in Viruses, a leading academic virology journal.
High blood glucose levels may explain why some flu patients experience severe symptoms
Influenza A (a highly contagious virus that causes annual flu epidemics worldwide) may trigger an inflammatory 'cytokine storm' -- an excessive immune response that can lead to hospitalization or even death -- by increasing glucose metabolism, according to a new study.
Novel tin 'bubbles' spur advances in the development of integrated chips
The use of extreme ultraviolet light sources in making advanced integrated chips has been considered, but their development has been hindered owing to a paucity of efficient laser targets.
Why didn't the universe annihilate itself? Neutrinos may hold the answer
New results from an experiment called T2K suggest that physicists are closer than ever before to answering a major mystery: Why didn't the universe annihilate itself in a humungous burst of energy not long after the Big Bang?
Temple treats 1st patient in US in trial of gimsilumab for patients with COVID-19 and ARDS
Temple University Hospital has treated the first patient in the United States in the BREATHE clinical trial evaluating the impact of intravenous treatment with gimsilumab on mortality for patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Could shrinking a key component help make autonomous cars affordable?
A team led by Stanford electrical engineer Jelena Vuckovic is working on shrinking the mechanical and electronic components in a rooftop lidar down to a single silicon chip that she thinks could be mass produced for as little as a few hundred dollars.
How probiotic Bifidobacteria could help celiac disease patients
Gluten is enemy No. 1 for those with celiac disease, and it's hard to avoid.
Lung-heart super sensor on a chip tinier than a ladybug
This Lilliputian chip's detection bandwidth is enormous -- from sweeping body motions to faint sounds of the heartbeat, pulse waves traversing body tissues, respiration rate, and lung sounds.
Probiotic intervention in ameliorating the altered CNS functions in neurological disorders
The review aims at giving a comprehensive analysis of the studies performed on animals and humans and discusses the findings in different neurological and psychiatric disorders (Anxiety, Major Depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, cognitive impairments etc).
Improving the treatment of periodontitis
For the first time, researchers from Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin have shown that a unicellular parasite commonly found in the mouth plays a role in both severe tissue inflammation and tissue destruction.
COPD as a lung stem cell disease
Two internationally renowned stem cell researchers at the University of Houston have found an abundance of abnormal stem cells in the lungs of patients who suffer from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a leading cause of death worldwide.
Questionnaire survey identifies potential separation-related problems in cats
The first questionnaire survey to identify possible separation-related problems in cats found 13.5 percent of all sampled cats displayed potential issues during their owner's absence, according to a study published April 15, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Daiana de Souza Machado, from the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, and colleagues.
COVID-19: Exercise may protect against deadly complication
Researcher Zhen Yan, PhD, is urging people to exercise based on his COVID-19 findings, which also suggest a potential treatment approach.
UCI team develops smartphone application for coronavirus contact tracing
Researchers at the University of California, Irvine have developed a tool that could be instrumental in this effort.
Could high blood pressure at night have an effect on your brain?
Most people's blood pressure 'dips' during the night. But for some people, especially those with high blood pressure, their nighttime pressure stays the same or goes up, called 'reverse dipping.' A new study shows that these people may be more likely to have small areas in the brain that appear damaged from vascular disease and associated memory problems.
Researchers restore sight in mice by turning skin cells into light-sensing eye cells
Researchers have discovered a technique for directly reprogramming skin cells into light-sensing rod photoreceptors used for vision, sidestepping the need for stem cells.
Examining associations between ages of parents, grandparents and autism risk in children
Older age for parents has been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children, however little is known about the association between the age of grandparents at the time of the birth of the parent and the risk of ASD in the grandchildren.
Milk pioneers: East African herders consumed milk 5,000 years ago
Animal milk was essential to east African herders at least 5,000 years ago, according to a new study.
T2K insight into the origin of the universe
Lancaster physicists working on the T2K major international experiment in Japan are closing in on the mystery of why there is so much matter in the universe, and so little antimatter.
Breeding a hardier, more nutritious wheat
High-fructan wheat provides benefits for growers and consumers.
Impact of donor lymphocyte infusion and intensified conditioning for relapsed/refractory leukemia
Leukemia relapse is still a major problem that impedes the success of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT).
Australia's Centre for Digestive Diseases cures Crohn's disease in new study
The Centre for Digestive Disease (CDD) headed by Professor Thomas Borody has cured Crohn's Disease as reported today by Dr Gaurav Agrawal in Gut Pathogens.

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