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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 23, 2020


Everything is not fine: Kids can tell when parents suppress their stress
New research finds that parents suppressing feelings of stress around their kids can actually transmit those feelings to the children.
Coronaviruses and bats have been evolving together for millions of years
Scientists compared the different kinds of coronaviruses living in 36 bat species from the western Indian Ocean and nearby areas of Africa.
Icelandic DNA jigsaw-puzzle brings new knowledge about Neanderthals
An international team of researchers has put together a new image of Neanderthals based on the genes Neanderthals left in the DNA of modern humans when they had children with them about 50,000 years ago.
Dissolved oxygen and pH policy leave fisheries at risk
In a Policy Forum, ''Dissolved oxygen and pH criteria leave fisheries at risk'' published in the April 24 issue of the journal Science, Stony Brook University's Dr.
Study shows fewer kids enrolling in cancer clinical trials
Colorado study shows pediatric oncology clinical trial enrollment may be down, from 40-70 percent seen in studies completed in the 1990s, to 20-25 percent in the early 2000s, to 19.9 percent in the current study.
Sensor detects biomarker of early-stage multiple sclerosis
Diagnostic strategy developed by Brazilian researchers can also be used to distinguish MS from neuromyelitis optica, another demyelinating disorder.
Seismic map of North America reveals geologic clues, earthquake hazards
A new stress map that reveals the forces acting on the planet's crust will contribute to safer energy exploration, updated seismic hazard maps and improved knowledge about the Earth.
How hearing loss in old age affects the brain
If your hearing deteriorates in old age, the risk of dementia and cognitive decline increases.
Zero-emissions Boston could save 288 lives and $2.4 billion annually: BU study
With much of the City of Boston shut down by COVID-19, the region is enjoying better air quality than it has seen in decades, a preview of the reduced emissions that will come as part of the city's ambitious 'Carbon Free Boston' goals.
Falling visibility shows African cities suffering major air pollution increases -- study
Falling visibility in three major African cities reveals that air pollution has increased significantly over the last 45 years - leaving citizens facing further short-term increases in man-made pollution due to increasing urbanization and economic development, a new study reveals.
IKBFU and University of Oviedo Physicists tested new research model on magnetic materials
Laboratory of Novice Magnet Materials working in collaboration with Spanish scientists (the University of Oviedo, Spain) tested the Preisach model using interfacing Fe-based microwires.
A new therapeutic target turns the immune system against lymphoma
EPFL scientists have identified a key mechanism that tumor cells use to take advantage of and avoid detection from the immune system.
How birds evolved big brains
An international team of evolutionary biologists and paleontologists have reconstructed the evolution of the avian brain using a massive dataset of brain volumes from dinosaurs, extinct birds like Archaeopteryx and the great auk, and modern birds.
SMU professors detail how homeless students are doing educationally in Houston ISD
A new report by SMU professors Alexandra Pavlakis and Meredith Richards details how homeless students in Houston ISD are faring educationally.
Breakthrough in genome visualization
Kadir Dede and Dr. Enno Ohlebusch at Ulm University in Germany have devised a method for constructing pan-genome subgraphs at different granularities without having to wait hours and days on end for the software to process the entire genome.
Association of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with severity or risk of death in patients with hypertension hospitalized for COVID-19
The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and the severity of illness and death in patients with hypertension hospitalized for COVID-19 is examined in this study.
No time to waste to avoid future food shortages
Plant scientists are working on improving photosynthesis on different fronts, from finding crop varieties that need less water, to tweaking parts of the process in order to capture more carbon dioxide and sunlight to ensure future global food security.
Recurrent genomic selection for wheat grain fructans
Development of Climate-Resilient, Nutritionally Improved Wheat
Wiring the quantum computer of the future: A novel simple build with existing technology
Efficient quantum computing is expected to enable advancements that are impossible with classical computers.
North Atlantic right whales are in much poorer condition than Southern right whales
New research by an international team of scientists reveals that endangered North Atlantic right whales are in much poorer body condition than their counterparts in the southern hemisphere.
Ocean biodiversity has not increased substantially for hundreds of millions of years -- new study
A new way of looking at marine evolution over the past 540 million years has shown that levels of biodiversity in our oceans have remained fairly constant, rather than increasing continuously over the last 200 million years, as scientists previously thought.
Children who hold 'benevolent' sexist views are also likely to possess 'hostile' ones
Children who hold seemingly positive, 'benevolent' views about women are also likely to hold negative ones, a team of psychology researchers has found.
Good news for the wheat-sensitive among us
A joint project between Edith Cowan University (ECU) in Australia and CSIRO has revealed key insights about the proteins causing two of the most common types of wheat sensitivity - non-coeliac wheat sensitivity and occupational asthma (baker's asthma).
Discovered the physiological mechanisms underlying the most common pediatric Leukemia
Researchers from the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute unveil the mechanisms that lead to hyperdiploid Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Hyper D-ALL, the most common pediatric B-cell Leukaemia.
Health impacts of pollution upon indigenous peoples
A new study from the University of Helsinki presents the current state of knowledge on the exposure and vulnerability of Indigenous Peoples to environmental pollution, reviewing the innumerable impacts that pollution poses on Indigenous communities from all over the world.
Digital solutions for dementia care
Telehealth delivery of dementia care in the home can be as effective as face-to-face home visit services if carers and recipients take advantage of the technologies available, Australian researchers say.
Following the insect meltdown, numbers of orb web spiders have drastically declined
The abundance of large orb web spiders in the Swiss midland has declined drastically over the last 40 years.
A Europe covered in grasslands or forests: innovation and research on climate models
An experiment to better understand how atmospheric variables respond to land use changes.
Your football team loses a match. You may suffer a heart attack.
Lost football games may trigger heart attacks in male fans, according to research presented today on EAPC Essentials 4 You, a scientific platform of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Sensors woven into a shirt can monitor vital signs
MIT researchers developed a way to incorporate electronic sensors into stretchy fabrics, allowing them to create shirts or other garments that could monitor vital signs such as temperature, respiration, and heart rate.
Inexpensive, portable detector identifies pathogens in minutes
Most viral test kits rely on labor- and time-intensive laboratory preparation and analysis techniques; for example, tests for the novel coronavirus can take days to detect the virus from nasal swabs.
Simple 'do it yourself' circuit to ventilate two patients at once is technically feasible
A simple 'do it yourself' breathing circuit, using accessories that are readily available in intensive care, can be used to ventilate two critically ill patients at once, should clinicians be faced with equipment shortages, suggests research published online in the journal Thorax.
Asteroid visiting Earth's neighborhood brings its own face mask
The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico is following an asteroid approaching Earth this week and while it poses no threat, it appears to know our planet is facing a pandemic.
To combat COVID-19, behavioral pitfalls must be addressed
In a commentary piece for The Lancet, researchers from Princeton University and the Sunnybrook Research Institute review eight behavioral pitfalls that challenge judgments made during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Protein produced in sepsis lowers blood pressure, treatment identified to reverse effects
Temple scientists show that when a molecule known as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) becomes active in sepsis, it increases the production of a protein called B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) -- the more BNP that is produced in sepsis, the greater the deterioration of cardiovascular function.
Scientists from IKBFU, Moscow and Kiev conducted research on treating obesity
In the 21st century, the search for methods of treating noncommunicable diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes are among the top priorities.
Multi-functionalization of graphene for molecular targeted cancer therapy
Three functional molecules (near-infrared fluorescent probe, tumor targeting molecule, and anticancer drug) are successfully decollated onto the surface of graphene molecule.
How much does it cost california cannabis growers to safety test?
The high cost of testing cannabis in California leads to higher prices for the consumer, which could drive consumers to unlicensed markets.
New study takes the pulse of a sleeping supervolcano
Under the volcanoes in the Andes where Chile, Argentina and Bolivia meet, there is a gigantic reservoir of molten magma.
Researchers are making recombinant-protein drugs cheaper
The mammalian cell lines that are engineered to produce high-value recombinant-protein drugs also produce unwanted proteins that push up the overall cost to manufacture these drugs.
Researchers rebuild the bridge between neuroscience and artificial intelligence
In an article in the journal Scientific Reports, researchers reveal that they have successfully rebuilt the bridge between experimental neuroscience and advanced artificial intelligence learning algorithms.
Preventing metastasis -- An antibody with therapeutic potential
A receptor in the cell layer that lines the blood vessels from the inside stimulates both the formation of new blood vessels in tumors and metastasis.
An obesity protein discovery may lead to better treatments
By determining the structure of a key receptor in obesity, scientists have unlocked an opportunity for the development of new drugs.
High-altitude adaptations connected with lower risk for chronic diseases
High-altitude adaptations in the Himalayas may lower risk for some chronic diseases, according to a research team including faculty from Binghamton University, State University of New York, the University of New Mexico, and the Fudan University School of Life Sciences.
UTEP researchers develop nanohybrid vehicle to optimally deliver drugs into the human body
The researchers discovered that encapsulating ellagic acid in chitosan, a sugar, reduces its inherent cytotoxicity while enhancing its antioxidant properties.
Giant teenage shark from the Dinosaur-era
Scientists of the University of Vienna examined parts of a vertebral column, which was found in northern Spain in 1996, and assigned it to the extinct shark group Ptychodontidae.
Helping a helper: Uncovering how different proteins cooperate in DNA repair
DNA is critical for life as we know it. Ensuring that DNA is kept in a stable state is therefore important in all organisms.
Fishers livelihood measured by more than catch
Scientists throwing shade on the idea that a fisher's life is Zen, showing the arrangements before and after the fish takes the bait the must be considered to make effective and equitable policy about global fishing.
New research finds cost transparency can increase sales 20%
Businesses don't typically disclose information to consumers on how much it costs to produce a product.
Boosting the immune system's appetite for cancer
A combination of immunotherapy agents that encourages some immune cells to eat cancer cells and alert others to attack tumors put mice with a deadly type of brain cancer called glioblastoma into long-term remission.
Promising signs for Perseverance rover in its quest for past Martian life
New research indicates river delta deposits within Mars' Jezero crater -- the destination of NASA' Perseverance rover on the Red Planet -- formed over time scales that promoted habitability and enhanced preservation of evidence.
The basis of glyphosate resistance in amaranth
This work reveals the unique genomic content and structural organization of an extrachromosomal circular DNA replicon in Amaranth plants, with implications for the advancement of crop breeding and our understanding of the evolution of herbicide resistance.
How common for cancer survivors to stay at jobs for health insurance?
This survey study looked at how often cancer survivors in the United States and their spouses or partners stay in their jobs because of concerns about losing their health insurance.
High density EEG produces dynamic image of brain signal source
Marking a major milestone on the path to meeting the objectives of the NIH BRAIN initiative, research by Carnegie Mellon's Biomedical Engineering Department Head Bin He advances high-density electroencephalography (EEG) as the future paradigm for dynamic functional neuroimaging.
Dietary counselling introduced in infancy leads to better cardiovascular health in adults
The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project investigated the long-term effects of dietary counselling on cardiovascular health.
Novel coronavirus detected, monitored in wastewater
A new approach to monitoring the novel coronavirus, (as well as other dangerous pathogens and chemical agents), is being developed and refined.
TGen adds to international studies identifying cells susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection
Two studies involving hundreds of scientists, including a human geneticist at TGen, suggest that cells in the nasal passage shaped like champagne glasses -- goblet cells -- may play a significant role in the spread of COVID-19.
New test for COVID-19 may deliver faster results to more people
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 2.5 million confirmed cases worldwide and nearly over 170,000 deaths as of April 21 according to the World Health Organization1.
'Bursty' email communication helps groups convert resources into results
A new study looked at more than 1,300 retail banking sales teams in a large regional bank to explore whether groups vary in how they convert resources into performance.
Insects: Largest study to date finds declines on land, but recoveries in freshwater
A worldwide compilation of insect abundance studies shows the number of land-dwelling insects is in decline.
Being fun is no laughing matter
A longitudinal study examined whether children who are well-liked and children who are popular got that way by being fun to hang around with.
Dramatic decrease in cold-water plankton during industrial era
There has been a dramatic decrease in cold-water plankton during the 20th century, in contrast to thousands of years of stability, according to a new UCL-led study.
A cellular mechanism protecting against cancer
Susanne Hellmuth and Olaf Stemmann from the University of Bayreuth have discovered a natural protective mechanism that leads to the programmed death of potentially diseased cells.
Researchers explore ocean microbes' role in climate effects
A new study shows that 'hotspots' of nutrients surrounding phytoplankton -- which are tiny marine algae producing approximately half of the oxygen we breathe every day -- play an outsized role in the release of a gas involved in cloud formation and climate regulation.
Epidemiological assessment of imported COVID-19 cases in Wenzhou, China
This decision analytical model describes several key epidemiological features of imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Wenzhou, China.
Gene-editing protocol for whitefly pest opens door to control
Whiteflies are among the most important agricultural pests in the world, yet they have been difficult to genetically manipulate and control, in part, because of their small size.
Experts issue guide on lung cancer screening, management during COVID-19
A new expert panel consensus statement published simultaneously today in the journals Radiology: Imaging Cancer, Chest and the Journal of the American College of Radiology provides guidance to clinicians managing lung cancer screening programs and patients with lung nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Researchers use 'hot Jupiter' data to mine exoplanet chemistry
After spotting a curious pattern in scientific papers -- they described exoplanets as being cooler than expected -- Cornell University astronomers have improved a mathematical model to accurately gauge the temperatures of planets from solar systems hundreds of light-years away.
Examining heart extractions in ancient Mesoamerica
A recent study confirms that Mesoamerican priests ripped the hearts out of their still-living victims in three different ways.
Argonne scientists fashion new class of X-ray detector
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Argonne and Los Alamos National Laboratories have identified a new class of X-ray detectors based on layered perovskites, a semiconducting material.
Crises are no excuse for lowering scientific standards, say ethicists
Ethicists from Carnegie Mellon and McGill universities are calling on the global research community to resist treating the urgency of the current COVID-19 outbreak as grounds for making exceptions to rigorous research standards in pursuit of treatments and vaccines.
New AI model accurately classifies colorectal polyps using slides from 24 institutions
Researchers at Dartmouth's and Dartmouth-Hitchcock's Norris Cotton Cancer Center have trained a deep neural network to distinguish the four major types of colorectal polyps excised during screening colonoscopy.
Jurassic Park in Eastern Morocco: Paleontology of the Kem Kem Group
The Kem Kem beds in Morocco are famous for the spectacular fossils found there, including at least four large-bodied non-avian theropods, several large-bodied pterosaurs and crocodilians.
Not so sweet
Have you ever noticed how a bite of warm cherry pie fills your mouth with sweetness, but that same slice right out of the refrigerator isn't nearly as tempting?
RIT scientists develop first 3D mass estimate of microplastic pollution in Lake Erie
Rochester Institute of Technology scientists have developed the first three-dimensional mass estimate to show where microplastic pollution is collecting in Lake Erie.
Adult astrocytes are key to learning and memory
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine discovered that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the brain, play a direct role in the regulation of adult neuronal circuits involved in learning and memory.
New targeted agent produces considerable responses in patients with uterine cancer
The DNA repair-blocking drug adavosertib shrinks tumors in nearly one-third of patients in clinical trial data to be shared at the Society for Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) Annual Meeting on Women's Cancer.
Poor coastal hypoxia and acidification policy leaves marine fisheries at risk
Current regulatory standards regarding the dissolved oxygen and pH levels of coastal waters have not kept pace with the scientific understanding of hypoxia and acidification, nor with the mounting evidence of their negative impact on coastal marine life.
Atmospheric tidal waves maintain Venus' super-rotation
An international research team led by Takeshi Horinouchi of Hokkaido University has revealed that the 'super-rotation' on Venus is maintained near the equator by atmospheric tidal waves formed from solar heating on the planet's dayside and cooling on its nightside.
Mathematical curves predict evolution in COVID-19 spread
Through research published in EPJ Plus, researchers identify a clear mathematical trend in the evolution of daily new COVID-19 cases and death numbers in China, and use the same curve to predict how a similar slowdown will unfold in Italy.
New research explores the impact of cover crop residues on weed control
Cover crops have a well-documented role to play in suppressing troublesome weeds.
PTSD partners feel invisible, study finds
Recognition of the needs of wives and intimate partners in supporting the recovery of veterans and front-line emergency workers affected by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been highlighted in a new study led by Flinders University.
Reducing the carbon footprint of artificial intelligence
MIT system cuts the energy required for training and running neural networks.
Common soil fungus could be ally in organic corn growers' fight against pests
A common soil fungus might be enlisted as a powerful partner by corn producers to suppress pests and promote plant growth, according to Penn State researchers, who suggest promoting the fungus could be an especially valuable strategy for organic growers who struggle with insect control.
New research highlights blood clot dangers of COVID-19
A special report published today in the journal Radiology outlines prevention, diagnosis and treatment of complications stemming from blood clots in patients with COVID-19.
Hummingbirds show up when tropical trees fall down
When the tree fell that October in 2015, the tropical giant didn't go down alone.
Eye contact activates the autonomic nervous system even during video calls
A new study from Tampere University in Finland found that eye contact during video calls can elicit similar psychophysiological responses than those in genuine, in-person eye contact.
Survey shows regions of elevated food insecurity due to COVID-19 pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to elevated levels of food insecurity in the southern US compared to other areas, according to new research from University of Arkansas sociologists.
Breakthrough discovery in HIV research opens path to new, better therapies
Cells infected with HIV make two forms of the virus's RNA.
Very low-dose Avastin effective for preventing blindness in preterm infants
Babies born prematurely who require treatment to prevent blindness from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) could be treated with a dose of Avastin (bevacizumab) that is a fraction of the dose commonly used for ROP currently.
Study suggests 3D face photos could be a sleep apnea screening tool
Facial features analyzed from 3D photographs could predict the likelihood of having obstructive sleep apnea, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.
COVID-19 coronavirus could cost the US billions in medical expenses
One of the major concerns about the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic has been the burden that cases will place on the health care system.
Key nose cells identified as likely COVID-19 virus entry points
Two specific nose cell types have been identified as likely initial infection points for COVID-19 coronavirus.
Environment: Satellite data used to detect marine plastic
A new method of detecting patches of floating macroplastics -- larger than 5 millimeters -- in marine environments is presented in Scientific Reports this week.
Examining associations between hearing loss, balance
About 3,800 adults 40 and older in South Korea participating in a national health survey were included in this analysis that examined associations between hearing loss and a test of their ability to retain balance.
Thermal tides cause Venus' atmosphere to rotate far faster than its surface
By tracking the thick clouds of Venus' rapidly rotating atmosphere, researchers have gained new insight into the dynamic forces that drive atmospheric super-rotation - a little-understood phenomenon in which an atmosphere rotates much faster than the solid planetary body below.
Dietary supplements an important weapon for fighting off COVID-19
Supplements containing vitamins C and D and other micronutrients, sometimes in amounts exceeding the federally recommended levels, are a safe, effective and low-cost means of helping your immune system fight off COVID-19 and other acute respiratory tract diseases.
Archaeologists verify Florida's Mound Key as location of elusive Spanish fort
Florida and Georgia archaeologists have discovered the location of Fort San Antón de Carlos, home of one of the first Jesuit missions in North America.
'Designer virus' is first new polio vaccine in 50 years
UC San Francisco virologist Raul Andino, PhD and Andrew Macadam, PhD, of the UK's National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) report promising Phase 1 clinical results for the first new oral polio vaccine in 50 years, which they have designed to be incapable of evolving the ability to cause disease in humans.
Iron deficiency in corals?
When iron is limited, the microalgae that live within coral cells change how they take in other trace metals, which could have cascading effects on vital biological functions and perhaps exacerbate the effects of climate change on corals.
Global changes in insect populations reflect both decline and growth
The widely reported 'insect apocalypse' is far more nuanced than previous studies have suggested, according to a new study, which reports the findings of a meta-analysis featuring data from 166 long-term surveys across 1,676 sites worldwide.
A study finds neuropeptide somatostatin enhances visual processing?
Researchers have confirmed that neuropeptide somatostatin can improve cognitive function in the brain.
Palaeontology: Fossil frogs offer insights into ancient Antarctica
The discovery of the earliest known modern amphibians in Antarctica provides further evidence of a warm and temperate climate in the Antarctic Peninsula before its separation from the southern supercontinent, Gondwana.
Scientists shed light on action of key tuberculosis drug
A new study led by scientists at the University of Birmingham has shed fresh light on how a key front-line drug kills the tuberculosis bacterium.
Amperometric sensors assist in analyzing food safety
Antioxidants are one of the most interesting and widely investigated compounds in life sciences due to their key role in the protection of living systems from the negative effects of free radicals.
Game theory suggests more efficient cancer therapy
Cornell mathematicians are using game theory to model how this competition could be leveraged, so cancer treatment -- which also takes a toll on the patient's body -- might be administered more sparingly, with maximized effect.
Researchers restore injured man's sense of touch using brain-computer interface technology
On April 23 in the journal Cell, a team of researchers report that they have been able to restore sensation to the hand of a research participant with a severe spinal cord injury using a brain-computer interface (BCI) system.
Conservation research on lynx
Scientists at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) and the Leibniz Institute for Molecular Pharmacology (Leibniz-FMP) discovered that selected anti-oxidative enzymes, especially the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD2), may play an important role to maintain the unusual longevity of the corpus luteum in lynxes.
Discovery of protein's configuration could lead to more effective anti-obesity treatments
Researchers have unveiled the precise shape of a key player in human metabolism, which could open the door to better treatments for obesity and other metabolic disorders.
Avoid making exceptions for research quality during COVID-19 pandemic
Global crises are no excuse for lowering scientific standards, argue Alex London and Jonathan Kimmelman in a Policy Forum.

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