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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 24, 2020


Warming climate undoes decades of knowledge of marine protected areas
A new study highlights that tropical coral reef marine reserves can offer little defence in the face of climate change impacts.
Water molecules dance in three
An international team of scientists has been able to shed new light on the properties of water at the molecular level.
Two steps closer to flexible, powerful, fast bioelectronic devices
Led by Biomedical Engineering Professor Dion Khodagholy, researchers have designed biocompatible ion-driven soft transistors that can perform real-time neurologically relevant computation and a mixed-conducting particulate composite that allows creation of electronic components out of a single material.
FSU researchers discover new structure for promising class of materials
Florida State researchers have published a new study in the journal Science Advances that explains how they created a hollow nanostructure for metal halide perovskites that would allow the material to emit a highly efficient blue light.
Traffic officer protein governs speed of sugar/fat conversion pathway
Scientists in Texas and Pennsylvania have identified a protein sensor that restricts how much sugar and fat our cells convert into energy during periods of starvation.
Adsorbent material developed with PET bottles for the removal of antibiotics from water
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) announced that a research team has developed a high-efficiency, adsorbent material using PET waste bottles.
An eclipsing binary millisecond pulsar discovered by FAST
Using the data obtained by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), a research team led by Professor PAN Zhichen and Prof.
Could suicide risk be predicted from a patient's records?
A study led by Boston Children's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital demonstrates that a predictive computer model can identify patients at risk for attempting suicide from patterns in their electronic health records -- an average of two years ahead of time.
Substituting the next-best protein
Children born with Duchenne muscular dystrophy have a mutation in the X-chromosome gene that would normally code for dystrophin, a protein that provides structural integrity to skeletal muscles.
Maryland engineers open door to big new library of tiny nanoparticles
A research team has developed a new method for mixing metals generally known to be immiscible, or unmixable, at the nanoscale to create a new range of bimetallic materials.
After a heart attack, physical activity makes you feel better
Heart attack patients who take part in a lifestyle improvement program feel better -- especially when they do additional physical activity.
A 'corset' for the enzyme structure
The structure of enzymes determines how they control vital processes such as digestion or immune response.
Fueling the world sustainably: Synthesizing ammonia using less energy
Scientists at Tokyo Tech have developed an improved catalyst by taking the common dehydrating agent calcium hydride and adding fluoride to it.
Conservative and social media usage associated with misinformation about COVID-19
A study based on a survey of more than 1,000 US adults examines the association between media consumption and misinformation about COVID-19.
Diverse livelihoods helped resilient Levänluhta people survive a climate disaster
A multidisciplinary research group coordinated by the University of Helsinki dated the bones of dozens of Iron Age residents of the Levänluhta site in Finland, and studied the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios.
Learn from past to protect oceans
History holds valuable lessons -- and stark warnings -- about how to manage fisheries and other ocean resources, a new study says.
Big data reveals we're running out of time to save environment and ourselves
The paper, 'Opportunities for big data in conservation and sustainability', published today in Nature Communications, said increased computing speeds and data storage had grown the volume of big data in the last 40 years, but the planet was still facing serious decline.
Catalyst opens door to more efficient, environmentally friendly ethylene production
Researchers have engineered a new catalyst that can more efficiently convert ethane into ethylene, which is used in a variety of manufacturing processes.
COVID-19: The downside of social distancing
When faced with danger, humans draw closer together. Social distancing thwarts this impulse.
With a heavy heart: How men and women develop heart disease differently
A new study by researchers from McGill University has uncovered that minerals causing aortic heart valve blockage in men and women are different, a discovery that could change how heart disease is diagnosed and treated.
Assessing El Niño's impact on fisheries and aquaculture around the world
New report presents the main regional consequences caused by the five types of the climate pattern.
Facing a pandemic while pregnant
The author describes her experience being pregnant during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
New high-energy-density physics research provides insights about the universe
Researchers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics have applied physics theory and calculations to predict the presence of two new phenomena -- interspecies radiative transition (IRT) and the breakdown of the dipole selection rule--in the transport of radiation in atoms and molecules under high-energy-density (HED) conditions.
Child abuse awareness month during COVID-19 pandemic
This Patient Page calls attention to risk factors for child abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic and discusses ways to reduce stress and risk of child abuse during social isolation.
Higher levels of NETs in blood associated with more severe COVID-19
New study explores the connection between levels of a type of destructive white blood cell, known as a neutrophil, with the severity of COVID-19.
Groundbreaking development in rapid large-scale testing of COVID-19
OU Medicine, the OU Health Sciences Center and the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation collaborated to create a new test for COVID-19 using technology and reagents from Fluidigm Corporation, an innovative biotechnology tools provider.
Environment-friendly compound shows promise for solar cell use
In research published today in Advanced Functional Materials, a team of engineers, material scientists, and physicists demonstrated how a new material -- a lead-free chalcogenide perovskite -- that hadn't previously been considered for use in solar cells could provide a safer and more effective option than others that are commonly considered.
The best material for homemade face masks may be a combination of two fabrics
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that people wear masks in public.
Hubble celebrates its 30th anniversary with a tapestry of blazing starbirth
Hubble Space Telescope's iconic images and scientific breakthroughs have redefined our view of the universe.
Bose-Einstein condensate: Magnetic particles behave repulsively
Data transmission that works with magnetic waves instead of electric currents can be the basis for future information technologies.
Holistic approach best for tackling nonmedical drug use, study finds
Health practitioners are constantly developing new ways to help those with drug and alcohol addictions wean themselves from their substance of choice.
Underprotected marine protected areas in a global biodiversity hotspot
Through the assessment of the 1,062 MPAs in the Mediterranean Sea, covering 6% of the Mediterranean Basin, a research team has shown that 95% of the total area protected lacks regulations to reduce human impacts on biodiversity.
Did 'Joker' movie perpetuate prejudices against those with mental illness?
Researchers in this survey study examined whether watching the 2019 movie 'Joker,' in which the namesake character is violent and has mental illness, was associated with a change in the level of prejudice toward people with mental illness compared with others who watched another movie.
Dramatic loss of food plants for insects
Just a few weeks ago, everyone was talking about plummeting insect numbers.
New study finds connection between fault roughness and the magnitude of earthquakes
A new study led by McGill University has found that tectonic plates beneath the Earth's surface can show varying degrees of roughness and could help explain why certain earthquakes are stronger than others.
Artificial intelligence can categorize cancer risk of lung nodules
Computed tomography scans for people at risk for lung cancer lead to earlier diagnoses and improve survival rates, but they can also lead to overtreatment when suspicious nodules turn out to be benign.
Hubble marks 30 years in space with tapestry of blazing starbirth
NASA is celebrating the Hubble Space Telescope's 30 years of unlocking the beauty and mystery of space by unveiling a stunning new portrait of a firestorm of starbirth in a neighboring galaxy.
Training instance segmentation neural network with synthetic datasets for seed phenotyping
A team of scientists led by Yosuke Toda, Designated Assistant Professor at the Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), Nagoya University, and Fumio Okura, Assistant Professor at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, have developed a system which utilizes image analysis and artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze the shape of large numbers of seeds from a single image.
Nursing homes prepared for pandemics, but COVID-19 reveals gaps
New data suggests that Michigan nursing homes that responded to a survey were far better prepared for the COVID-19 pandemic than they were for the last one.
The most promising strategies for defeating coronavirus: A review study
Experts from UNC Chapel Hill review possible clinical approaches from antivirals to gene therapy against the virus responsible for COVID-19 and related diseases.
Quantum electrodynamics experiment
The fundamental laws of physics are based on symmetries that, among other things, determine the interactions between charged particles.
Organic heterostructures composed of one- and two-dimensional polymorph
A recent study facilely synthesized the OHSs composed of these two polymorph phases, whose growth mechanism is attributed to the low lattice mismatch rate of 5.8% between (001) plane of α phase (trunk) and (010) crystal plane of β phase (branch), Significantly, the multiport in/output channels can be achieved in the OHSs, which demonstrates the structure-dependent optical signals with the different output channels in the OHSs.
Mental health in children on home confinement in COVID-19 outbreak in China
This study investigates the depression and anxiety of children in China's Hubei province during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown.
Climate change may push some species to higher elevations -- and out of harm's way
A new WCS-led study reveals that mountain-dwelling species fleeing warming temperatures by retreating to higher elevations may find refuge from reduced human pressure.
Effect of high vs. low dosage of chloroquine diphosphate on SARS-CoV-2 infection
This randomized clinical trial evaluates the safety and efficacy of two  chloroquine diphosphate dosages in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
COVID-19 crisis as catalyst for telemedicine for chronic neurological disorders
The reasons for and reality of a rapid advance toward telemedicine in neurology during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is described in this Viewpoint article.
Summary of preliminary data about obesity and severity of COVID-19
In a Nature Reviews Endocrinology 'Comment' authors from the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), the Boston Children's Hospital and the Harvard T.H.
Colliding solitons in optical microresonators
Solitons in optical microresonators are frequently used to generate frequency combs, which have found applications in sensing, telecommunication, and metrology.
How the immune system reacts to hepatitis C viruses
The interferon-stimulated gene C19orf66 plays an important role in the defence against hepatitis C viruses.
Brain insulin sensitivity determines body weight and fat distribution
Just where fat is deposited in the body and to what degree a person may benefit from a lifestyle intervention depends on how sensitive the brain is to insulin.
Achievement requires passion and grit
Boys need to burn for something to succeed. Maybe that's why they often do less well at school than girls.
New active ingredient against allergic asthma
Our immune system protects us against pathogens. However, an excessive immune reaction can trigger allergies or chronic asthma.
Highly concentrated aqueous electrolytes could replace solvents used in batteries
The review article by researchers at the University of São Paulo shows the advantages of this technological alternative, which is nontoxic and much cheaper than other methods.
Syphilis eludes immune attack by altering a single gene
Shuffling of DNA in a single gene might be why the syphilis bacteria can evade the immune system.
Palaeontologists reveal 'the most dangerous place in the history of planet Earth
100 million years ago, ferocious predators, including flying reptiles and crocodile-like hunters, made the Sahara the most dangerous place on Earth.
Researchers solve 'link discovery' problem for terahertz data networks
A team of researchers from Brown and Rice universities has demonstrated a way to help devices to find each other in the ultra-fast terahertz data networks of the future.
Scientists discover just how runny a liquid can be
Scientists from Queen Mary University of London and the Russian Academy of Sciences have found a limit to how runny a liquid can be.
Researchers develop breakthrough antibody test for COVID-19 virus
A recent article published in Current Protocols in Microbiology details a breakthrough antibody test for COVID-19.
Feeling the pressure: How blood vessels sense their environment
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba discovered that Thbs1 is a key extracellular mediator of mechanotransduction upon mechanical stress.
Sanfilippo C syndrome: New brain cell models to evaluate therapies
The Sanfilippo syndrome type C is a severe neurodegenerative disease which appears during the first years of life and for which there is no treatment yet.

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