Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 27, 2020
They remember: Communities of microbes found to have working memory
Biologists studying communities of bacteria have discovered that these so-called simple organisms feature a robust capacity for memory.

Honey bees could help monitor fertility loss in insects due to climate change
New research from the University of British Columbia and North Carolina State University could help scientists track how climate change is impacting the birds and the bees... of honey bees.

Soil in wounds can help stem deadly bleeding
New UBC research shows for the first time that soil silicates--the most abundant material on the Earth's crust--play a key role in blood clotting.

'Dirty' mice could help make a more effective flu vaccine
Studying mice that have been exposed to other illnesses could help make vaccine development processes more reflective of real-world conditions and lead to better vaccines, according to a new study.

Light-based deep brain stimulation relieves symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have used light-based deep brain stimulation to treat motor dysfunction in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

New findings on hepatitis C in infants can lead to improved treatments
Only about 5% of the babies born to mothers with hepatitis C are themselves infected by the disease.

Immune system changes occur early in development of multiple myeloma, study finds
Long before multiple myeloma becomes a malignant disease, the collection of immune system cells and signal carriers amid the tumor cells undergoes dramatic shifts, with alterations in both the number and type of immune cells, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) report in a new study.

Beta cells from stem cells
The loss of insulin-secreting beta cells by autoimmune destruction leads to type 1 diabetes.

Scientists trace path from PTSD to heart disease
A new study helps explain why people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) face a higher risk of heart disease at an earlier age than people without PTSD.

MD Anderson and Ipsen advance new therapy with potential benefit for underserved patients with lung and ovarian cancers
MD Anderson and Ipsen have advanced a new targeted therapy into clinical trials for certain patients with lung and ovarian cancers.

Researchers' method holds promise for brain study, better tests for viruses
University of Texas at Dallas researchers have developed a promising method for remotely stimulating activity in deep brain regions, advancing understanding of how molecules act in the brain and paving the way for better cancer treatments and therapies for other diseases.

3D tissue models provide unprecedented insight into human brain function and disease
Researchers have created 3D tissue structures that recapitulate many aspects of specific human brain regions.

Insights into why loud noise is bad for your health
Two new mouse studies provide new insight into how noise exposure can lead to high blood pressure and cancer-related DNA damage.

Can vaping scar your lungs? New insights and a possible remedy
Researchers report evidence that the compounds in e-cigarette liquid could potentially cause the body's tissue repair process to go haywire and lead to scarring inside the lungs.

New type of immune cell discovered in breast ducts
Melbourne breast cancer researchers have discovered a new type of immune cell that helps to keep breast tissue healthy by regulating a vital process within mammary ducts - the sites where milk is produced and transported, but also where most breast cancers arise.

Using cloud-precipitation relationship to estimate cloud water path of mature tropical cyclones
Scientists find the cloud water path of mature tropical cyclones can be estimated by a notable sigmoid function of near-surface rain rate.

Sleep effects of later school start time for teens
This observational study compared how school start times either early or delayed were associated with when, how long and how well high school students slept.

COVID-19 and pregnancies: What we know
Amid the rapidly evolving global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has already had profound effects on public health and medical infrastructure across the globe, many questions remain about its impact on child health.

SU2C-funded research to be presented during the AACR Virtual Meeting -- April 27-28, 2020
Stand Up To Cancer®-supported research will be presented will be presented during the American Association for Cancer Research Annual (AACR) Virtual Meeting 1.

Less addictive form of buprenorphine may help curb cocaine relapse
New research performed in mice suggests that chemical modifications to buprenorphine can improve its effectiveness to treat cocaine addiction while minimizing abuse potential.

Investigating the causes of the ozone levels in the Valderejo Nature Reserve
The UPV/EHU's Atmospheric Research Group (GIA) has presented a database comprising over 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC) measured continuously over the last ten years in the Valderejo Nature Reserve (Álava, Basque Country).

Scientists uncover how Zika virus can spread through sexual contact
Zika virus is capable of replicating and spreading infectious particles within the outermost cells lining the vaginal tract, according to new research.

HudsonAlpha scientists collaborate to uncover a gene that doubles the risk of developing several neurodegenerative diseases
Scientists at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), have identified a new risk factor for multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

Disruptions in health insurance coverage are common and affect cancer care and survival
A new study finds disruptions in health insurance coverage are common in the United States and are associated with poorer cancer care and survival.

Scientists develop stable luminescent composite material based on perovskite nanocrystals
An international team of scientists that includes researchers from ITMO University has developed a new composite material based on perovskite nanocrystals for the purpose of creating miniature light sources with improved output capacity.

Open access hardware & 3D printing can help tackle demand for health supplies
Free open source hardware and 3D printing could help to alleviate the burden of Covid-19 on global health systems, according to scientists at the University of Sussex.

Researchers make key advance toward production of important biofuel
An international research collaboration has taken an important step toward the commercially viable manufacture of biobutanol, an alcohol whose strong potential as a fuel for gasoline-powered engines could pave the path away from fossil fuels.

Abundant element to power small devices
Researchers have found a way to convert heat energy into electricity with a nontoxic material.

Antibiotic exposure can 'prime' single-resistant bacteria to become multidrug-resistant
Researchers at the University of Washington and the University of Idaho report that, for a bacterial pathogen already resistant to an antibiotic, prolonged exposure to that antibiotic not only boosted its ability to retain its resistance gene, but also made the pathogen more readily pick up and maintain resistance to a second antibiotic and become a dangerous, multidrug-resistant strain.

KIST develops high-performance ceramic fuel cell that operates on butane gas
A Korean research team has developed a high-performance ceramic fuel cell that can operate on butane fuels.

Breathing during exercise is harder for women than men
While both sexes have the capacity for phenomenal athletic achievements, women on average must work harder to breathe during strenuous exercise compared to men, according to new research.

Eye pupil an indicator of effective decision making, study finds
A team of Army and academic researchers are investigating how eye-pupil size changes can indicate a person's cognitive state as a means to enable teaming with autonomous agents.

University of the Witwatersrand publishes first clinical data on COVID-19 in South Africa
Health professionals will face difficult ethical decisions when it comes to dealing with COVID-19 patients.

Skoltech research shows how a 'Swiss Army knife' protein helps phages disarm their victims
Researchers from the Severinov Laboratory at Skoltech, along with their colleagues from Switzerland and Israel, have investigated a poorly studied bacterial BREX defense mechanism to show that it can be ''turned off'' by a multipurpose viral protein that successfully impersonates DNA.

New model of the GI tract could speed drug development
MIT engineers have devised a way to speed new drug development by rapidly testing how well they are absorbed in the small intestine.

How do epidemics spread and persist before and after introduction of a vaccine?
Modeling of measles epidemics in England and Wales from 1944 to 1994 shows that, before vaccination, measles could persist in both large population centers and by spread among sets of smaller towns.

Scientists unveil how general anesthesia works
The discovery of general anesthetics -- compounds which induce unconsciousness, prevent control of movement and block pain -- helped transform dangerous operations into safe surgery.

Loss of smell associated with milder clinical course in COVID-19
Researchers at UC San Diego Health report in newly published findings that olfactory impairment suggests the resulting COVID-19 disease is more likely to be mild to moderate, a potential early indicator that could help health care providers determine which patients may require hospitalization.

Proteasome phase separation for destruction
Researchers at the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (TMiMS) discovered proteasome-containing droplets, which are formed by acute hyperosmotic stress.

New understanding of asthma medicines could improve future treatment
New research has revealed new insights into common asthma aerosol treatments to aid the drug's future improvements which could benefit hundreds of millions of global sufferers.

For ME/CFS patients, viral immunities come at a devastating, lifelong cost
Researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine and three German universities describe an underlying biological basis for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, illustrating how efforts by the body to boost immune system protections can come at physiological cost elsewhere.

Connecting the dots between heart disease, potential for worse COVID-19 outcomes
People with certain heart diseases may be more susceptible to worse outcomes with COVID-19, but the reason why has remained unknown.

Instagram and the male body image
In a new study among males depicted on Instagram, the majority of posts showed men with low body fat, while only a small fraction depicted men with high body fat.

New metasurface laser produces world's first super-chiral light
Researchers have demonstrated the world's first metasurface laser that produces ''super-chiral light'': light with ultra-high angular momentum.

Perception of US democracy tanks after Trump impeachment
While President Donald Trump's impeachment gripped the country, the long-term consequences of his trial and acquittal for American democracy remain yet unclear.

'We urgently need a renewed public debate about new breeding technologies'
Plant breeding has considerably increased agricultural yields in recent decades and made a major contribution to combating global hunger and poverty.

'Ethnic spaces' make minority students feel at home on campus
New research by the University of Washington and the University of Exeter examined the value that college students -- of many races -- place on ethnic cultural centers.

It takes a neutron beam to find a proton
Researchers from Osaka University have successfully determined the structure of a bacterial copper amine oxidase using neutron crystallography.

Coupled magnetic materials show interesting properties for quantum applications
In a new study led by the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, researchers have uncovered a novel way in which the excitations of magnetic spins in two different thin films can be strongly coupled to each other through their common interface.

Cold-induced urticarial rash -- researchers discover new hereditary disease
Skin rash combined with head and joint pain: these are the symptoms which patients with familial (hereditary) cold urticaria develop when exposed to temperatures below 15 °C.

Rice engineers: Make wastewater drinkable again
Delivering water to city dwellers can become far more efficient, according to Rice University researchers who say it should involve a healthy level of recycled wastewater.

A promising new treatment for recurrent pediatric brain cancer
Researchers developed a novel approach that delivers appropriately-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy directly into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds recurrent pediatric brain tumors.

High-fat diet consequences include mental fatigue, researchers say
Obesity has been shown to place physical stress on the body, but new research suggests that excess weight may also cause mental fatigue.

Potential autism biomarker found in babies, Stanford-led study reports
A biological marker in infants that appears to predict an autism diagnosis has been identified in a small study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Immunotherapy before surgery could advance care of an aggressive form of skin cancer
In what is believed to be a first-of-its-kind study to evaluate the safety of a type of immunotherapy before surgery in patients with an aggressive form of skin cancer, researchers report that the treatment eliminated pathologic evidence of cancer in nearly half of the study participants undergoing surgery.

State policies on access to vaccination services for low-income adults
This study evaluated Medicaid benefits coverage and reimbursement amounts for recommended adult vaccines in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Cancer care model could help us cope with COVID-19, says nanomedicine expert
As the UK government looks for an exit strategy to Britain's COVID-19 lockdown a nanomedicine expert from The University of Manchester believes a care model usually applied to cancer patients could provide a constructive way forward.

New study suggests ways to alleviate social withdrawal symptoms in mental illnesses
University of California, Davis, researchers studied the role of oxytocin, a neurotransmitter produced in the hypothalamus, which is known to play an important role in social behavior across species.

Scientists identify a potential treatment candidate for early type 2 diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the main vascular complications of type 2 diabetes, and the most common cause of visual deterioration in adults.

CBD shows promise for fighting aggressive brain cancer
Findings from a new study examining human and canine brain cancer cells suggest that cannabidiol, or CBD, could be a useful therapy for a difficult-to-treat brain cancer.

Stress in parents of children with autism: Pets may help
While current events have increased stress for all families, parents of children with autism report higher levels of stress on average than parents of typically developing kids.

Erosion process studies in the Volga Region assist in land use planning
Dr. Gusarov (Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology and Paleomagnetism Lab) has been working on erosion processes for two decades as a part of various teams.

Clinicians treating COVID-19 say don't rush to try novel therapies
Intensivists caution against the use of premature novel therapies in lieu of traditional critical care principles in patients with COVID-19 in a recent correspondence letter in the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.

New species of moths discovered in the Alps named after three famous alpinists
During a genetic project of the Tyrolean State Museums in Innsbruck, Austrian entomologist and head of the Natural Science Collections Peter Huemer used an integrative research approach to study four long-known, yet controversial European moths.

The cause of the red coloration in stalagmites
A study by the UPV/EHU confirms the cause of the mysterious red colour of the stalagmites in the Goikoetxe Cave located in the Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve, and its potential use as an indicator of palaeoclimate changes on the Cantabrian seaboard between 7,000 and 5,000 years ago.

Superconductivity: It's hydrogen's fault
Last summer, it was discovered that there are promising superconductors in a special class of materials, the so-called nickelates.

Poor Amazonians go hungry despite living in one of the most biodiverse places on Earth
A team of scientists from Brazil and the UK are publishing the results of the first study linking food security for wildlife-dependent people in the Amazon with 'catch rates' -- which is the amount of fish caught for each hour spent fishing.

Light helps arthritis treatments target joints
Results from a new mouse study suggest that a new light-activated drug delivery method helps confine treatments to the joints, which could reduce whole-body side effects.

Survey: Most Americans want government commitment to reduce inequality
A new poll finds most Americans say the federal government should reduce inequality, amid the COVID-19-produced economic crisis.

Researchers identify drugs that could halt preterm labor
Researchers have discovered a common molecular pathway in women who experience preterm labor and are using this insight to develop new treatments for woman who experience early labor.

Artificial intelligence could serve as backup to radiologists' eyes
Deploying artificial intelligence could help radiologists to more accurately classify lung diseases.

Herpes virus decoded
The genome of the herpes simplex virus 1 was decoded using new methods.

Long-term use of synthetic corticosteroid drugs increases adrenal gland inflammation
New research by academics at the University of Bristol has found evidence that prolonged treatment of synthetic corticosteroid drugs increases adrenal gland inflammation in response to bacterial infection, an effect that in the long-term can damage adrenal function.

Rapid evolution in fish: genomic changes within a generation
Researchers from Basel have identified the genetic basis of rapid adaptation using a native fish species.

Researchers weave human tissue into new blood vessels
Researchers have used threads made of engineered human tissue to weave blood vessels that could one day help repair diseased or damaged blood vessels.

Experimental Biology press materials available now
Though the Experimental Biology (EB) 2020 meeting was canceled in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, EB research abstracts are being published in the April 2020 issue of The FASEB Journal.

Early high school start times adversely affect attendance
A new study finds that earlier high school start times can have significant adverse consequences for students, including increased rates of tardiness and absenteeism.

Blood test offers early warning of chemotherapy-related heart problems
Scientists have identified a collection of biomarkers that together signal that a person's cancer treatment may be harming their heart.

NASA catches formation and final fate of Eastern Pacific's Tropical Depression 1E
The Eastern Pacific Ocean's hurricane season may not officially start until mid-May, but the first tropical cyclone of the season formed over the weekend of April 25 and 26.

Electronics for high-altitude use can get smaller and sturdier with new nanomaterials
Demand is growing for new materials that can be printed at ever smaller dimensions.

Continuous dosing improves progression-free survival for melanoma patients with common mutations
A first-of-its-kind randomized clinical trial offers strong and perhaps surprising evidence that a combination of two targeted melanoma drugs when given continuously keeps patients' cancer from growing or spreading longer when compared with intermittent treatment, according to study results to be presented at the 2020 virtual annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research.

European countries face a costly 23% increase in fragility fractures by 2030
A new study provides an overview and comparison of the burden and management of fragility fractures due to osteoporosis in the five largest countries in Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) as well as Sweden.

Disappearance of animal species takes mental, cultural and material toll on humans
The research reveals that hunter-gatherer societies expressed a deep emotional and psychological connection with the animal species they hunted, especially after their disappearance.

A new explanation for the origins of human fatherhood
The origins of paternal care, a key differentiator between humans and other primates, have long been tied to ancestral females trading their own sexual fidelity for food provided by their mates.

Sustainable light achieved in living plants
This week in Nature Biotechnology, scientists have announced the feasibility of creating plants that produce their own visible luminescence.

A step toward a better way to make gene therapies to attack cancer, genetic disorders
A UCLA-led research team today reports a new method for delivering DNA into stem cells and immune cells safely, rapidly and economically.

Is it safe to vape while breastfeeding?
Findings from a new animal study suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during breastfeeding could be linked to problems with skull and face development.

Tube worm slime displays long-lasting, self-powered glow
When threatened, the marine parchment tube worm secretes a sticky slime that emits a unique long-lasting blue light.

Scientists use bacteria to help plants grow in salty soil
A new study has shown that salt-tolerant bacteria can be used to enhance salt tolerance in various types of plants.

Study analyzes contamination in drug manufacturing plants
A study from an MIT-led consortium, which analyzed 18 incidents of viral contamination at biopharmaceutical manufacturing plants, offers insight into the most common sources of viral contamination, and makes recommendations to help companies avoid such incidents.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Contact tracing and isolation key to controlling SARS-CoV2 in Shenzhen
Extensive contact tracing and isolation key to controlling spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Shenzhen, China

Travel considerations specified for 177Lu-DOTATATE radiation therapy patients
Researchers and patient advocates have addressed the challenges related to traveling after receiving 177Lu-DOTATATE radiation therapy in a study published in the April issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Biochemists unveil molecular mechanism for motor protein regulation
Researchers have unveiled the mechanism by which one particular molecule affects dynein function.

Virtual and augmented reality: warnings about the ethical dangers
Research on virtual reality started in the eighties, but it is now that good quality is available to the public and it can become a mass consumer product soon.

Smart contact lenses that diagnose and treat diabetes
Professor Sei Kwang Hahn's team at POSTECH develops wireless smart contact lenses for diagnosis and treatment of diabetes

Say no to vaping: Blood pressure, heart rate rises in healthy, young nonsmokers
New research finds that nicotine-filled e-cigarettes cause increases in heart rate and blood pressure in young people, health issues that remain even after a vaping session.

CUNY SPH Weekly COVID-19 Survey update week 7
Coronavirus testing geared up in New York over the past week, but only 8% of our 1000 NYC survey respondents reported they had been tested to date.

Researchers identify key mechanisms involved in pulmonary fibrosis development
Working alongside research groups from Heidelberg, researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have elucidated the novel disease processes involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

'Elegant' solution reveals how the universe got its structure
The universe is full of billions of galaxies--but their distribution across space is far from uniform.

Urban slums are uniquely vulnerable to COVID-19. Here's how to help.
Government-enforced social isolation can be devastating for the nearly 1 billion people around the globe currently dwelling in urban slums, where physical space is scarce and many rely on daily wage labor for survival.

Study finds no overall survival benefit, but improved quality of life with talazoparib in advanced BRCA-mutated breast cancer
New data from the Phase III EMBRACA trial led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center found the PARP inhibitor talazoparib did not demonstrate a statistically significant overall survival (OS) benefit for patients with metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer and mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes.

Three years of monitoring of Oregon's gray whales shows changes in health
Three years of 'health check-ups' on Oregon's summer resident gray whales shows a compelling relationship between whales' overall body condition and changing ocean conditions that likely limited availability of prey for the mammals.

What comes after COVID-19? Special issue in the journal Population and Economics
At this alarming time, when the COVID-19 pandemic is on everyone's mind, a new special issue in the open-access peer-reviewed journal Population and Economics provides a platform for discussion on the impact of the pandemic on the population and economics, both in Russia and worldwide.

New findings suggest laws of nature not as constant as previously thought
Not only does a universal constant seem annoyingly inconstant at the outer fringes of the cosmos, it occurs in only one direction, which is downright weird.

Crabeater seal data used to predict changes in Antarctic krill distribution
The western Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing rapid environmental change, with warming temperatures and decreasing sea ice.

Engineers develop precision injection system for plants
A new method developed by engineers at MIT may offer a starting point for delivering life-saving treatments to plants ravaged by such diseases.

Nursing research informs response to COVID-19 pandemic
Nursing research has an important influence on evidence-based health care practice, care delivery, and policy.

Unique Namibian trial finds smart interventions reduce malaria transmission by 75%
A trial by scientists at the Wits Research Institute for Malaria (WRIM), in collaboration with Namibian, UK, and US researchers demonstrates how mass drug administration and vector control can help eliminate malaria.

Making sense of the viral multiverse
In a consensus statement, Arvind Varsani, a molecular virologist with ASU's Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics and a host of international collaborators propose a new classification system, capable of situating coronaviruses like SARS-CoV-2 within the enormous web of viruses across the planet, known as the virosphere.

Scientists double understanding of genetic risk of melanoma
A global collaboration of scientists has more than doubled the known number of regions on the human genome that influence the risk of developing melanoma.

Earbud-like nerve stimulator shows promise for relieving indigestion
People who suffer frequent indigestion may find relief with a small device that hooks onto the ear known as a transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulator, or taVNS.

Salmonid fishes use different mechanism to defend against parasite infections
Collaborate research of the University of Jyvaskyla and the Natural Resources Institute Finland on salmonid fishes, sheds light on animal defence mechanisms and their interactions.

Breastfeeding moms' exposure to nicotine linked to infant skull defect
Lactating mothers who use e-cigarettes or nicotine replacement therapies may be putting their breastfed babies at risk for skull defects, a new study in animals suggests.

Parkinson's disease may start in the gut
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and the University of North Carolina in the USA have mapped out the cell types behind various brain disorders.

Fracking and earthquake risk
Earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing can damage property and endanger lives.

New breakthrough could help us understand how rare childhood brain disorders develop
A new breakthrough in understanding the cause of rare childhood brain disorders has been made by researchers at the University of Sheffield.

The North Atlantic right whale population is in poor condition
New research reveals that endangered North Atlantic right whales are in poorer body condition than individual whales from the three well recovering populations of Southern right whales.

NUS-led team develops artificial intelligence platform to combat infectious diseases
A research team led by Professor Dean Ho from the National University of Singapore has developed a ground-breaking artificial intelligence platform known as 'IDentif.AI' which can identify optimal drug combination therapies at unprecedented speeds.

In preparing for COVID-19 cases, plan early, communicate often
Hospitals facing a growing population of COVID-19 cases need a coordinated approach with a multidisciplinary team to increase efficiency, conserve PPE and protect staff.

What's the best way to identify male hemp seedlings?
A new study has found that tests used for early determination of hemp sex may not all produce accurate results.

Researchers use machine learning to unearth underground Instagram 'pods'
Not all engagement with posts on social networks is organic, according to a team of researchers at New York University Tandon School of Engineering and Drexel University, who have published the first analysis of a robust underground ecosystem of ''pods.'' These groups of users manipulate curation algorithms and artificially boost content popularity -- whether to increase the reach of promoted content or amplify rhetoric -- through a tactic known as ''reciprocity abuse,'' whereby each member reciprocally interacts with content posted by other members of the group.

New staining technique visualizes whole organs and bodies
A RIKEN research team in Japan has established an optimized three-dimensional (3D) tissue-staining and observation technique based on existing tissue clearing technology.

Study traces spread of early dairy farming across Western Europe
An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of York, analysed the molecular remains of food left in pottery used by the first farmers who settled along the Atlantic Coast of Europe from 7,000 to 6,000 years ago.

Reducing early brain inflammation could slow Alzheimer's progression
In a new animal study examining Alzheimer's disease, researchers found that disease progression could be slowed by decreasing neuroinflammation in the brain before memory problems and cognitive impairment were apparent.

Factors associated with disaster preparedness among US households
Nationally representative survey data from 16,000 US households were used to identify socioeconomic and other factors associated with disaster preparedness among households, such as having food and water stockpiles, an electric generator, communication plans and meeting locations to identify disparities.

COVID-19 could spell the end of an egalitarian National Health Service
A return to the principles of equality and universality of care that informed the NHS 70 years ago could be impossible.
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