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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 28, 2020


Researchers tackle a new opportunity to develop high-energy batteries
In recent years, lithium-ion batteries have become better at supplying energy to Soldiers in the field, but the current generation of batteries never reaches its highest energy potential.
Shrinking instead of growing: how shrews survive the winter
Even at sub-zero temperatures, common shrews do not need to increase their metabolism.
People with brown fat may burn 15% more calories
Short-term cold exposure may help people with brown fat burn 15% more calories than those without, according to a small study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Surveying the lipid landscape
Software LipidCreator enables researchers to characterize 60 lipid classes in cells with mass spectrometry.
Thrive announces clinical data from study of blood test to detect multiple cancers
Thrive Earlier Detection published data from DETECT-A, the first ever prospective, interventional study to use a blood test to screen for multiple types of cancers in a real-world population, in the journal Science.
New study links severe sleep apnea to higher blood glucose levels in African-Americans
African-Americans with severe sleep apnea and other adverse sleep patterns are much more likely to have high blood glucose levels -- a risk factor for diabetes -- than those without these patterns, according to a new study funded in part by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health.
Surgeons help create new process for disinfecting and reusing N95 masks
Amid shortages of personal protective equipment due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a St.
Making transitions from nursing home to hospital safer during COVID-19 outbreak
Based on their research and clinical experiences, Kathleen Unroe, M.D., and colleagues have developed the top 10 points for safe care transitions between nursing home and emergency departments during the pandemic.
Virologists show that sample pooling can massively increase coronavirus testing capacity
To contain the coronavirus pandemic, global testing capacity for the SARS-CoV-2 virus needs to be ramped up significantly.
Crops sown in a uniform spatial pattern produce higher yields and reduce environmental impact
Higher yields and fewer weeds are possible if farmers sow wheat, maize, soy and other crops in more uniform spatial patterns, according to University of Copenhagen researchers.
New drug formulation could treat Candida infections
With antimicrobial resistance (AMR) increasing around the world, new research led by the University of Bristol has shown a new drug formulation could possibly be used in antifungal treatments against Candida infections.
Wide bandgap semiconductor devices based on silicon carbide may revolutionize electronics
Silicon plays a central role within the semiconductor industry for microelectronic and nanoelectronic devices, and silicon wafers of high purity single-crystalline material can be obtained via a combination of liquid growth methods.
Work-related stress linked to increased risk for peripheral artery disease
People who reported work-related stress were more likely to be hospitalized for treatment of peripheral artery disease compared to those who did not report work-related stress.
Finding the genes to build a better cancer treatment
A group of researchers led by Washington State University's Mark Lange, has found candidate genes that could eventually be used to manufacture Taxol more quickly and efficiently.
BU researchers: Race and income shape COVID-19 risk
The new coronavirus does not discriminate, but discrimination and inequality have shaped the risk of severe illness and death, according to a new Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) study
Hubble captures breakup of comet ATLAS
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has provided astronomers with the sharpest view yet of the breakup of Comet C/2019 Y4 (ATLAS).
Superhard candy -- scientists cracked the complex crystal structure of molybdenum borides
In their search for new superhard compounds, researchers carried out a prediction of stable molybdenum borides and their crystal structures.
Scientists explore the power of radio waves to help control fusion reactions
New research points to improved control of troublesome magnetic islands in future fusion facilities.
Major trial shows breast cancer drug can hit prostate cancer Achilles heel
A drug already licensed for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers is more effective than targeted hormone therapy at keeping cancer in check in some men with advanced prostate cancer, a major clinical trial reports.
MA3Bi2I9 single-crystal enables X-ray detection down to nanograys per second
A zero-dimensional (0D) MA3Bi2I9 (MA=CH3NH3) single crystals with inch-sized were fabricated by solution methods.
Mobile phones found to host cocktail of live germs, aiding spread of diseases
A new study warns mobile phones could be acting as 'Trojan horses' for coronavirus and urges billions of users worldwide to decontaminate their devices daily.
New HKBU-led study unveils COVID-19 transmission patterns and reopening plans
New research led by Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) computer scientists has used a data-driven modelling approach to answer the time-critical question of when the stringent social distancing and quarantine measures against COVID-19 can be loosened so that normal life and economic activities can be restored in a safe manner.
Correlations in COVID-19 growth point to universal strategies for slowing spread
Many months since the first COVID-19 outbreak, countries continue to explore solutions to manage the spread of the virus.
Plastic pollution reaching the Antarctic
Food wrapping, fishing gear and plastic waste continue to reach the Antarctic.
Polymer membranes could benefit from taking a dip
A new technique developed by a team including researchers from the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s Argonne National Laboratory makes atomic layer deposition possible on nearly any membrane.
Ultra-precision nano-sensor could detect iron disorders
The University of Sydney's Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Research Unit and the Australian Research Centre for Innovative BioEngineeing have developed a hypersensitive nano-sensor to detect harmful 'free' iron disorders.
Virus genomes help to explain why a major livestock disease has re-emerged in Europe
Livestock diseases like bluetongue virus (BTV) can have devastating economic and health consequences, but their origins can be difficult to establish.
Study from Chinese city of Shenzhen, outside hong kong in southern China, provides key insights on how coronavirus spreads
The extensive use of epidemiological surveillance, isolation of infected patients, and quarantines of exposed individuals in the Chinese city of Shenzhen in the early months of the COVID-19 outbreak allowed scientists to estimate important characteristics of this now-pandemic infectious disease, according to a study co-led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
A molecular pressure cooker tenderizes tough pieces of protein and helps to bite off
Researchers have succeeded in promoting the amide bond cleavage by twisting the amide bond with enclosing and pressurizing amide molecules, analogs of small pieces of proteins, inside a hollow, self-assembled molecular cage, which has been developed by the researchers for many years.
Alcoholics anonymous method can mesh well with other treatments for alcohol misuse
Most treatment providers for individuals with alcohol use disorders are well versed in either the 12-Step Alcoholics Anonymous program or in a different treatment such as cognitive behavioral therapy -- but the two approaches can mesh well, according to a Baylor University researcher.
Study reveals pharmacy-level barriers to treatment for opioid use disorder in Appalachian Kentucky
A new study led by University of Kentucky researcher April Young and Emory University researcher Hannah Cooper shows that a number of pharmacies in the Appalachian region of Kentucky are limiting the dispensing of buprenorphine, a medication used to treat opioid use disorder (OUD).
Spinal cord gives bio-bots walking rhythm
Miniature biological robots are making greater strides than ever, thanks to the spinal cord directing their steps.
New DNA test will improve tracking of Salmonella food-poisoning outbreaks
Researchers report the development of a sensitive and specific assay to detect different serotypes of Salmonella, paving the way for rapid serotyping directly from specimens.
Study reveals important flowering plants for city-dwelling honey bees
Trees, shrubs and woody vines are among the top food sources for honey bees in urban environments, according to an international team of researchers.
A leap in using silicon for battery anodes
Scientists have come up with a novel way to use silicon as an energy storage ingredient.
New study finds biases against physically dirty people take root as early as age 5
People develop biases against individuals who are physically dirty as early as the age of 5 and carry these perceptions into adulthood, according to researchers from Boston College and Franklin & Marshall College.
Success in specific detection of molecules using deformation of a single atomic sheet
Toyohashi University of Technology developed a test chip using graphene, a sheet material with a thickness of one carbon atom.
Simulating borehole ballooning helps ensure safe drilling of deep-water oil, gas
A device which simulates borehole ballooning, a detrimental side effect of deep-water drilling operations, is expected to ensure safe and efficient operations.
Foot feathering in domesticated breeds of pigeons and chickens use same gene regulatory networks
Lead researcher Leif Andersson has investigated the genetic basis of foot feathering.
Rat spinal cords control neural function in biobots
Biological robots draw inspiration from natural systems to mimic the motions of organisms, such as swimming or jumping.
Drug prevents severe cardiac events in children undergoing chemotherapy for AML
The cardioprotective drug dexrazoxane preserved cardiac function in pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) without compromising overall patient survival and potentially improving it, according to a new study by researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP).
X-ray analysis sheds light on construction and conservation of artefacts from Henry VIII's warship
21st century X-ray technology has allowed University of Warwick scientists to peer back through time at the production of the armour worn by the crew of Henry VIII's favoured warship, the Mary Rose.
Micro-CT scans give clues about how hero shrews' bizarre backbones evolved
Hero shrews have some of the weirdest backbones in the animal kingdom -- they're incredibly strong, with stories of a 0.25-pound shrew supporting a grown man standing on its back.
Sexual risk behavior is reduced with involvement of parents and healthcare providers
Randomized Control Trial under an NIH grant demonstrates the efficacy of a clinic-based triadic healthcare intervention called 'Families Talking Together' to protect adolescents from sexual health risks such as unwanted pregnancy and HIV/AIDS.
Higher economic status does not always translate to better heart health
Upward income mobility is associated with a trade-off between well-being and cardiometabolic health.
AGS COVID-19 brief offers roadmap to government action for assisted living facilities
In a policy brief published today in its namesake journal (DOI: 10.1111/jgs.16510), the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) offered a roadmap to guide federal, state, and local governments addressing COVID-19 concerns in an important but oft-overlooked arena: Assisted living facilities (ALFs).
Foot feathering birds flock genetically together
Lead researcher Chiara Bortoluzzi and colleagues at Wageningen University in the Netherlands, investigated the genetic basis of foot feathering, a phenotype that is observed in certain breeds of chicken.
AGA and joint task force on allergy-immunology practice parameters release EoE guidelines
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by allergens that causes difficulty with swallowing in adults, which grows more frequent and intense over time, affecting patients' quality of life.
How animals 'dial up' the pain they experience from certain stimuli
Scientists have -- for the first time -- shown how chemical triggers in the nervous system can amplify the pain experienced by mammals in response to certain stimuli.
Heart disease more likely for adults with dysfunctional childhoods
Children who experience trauma, abuse, neglect and family dysfunction are at increased risk of having heart disease in their 50s and 60s.
Study reveals rich genetic diversity of Vietnam
In a new paper, Dang Liu, Mark Stoneking and colleagues have analyzed newly generated genome-wide SNP data for the Kinh and 21 additional ethnic groups in Vietnam, encompassing all five major language families in MSEA, along with previously published data from nearby populations and ancient samples.
White-faced capuchin monkeys come down from the trees on Panama's Coiba Island
An arboreal lifestyle is thought to be central to primate origins, and most extant primate species still live in the trees.
Two-person-together MRI scans on couples investigates how touching is perceived in the brain
Researchers in Finland can now scan two people together, showing that touching synchronizes couple's brains, making them mirror each other's movements.
TAMA300 blazes trail for improved gravitational wave astronomy
Researchers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) have used the infrastructure of the former TAMA300 gravitational wave detector in Mitaka, Tokyo to demonstrate a new technique to reduce quantum noise in detectors.
The truth lies in the soil: How human activity leaves a chemical footprint in soils
After analyzing the composition of soil samples across a large mountainous region in Southwest China, a team of scientists from the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and China Geological Survey explains how natural processes determine the distribution of chemical elements on Earth's surface.
How the heart affects our perception
When we encounter a dangerous situation, signals from the brain make sure that the heart beats faster.
Childhood obesity and high blood pressure warn of future heart disease
A large study in adolescents and children, some as young as 3 years of age, shows a link between obesity, high blood pressure, and later damage to blood vessels.
Agricultural pickers in US to see unsafely hot workdays double by 2050
Temperature increases by 2050 and 2100 in U.S. counties where crops are grown will double, then triple the number of unsafe workdays.
Red-flagging misinformation could slow the spread of fake news on social media
A new study led by Nasir Memon and Sameer Patil on the spread of disinformation reveals that pairing headlines with credibility alerts from fact checkers, the public, news media and even AI, can reduce peoples' intention to share.
Arctic wildlife uses extreme method to save energy
The extreme cold, harsh environment and constant hunt for food means that Arctic animals have become specialists in saving energy.
Invasive lionfish likely to become permanent residents in the Mediterranean
A team of international scientists has shown the species, first seen off the coast of Cyprus in 2012, is now thriving and well-established right across southern Europe
Mobile telehealth system in China facilitates clinical communication during COVID-19
A mobile telehealth system (MTS) has been used in a hospital in China where COVID-19 patients were treated in isolation wards set off from other healthcare providers.
New device simulates feel of walls, solid objects in virtual reality
Today's virtual reality systems can create immersive visual experiences, but seldom do they enable users to feel anything -- particularly walls, appliances and furniture.
Offspring may inherit legacy of their father's Toxoplasma infection
Australian researchers have revealed for the first time that males infected with the Toxoplasma parasite can impact their offspring's brain health and behaviour.
Variation in how side effects are reported clouds drug safety
University of Colorado Cancer Center study finds significant variation in how drug side effects are reported, potentially making some drugs seem safer or less safe than they really are.
Next-generation batteries take major step toward commercial viability
A group of researchers in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin has found a way to stabilize one of the most challenging parts of lithium-sulfur batteries, bringing the technology closer to becoming commercially viable.
Gene defects linked to eczema, wheeze and nasal disease among babies 
A link has been discovered between a common gene defect and eczema, nasal blockage and wheeze among babies as young as six months, according to a new study at Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS).
A great new way to paint 3D-printed objects
Rutgers engineers have created a highly effective way to paint complex 3D-printed objects, such as lightweight frames for aircraft and biomedical stents, that could save manufacturers time and money and provide new opportunities to create ''smart skins'' for printed parts.
Immune-regulating drug improves gum disease in mice
A drug that has life-extending effects on mice also reverses age-related dental problems in the animals, according to a new study published today in eLife.
Dental care and oral health under the clouds of COVID-19
DR Clinical & Translational Research has published an invited commentary by researchers at the University of Rochester, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, NY, USA on dental care and the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including the provision of dental care and protecting patients and staff during the pandemic.
Hierarchically porous TiO2/rGO with exposed (001) facets for lithium storage capacity
In this work, the (001) faceted nanosheet-constructed hierarchically porous TiO2/rGO hybrid architecture shows unprecedented and highly stable lithium storage performance.
Study of nearly 10,000 women explores feasibility and safety of multi-cancer blood test
In an exploratory study of nearly 10,000 women with no history of cancer, researchers evaluating a multi-cancer blood test report that it successfully detected some cancers, including early cancers that could be localized and surgically removed.
COVID-19 in US prisons, jails
The importance of minimizing COVID-19 transmission in prisons and jails is described and policies and programs for doing so are detailed.
HKUST researchers unlock genomic secrets of scaly-foot snail
Researchers from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) have decoded for the first time the genome of Scaly-foot Snail, a rare snail inhabited in what scientists called 'the origin of life'- deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized with impossible living condition.
1 in 7 Americans would avoid care for suspected COVID-19 fearing cost of treatment
About 1 in 7 Americans say they would avoid seeking medical care if they experienced key symptoms associated with COVID-19 out of fear of the potential cost.
Understanding deer damage is crucial when planting new forests
Scientists at the University of Southampton and Forest Research say understanding the risk of damage by deer to new and existing forests in Britain is crucial when considering their expansion.
Visual-spatial learning disorder is more common than thought, finds study
Columbia University researchers estimate non-verbal learning disorder may affect up to 3 million children in the United States.
How blood cells deform, recover when traveling through tiny channels
In this week's Biomicrofluidics, a method to characterize the shape recovery of healthy human RBCs flowing through a microfluidic constricted channel is reported.
BIM & Lean Construction well-established in major firms but lacking within industry's SMEs
Construction's SMEs, who make up 80% of the industry often working as sub-contractors for larger firms, are in danger of missing out on cutting-edge techniques, according to new research.
Fused-ring electron acceptor with 3D exciton and charge transport
Professor Zhan Xiaowei's group from the College of Engineering at Peking University made new progress in non-fullerene acceptors for organic solar cells (OSCs).
Synthetic antibodies built with bacterial superglue could help fight emerging viruses
Synthetic antibodies constructed using bacterial superglue can neutralise potentially lethal viruses, according to a study published on April 21 in eLife.
Harnessing psyllid peptides to fight citrus greening disease
BTI, USDA and UW scientists have identified peptides in the Asian citrus psyllid, an insect that spreads the bacterium that causes citrus greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB).
Understanding how fluids heat or cool surfaces
Textbook formulas for describing heat flow characteristics, crucial in many industries, are oversimplified, study shows.
A child's home environment can impact the risk of developing depression
New research, published online today in the American Journal of Psychiatry, finds that children's rearing environment has a meaningful impact on their risk for major depression later in life, and notes the importance supporting of nurturing environments when children are at risk.
Experts at UTHealth successfully treat severe case of COVID-19 in 3-week-old infant
In one of the first reported cases of its kind, a 3-week-old infant in critical condition recovered from COVID-19 due to rapid recognition and treatment by physicians from McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
Study shows immunotherapy prior to surgery may help destroy high-risk breast cancer
A new study led by Yale Cancer Center (YCC) researchers shows women with high-risk HER2-negative breast cancer treated before surgery with immunotherapy, plus a PARP inhibitor with chemotherapy, have a higher rate of complete eradication of cancer from the breast and lymph nodes compared to chemotherapy alone.
Glacier detachments: A new hazard in a warming world?
On the evening of 5 August 2013, a startling event occurred deep in the remote interior of the United States' largest national park.
Key progress on the MRI compatible DBS electrodes and simultaneous DBS-fMRI
Recently, collaboration between Dr. Duan Xiaojie's group (Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University) and Dr.
CNIC scientists design an experimental mouse model for investigating the mechanical function of proteins
CNIC scientists, working with international partners, have developed a new experimental mouse model that allows them to study how cells sense, interpret, and generate mechanical forces.
New insights into how genes control courtship and aggression
Fruit flies, like many animals, engage in a variety of courtship and fighting behaviors.
Schizophrenia related to abnormal fatty metabolism in the brain
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Brian Science (CBS) in Japan have discovered a deficiency in the brains of people with schizophrenia that could lead to the development of new drug therapies.
How mistakes help us recognize things
When we look at the same object in quick succession, our second glance always reflects a slightly falsified image of the object.
Scientists studied the growth rate effect of gut bacteria on degradation of dietary fibers
It is known that approximately 80% of human immune system functions in the gastrointestinal tract.
Ayurveda and yoga for COVID-19 prevention
Experts in Indian traditional medicine, including the chair of the Government of India's committee charged to lead that nation's efforts on the potential uses of traditional medicine relative to COVID-19, describe how the approach of Ayurveda and yoga may help strengthen host immunity and provide an effective, accessible, and affordable means of prophylaxis of COVID-19 infection.
Hugs and kisses: Research connects affection, attachment style and marriage satisfaction
Go ahead: Give your partner a hug or cuddle while you catch some Netflix.
Ribosome biogenesis gene DEF/UTP25 is essential for liver homeostasis and regeneration
Digestive-organ-expansion-factor (Def) is a nucleolar factor. Depletion of Def causes hypoplastic digestive organs in zebrafish.
Scientists recreate DNA damage caused by toxins from smoking
Researchers from the University of York have recreated how toxins from smoking cause unique patterns of DNA damage.
Initial motivation, a key factor for learning in massive open online courses
The research was carried out by means of a survey of 1768 participants from 6 different MOOCs.
To face coronavirus disease 2019, surgeons must embrace palliative care
This Viewpoint describes the relevance of a palliative care approach to surgery during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Study indicates artificial intelligence could help stem tide of school violence
By leveraging the basics of artificial intelligence technology now used to predict risk for suicide or other mental health issues, researchers developed an AI system that analyzes linguistic patterns to predict a youth's risk for committing acts of school violence.
Hubble watches comet ATLAS disintegrate into more than 2 dozen pieces
These two Hubble Space Telescope images of comet C/2019 Y4 (ATLAS), taken on April 20 and 23, 2020, provide the sharpest views yet of the breakup of the fragile comet.

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