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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | April 29, 2020


A milder hair dye based on synthetic melanin
With the coronavirus pandemic temporarily shuttering hair salons, many clients are appreciating, and missing, the ability of hair dye to cover up grays or touch up roots.
Certain diabetes drugs may protect against serious kidney problems
Use of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to treat type 2 diabetes may help to lower the risk of serious kidney problems, finds a study published by The BMJ today.
Mechanisms responsible for tissue growth
Publication in Cell: Researchers at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) uncover the mechanisms mediating postnatal tissue development.
First study of multicancer blood test to screen for cancer guide intervention
Results from a first-of-its-kind study of a multicancer blood test in more than 9,900 women with no evidence or history of cancer showed the liquid biopsy test safely detected 26 undiagnosed cancers, enabling potentially curative treatment.
Scientists proposed a new approach for efficient nanomaterials' modeling
Researchers proposed a new approach to improve the efficiency of mathematical modeling of the processes in materials at the nanoscale.
Link identified between dietary selenium and outcome of COVID-19 disease
An international team of researchers, led by Professor Margaret Rayman at the University of Surrey, has identified a link between the COVID-19 cure rate and regional selenium status in China.
Deformed skulls in an ancient cemetery reveal a multicultural community in transition
The ancient cemetery of Mözs-Icsei d?l? in present-day Hungary holds clues to a unique community formation during the beginnings of Europe's Migration Period, according to a study published April 29, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Corina Knipper from the Curt-Engelhorn-Center for Archaeometry, Germany, István Koncz, Tivadar Vida from the Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary and colleagues.
Risks of potentially inappropriate medications post-hospitalization for older adults
When older adults are hospitalized for medical reasons or for surgery, they often go home with prescriptions for treatments that may be different from those they were taking beforehand.
Internet searches for unproven COVID-19 therapies in US
In this observational study, researchers examine internet searches indicative of shopping for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, including after high-profile endorsements.
Mind-controlled arm prostheses that 'feel' are now a part of everyday life
For the first time, people with arm amputations can experience sensations of touch in a mind-controlled arm prosthesis that they use in everyday life.
HKU-led study accurately tracks COVID-19 spread with big data
An international research team led by the University of Hong Kong (HKU) developed a new method to accurately track the spread of COVID-19 using population flow data, and establishing a new risk assessment model to identify high-risk locales of COVID-19 at an early stage, which serves as a valuable toolkit to public health experts and policy makers in implementing infectious disease control during new outbreaks.
AAN updates recommendation on closure of common heart defect after stroke
New guidance from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) concludes that closure of a common heart defect called a patent foramen ovale (PFO) may be recommended for some people who have had a stroke.
APOE4 triggers early breakdowns in the blood-brain barrier
Although scientists have long known APOE4 is a leading risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, they were unsure how exactly it drives a decline in memory.
Breastfeeding helps prevent mothers from developing diabetes after childbirth
A team of South Korean researchers found that lactation can lower the incidence and reduce the risk of maternal postpartum diabetes.
A diet of high-iron beans improves health of anemic women in Rwanda
A new study involving women of reproductive age in Rwanda, where 19% of that demographic is anemic, showed that a diet including high-iron beans can improve iron status and physical performance relatively quickly.
MRI scanning assists with next generation battery design
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide an effective way of supporting the development of the next generation of high-performance rechargeable batteries, according to research led by the University of Birmingham.
Bone proteomics could reveal how long a corpse has been underwater
When a dead body is found, one of the first things a forensic pathologist tries to do is estimate the time of death.
Researchers measure cancer cell mechanics in living animals using nanoparticles
Researchers developed a first-of-its-kind nanoparticle-based in vivo imaging technique may one day be used to help diagnose and even treat cancer.
E1912 trial leads to FDA approval of ibrutinib-rituximab combo for untreated CLL
Patients aged 70 or younger with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma have a new treatment option -- a combination of the targeted agent ibrutinib with the immunologic agent rituximab.
Scientists edge closer to treatment for myotonic dystrophy
Scientists at the University of Nottingham have taken a step closer towards developing a treatment for the long-term genetic disorder, myotonic dystrophy.
Trump and public demand for unproven COVID-19 therapies
A new study published in JAMA Internal Medicine finds that public demand for two unproven COVID-19 therapies massively increased following endorsements by President Donald Trump and entrepreneur Elon Musk.
A new strategy to trigger ferroptosis in target cancer cells using drug-metal coordination complexes
Doxorubicin and ferrous ions could form acid-dissociable coordination complexes, which were incorporated into functionally tailored amorphous calcium carbonate nanoparticles and may confer severe ferroptotic damage to target tumor cells, published on Science Advances.
A step closer to eradicating malaria
Strategies that treat households in the broad vicinity of a recent malaria case with anti-malarial drugs, insecticides, or both could significantly reduce malaria in low-transmission settings.
New recycling method could make polyurethane sustainable
Polyurethanes (PUs) are used in many products, such as mattresses, insulation, footwear and construction materials.
Forest Service debuts state-by-state statistics on carbon
Overview of the status and trends of greenhouse gas emissions and removals from forest land, woodlands, hardwood products, and urban trees nationally gets 49 times better with new state-by-state reporting.
Learning from fish and flags to inform new propulsion strategies
Recent research by Andres J. Goza at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign found relationships between frequencies and the passive dynamics at play when vehicles move in air or water toward a better understanding of how to use these forces to enhance performance.
Researchers find new insights linking cell division to cancer
Scientists at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) published research in the journal Nature extending our understanding of the intricate process of cell division.
Navigating the clean energy transition during the COVID-19 crisis
In a Commentary published April 29 in the journal Joule, energy and climate policy researchers in Switzerland and Germany provide a framework for responsibly and meaningfully integrating policies supporting the clean energy transition into the COVID-19 response in the weeks, months, and years to come.
E-cigarette users experience vascular damage similar to that of smokers of combustible cigarettes
Young adults using e-cigarettes experienced arterial stiffness and blood vessel damage similar to those who smoke traditional cigarettes.
Nearly one-third of primary care providers do not view medication treatment for opioid use disorder as effective
A new survey of US primary care physicians from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that nearly one-third, 32.9 percent, do not think treating opioid use disorder with medication is any more effective than treatment without medication.
New imaging technique sheds light on adult zebrafish brain
Cornell scientists have developed a new technique for imaging a zebrafish's brain at all stages of its development, which could have implications for the study of human brain disorders, including autism.
Guidance for treating stroke patients during COVID-19 crisis developed
In an effort to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and to optimize allocation of healthcare resources, researchers are improving ways to treat patients with acute large vessel occlusion strokes in a safe manner that also better protects health care workers.
Implant-free optogenetics minimizes brain damage during neuronal stimulation
A minimally invasive optogenetic technique that does not require brain implants successfully manipulated the activity of neurons in mice and monkeys, researchers report April 29 in Neuron.
Tuning into dolphin chatter could boost conservation efforts
Researchers from Edith Cowan University (ECU) in Australia and Curtin University have moved an important step closer to using sound rather than sight to track individual dolphin activity.
KU Leuven researchers unravel protein mystery of three brain diseases
The accumulation of one particular protein in the brain is at the basis of three very different age-related conditions.
New fossils rewrite the story of dinosaur -- and change the appearance of Spinosaurus
Scientists have long opposed the idea that dinosaurs lived in aquatic habitats.
New genes linked to severe childhood speech disorder
An international study has discovered nine new genes linked to the most severe type of childhood speech disorder, apraxia.
Evidence of Late Pleistocene human colonization of isolated islands beyond Wallace's Line
What makes our species unique compared to other hominins? High profile genetic, fossil and material culture discoveries present scientists working in the Late Pleistocene with an ever-more complex picture of interactions between early hominin populations.
Higher thrombus risk in men with obesity in adolescence
Men with a history of obesity in their late teens are, in adult life, more at risk of a blood clot (thrombus) in a leg or lung, according to a study from the University of Gothenburg study shows.
Researchers devise new model to track COVID-19's spread
Yale University researchers and colleagues in Hong Kong and China have developed an approach for rapidly tracking population flows that could help policymakers worldwide more effectively assess risk of disease spread and allocate limited resources as they combat the COVID-19 pandemic.
A one-hour exercise early in college improves career outcomes for black students years later
A one-hour exercise designed to increase feelings of social belonging administered during the first year of college appears to significantly improve the lives and careers of black students up to 11 years later, psychologists report.
Novel imaging application illuminates processes in cancer, COVID-19
Medical images for a wide range of diseases can be more easily viewed, compared, and analyzed using a breakthrough open source web-based imaging platform developed by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and collaborating researchers.
Heat-friendly microbes provide efficient way to biodegrade plastic
Researchers in China have engineered a microbe that shows promise as the foundation of an efficient way to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a common plastic fiber used to manufacture clothing and disposable consumer products.
Innovative approach offers option for treating upper tract urothelial cancer
An innovative form of local chemotherapy using a mitomycin-containing reverse thermal gel offers a kidney-sparing treatment option for low-grade upper tract urothelial cancer.
Media bias with corporate social irresponsibility events
News media do not report corporate misconduct - such as environmental offenses or corruption - consistently and independently.
Biofabrication drives tissue engineering in 2019
In the quest to engineer replacement tissues and organs for improving human health, biofabrication has emerged as a crucial set of technologies that enable the control of precise architecture and organization.
Physio support in COVID-19 recovery
New physiotherapy guidelines are targeting COVID-19 patient recovery for respiratory management, exercise and mobilisation in acute hospital wards and Intensive Care Units.
Nasal biomarkers predict severity of pollen-specific allergy symptoms
It is not only people with allergies, but also a subgroup of people without one that suffer in spring and have nasal problems from contact with pollen.
Improving immunotherapy for cancer
One of the reasons why cancer develops is because regulatory cells inhibit the body's immune defense.
Conservation goals may be stymied by a lack of land for biodiversity offsetting
Developers may struggle to find enough land to offset the biodiversity impacts of future development, according to a University of Queensland study.
ETRI develops world's top-class 400-Gbps optical engine
The Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in South Korea has succeeded to develop a world's top-class 400-Gbps transmitting/receiving optical engine.
Getting kids moving, and learning
Children are set to move more, improve their skills, and come up with their own creative tennis games with the launch of HomeCourtTennis, a new initiative to assist teachers and coaches with keeping kids active while at home.
'Make physical activity part of children's routine' during lockdown
Parents and carers should ensure that physical activity is part of the routine for children and families during the COVID-19 lockdown, according to an international study involving the University of Strathclyde.
COVID-19 study shows that men have over double the death rate of women
COVID-19 has drastically different effects on the infected, with some people displaying no symptoms, while others can die.
Antibodies from llamas could help in fight against COVID-19
Initial tests of a new candidate antibody treatment for COVID-19 indicate that it blocks viruses that display the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from infecting cells in culture.
What underlies differing disease severity in COVID-19?
Researchers have reported a significant and positive relationship between the amount of virus present in a throat swab sample and the severity of COVID disease.
Simulated deep-sea mining affects ecosystem functions at the seafloor
The environmental impact of deep-sea mining is only partially known.
'Backpacks' boost immune cells' ability to kill cancer
Macrophages are the body's search-and-destroy defense force, but cancerous tumors hijack arriving macrophages by switching them into a pro-cancer state.
Common ways to cook chicken at home may not ensure safety from pathogens
For home cooks, widespread techniques for judging doneness of chicken may not ensure that pathogens are reduced to safe levels.
First pregnancy complications linked to increased risk of future premature birth
Women whose first baby is born at full term, but who experience complications in pregnancy, have an increased risk of preterm delivery (before 37 weeks) in their next pregnancy, finds a study from Norway published by The BMJ today.
New evidence for optimising malaria treatment in pregnant women
The research, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases is the fruit of joint project between investigators from around the world to conduct the largest individual patient data meta-analysis to date under The WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network?WWARN?umbrella.
Engineers make a promising material stable enough for use in solar cells
A Purdue University-led research team has found a way to make halide perovskites stable enough by inhibiting the ion movement that makes them rapidly degrade, unlocking their use for solar panels as well as electronic devices.
Scientists explore links between genetics, gut microbiome and memory
Scientists have traced the molecular connections between genetics, the gut microbiome and memory in a mouse model bred to resemble the diversity of the human population.
Feeling burned out? The contributors could be more related to depression than you think
According to an article published by a team of researchers from the Medical College of South Carolina, Harvard Medical School and the University of Michigan in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, similar factors cause both medical intern burnout and depression.
Smoking may explain why more men than women die of COVID-19 in Spain
Cardiovascular diseases aggravated by smoking are present in over 30% of coronavirus mortalities.
New evidence for optimizing malaria treatment in pregnant women
The research, published today in The Lancet Infectious Diseases is the fruit of joint project between investigators from around the world to conduct the largest individual patient data meta-analysis to date under the WWARN umbrella.
Are salt deposits a solution for nuclear waste disposal?
Researchers testing and modeling to dispose of the current supply of waste.
Computational techniques explore 'the dark side of amyloid aggregation in the brain'
As physicians and families know too well, though Alzheimer's disease has been intensely studied for decades, too much is still not known about molecular processes in the brain that cause it.
Latest results of myriapod research from the 18th International Congress of Myriapodology
Last year, the 18th International Congress of Myriapodology brought together the world's experts on the curious, yet still largely unknown multi-legged centipedes, millipedes, pauropods, symphylans and velvet worms.
Model can predict hospital resilience for natural disasters, pandemics
CSU researchers have created a modeling tool that could help cities understand the full functionality and recovery of a healthcare system in the wake of a natural disaster.
Stark disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization and death rates among New York
Researchers found that COVID-19 hospitalization and death rates varied across New York City boroughs.
Sensitive new test detects antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in only 10 minutes
As the COVID-19 curve shows signs of flattening in the U.S. and elsewhere, public health officials are trying to grasp just how many people have been infected.
Superoxide produces hydroxyl radicals that break down dissolved organic matter in water
According to a study published in Water Research in April 2020, superoxide produces hydroxyl radicals in lake water.
Thousands of miles of planned Asian roads threaten the heart of tiger habitat
Nearly 15,000 miles of new Asian roads will be built in tiger habitat by mid-century, deepening the big cat's extinction risk and highlighting the need for bold new conservation measures now, according to a new study.
Radboudumc researchers publish new insights into COVID-19
Researchers at the Radboud university medical center seem to have found an essential mechanism in the disease process of COVID-19, which has so far been overlooked.
'Gargantuan' hail in Argentina may have smashed world record
A supercell thunderstorm pelted a city center in Argentina a few years ago with hailstones so large scientists suggested a new category to describe them -- gargantuan hail.
Newly discovered exoplanet dethrones former king of Kepler-88 planetary system
A team of astronomers led by the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy has discovered a planet three times the mass of Jupiter in the Kepler-88 system.
Does accelerated subduction precede great earthquakes?
A strange reversal of ground motion preceded two of the largest earthquakes in history.
'Wobble' may precede some great earthquakes, study shows
The land masses of Japan shifted from east to west to east again in the months before the strongest earthquake in the country's recorded history, a 2011 magnitude-9 earthquake that killed more than 15,500 people, new research shows.
Are older adults getting the most effective cancer treatments?
If you or an older loved one is diagnosed with cancer, many different factors come into play to guide treatment choices.
New MDS subtype proposed based on presence of genetic mutation
In a special report published today in the journal Blood, an international working group of experts in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) proposes -- for the first time -- the recognition of a distinct subtype of MDS based on the presence of a nonheritable genetic mutation that causes the disease.
Simple 'sniff test' reliably predicts recovery of severely brain injured patients
The ability to detect smells predicts recovery and long-term survival in patients who have suffered severe brain injury, a new study has found.
A study places the origin of a group of trees growing in Africa 50 million years ago
The research looked into the evolution of the Daniellia clade, a set of trees with environmental importance, and confirms that more than half its species are endangered
Women in IT more likely to be promoted than men
Women are underrepresented in leadership positions throughout the information technology industry.
Support teams key to reducing hospitalizations from nursing homes
Nursing home residents are often cared for by a variety of health care professionals, including licensed nursing staff.
Addressing black students' concerns about belonging in college has benefits in adulthood
The benefits of a brief 'social belonging' exercise completed by black students in their first year of college followed them into adulthood, with participants reporting greater career satisfaction, well-being and community involvement almost a decade later.
Tobacco smoking increases lung entry points for COVID-19 virus
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, the University of South Carolina and other institutions have identified tobacco smoking as a potential risk factor for infection of the COVID-19 virus.
Millions of US workers at risk of infections on the job
A University of Washington researcher calculates that 14.4 million workers face exposure to infection once a week and 26.7 million at least once a month in the workplace, pointing to an important population needing protection as the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, continues to break out across the US.
Arteries respond in opposite ways for males and females
A protein known to expand blood vessels -- key to controlling conditions like high blood pressure -- actually has different functions in males and females, new UC Davis Health research shows.
KIST develops stretchable lithium-ion battery based on new micro-honeycomb structure
The microscale reentrant-honeycomb shaped, graphene-based electrode is characterized by an accordion-like structural stretchability.
A new machine learning method streamlines particle accelerator operations
SLAC researchers have developed a new tool, using machine learning, that may make part of the accelerator tuning process 5 times faster compared to previous methods.
RSNA AI challenge breaks new ground
An unprecedented collaboration among two medical societies and over 60 volunteer neuroradiologists has resulted in the generation of the largest public collection of expert-annotated brain hemorrhage CT images, according to a report published in Radiology: Artificial Intelligence.
4-billion-year-old nitrogen-containing organic molecules discovered in Martian meteorites
Scientists exploring Mars and analysing Martian meteorite samples have found organic compounds essential for life: nitrogen-bearing organics in a 4-billion-year-old Martian meteorite.
Memory misfires help selfish maintain their self-image
When asked to recall how generous they were in the past, selfish people tend to remember being more benevolent than they actually were, according to a series of experiments by Yale psychologists and economists at University of Zurich published April 29, 2020 in the journal Nature Communications.
Bizarre 66 million-year-old fossil from Madagascar provides clues on early mammals
A remarkably complete, 3-D fossil found in Madagascar has revealed clues about a group of early mammals of the Southern Hemisphere known as gondwanatherians.
COVID-19 limitations unique opportunity for researchers to decrease digital divide
The COVID-19 shelter-in-place orders and other limitations could offer researchers the chance to use technology to decrease the digital divide and disparities in academic research.
Mapping health risks for people with mental disorders
Researchers now have the ability to map the risks of general medical conditions such as heart and lung diseases, diabetes and cancer for people with mental disorders.
Upcycling spongy plastic foams from shoes, mattresses and insulation
Researchers have developed a new method for upcycling polyurethane foams, the spongy material found in mattresses, insulation, furniture cushions and shoes.
Algae in the oceans often steal genes from bacteria
Algae in the oceans often steal genes from bacteria to gain beneficial attributes, such as the ability to tolerate stressful environments or break down carbohydrates for food, according to a Rutgers co-authored study.
New insight into bacterial structure to help fight against superbugs
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have produced the first high-resolution images of the structure of the cell wall of bacteria, in a study that could further understanding of antimicrobial resistance.
The Lancet: First randomised trial of remdesivir suggests antiviral drug is not associated with significant clinical benefits, more research needed
First randomised trial of remdesivir suggests antiviral drug is not associated with significant clinical benefits, more research needed.
To prevent antimicrobial resistance, vaccinate the world's kids
Childhood vaccination may be a powerful tool in the fight against antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries, finds a new analysis led by researchers University of California, Berkeley.
Large differences in personality traits between patients with social anxiety disorder
Individuals with social anxiety disorder have markedly different personality traits than others.
New findings highlight threatened status of forest elephants
Conservation efforts for the African forest elephant have been hindered by how little is known the large animal, according to researchers.
Data-based COVID-19 transmission model suggests social distancing worked in Wuhan and Shanghai
A new COVID-19 transmission model, based on contact survey data from nearly 1200 people in the cities of Wuhan and Shanghai, China, suggests that strict social distancing measures implemented there were sufficient to curtail the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.
Molecular switch plays crucial role in learning from negative experiences
Neurobiologists at KU Leuven have discovered how the signalling molecule Neuromedin U plays a crucial role in our learning process.
Drug reduces the risk of child sexual abuse
A drug that lowers levels of the male hormone testosterone in the body reduces the risk of men with pedophilic disorder sexually abusing children, a study from Karolinska Institutet published today in the journal JAMA Psychiatry shows.
A new strategy to counter insulin damage in coronary artery disease
By studying blood vessel tissue from 674 patients, a research team has discovered how insulin contributes to the dysfunction of blood vessels in atherosclerosis, one of the most common chronic health conditions worldwide.
Texas A&M researchers help give robotic arms a steady hand for surgeries
Steady hands and uninterrupted, sharp vision are critical when performing surgery on delicate structures like the brain or hair-thin blood vessels.
Training linked to stronger promotion chances for women in IT over work performance
Job performance has long been understood to be the primary equalizing factor affecting promotions for men and women in the workplace, but research shows, women don't gain as much from the same performance improvements as men do.
Marooned on Mesozoic Madagascar
In evolutionary terms, islands are the stuff of weirdness. It is on islands where animals evolve in isolation, often for millions of years, with different food sources, competitors, predators, and parasites...indeed, different everything compared to mainland species.
Long-term consequences of coastal development as bad as an oil spill on coral reefs
Oil pollution is known to cause lethal and sublethal responses on coral communities in the short-term, but its long-term effects have not been widely studied.

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