Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 07, 2020
What are your chances of having a second IVF baby after fertility treatment for the first?
As the restrictions on fertility clinics start to be lifted and IVF treatment resumes, research published in Human Reproduction journal offers reassuring news to women who have had to delay their treatment for a second IVF baby because of the coronavirus.

How nonprofits can boost donations using the marketing mix
Nonprofits may better meet their missions by learning to effectively employ the entirety of the marketing mix to attract individuals to available donation opportunities.

Hygiene reduces the need for antibiotics by up to 30%
A new paper published in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), finds improved everyday hygiene practices, such as hand-washing, reduces the risk of common infections by up to 50%, reducing the need for antibiotics, by up to 30%.

Dendrimers finally have what it takes to break into the laser scene
A team including researchers from the University of Tsukuba has produced a family of dendrimers that form single-crystals and can harvest non-polarized light and transform it into polarized emission.

Skin-to-skin 'kangaroo care' shows important benefits for premature babies
A world-first study led by Monash University has demonstrated significant benefits to a premature baby's heart and brain function when held by the parent in skin-to-skin contact.

Plasma electrons can be used to produce metallic films
Computers, mobile phones and all other electronic devices contain thousands of transistors, linked together by thin films of metal.

Sleep difficulties linked to altered brain development in infants who late
New research led by the University of Washington finds that sleep problems in a baby's first 12 months may not only precede an autism diagnosis, but also may be associated with altered growth trajectory in a key part of the brain, the hippocampus.

Building blocks of the cell wall: pectin drives reproductive development in rice
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have revealed that pectin, a carbohydrate found in plant cell walls, plays a vital part in the development of female reproductive tissues of rice plants.

Suppressing spatter reduces random defects in metal 3D printing
Controlling spatter during laser powder bed fusion -- a form of 3D printing that uses metal as a medium -- reduces random defects and increases the overall reliability of built parts.

Researchers pave the way to designing omnidirectional invisible materials
Researchers at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), belonging to the Nanophotonics Technology Center, have taken a new step in designing omnidirectional invisible materials.

Providing contraception for young people during pandemic is essential health care
Methods for providing adolescents and young adults with reproductive health care during the COVID-19 pandemic are described.

GW survey evaluates influence of social media in attracting patients
A recent survey from the George Washington University suggests that patients do not take social media into consideration when looking for a dermatologist and recommend that practitioners should use social media as a tool in engaging and educating patients.

High color purity 3D printing
ICFO researchers report on a new method to obtain high color purity 3D objects with the use of a new class of nanoparticles.

A new high-resolution, 3D map of the whole mouse brain
In a study published in the journal Cell, Allen Institute scientists describe the third iteration of the Allen Mouse Brain Common Coordinate Framework, or CCFv3, a complete, high-resolution 3D atlas of the mouse brain.

Quantum jump tipping the balance
Measuring tiny differences in mass between different quantum states provides new insights into heavy atoms.

Which COVID-19 models should we use to make policy decisions?
A new process to harness multiple disease models for outbreak management has been developed by an international team of researchers.

Benthos in the Antarctic Weddell Sea in decline
Over the past quarter-century, changes in Antarctic sea-ice cover have had profound impacts on life on the ocean floor.

Artificial intelligence is energy-hungry -- new hardware could curb its appetite
A team of engineers has created hardware that can learn skills using a type of AI that currently runs on software platforms.

Ultra-long-working-distance spectroscopy with 3D-printed aspherical microlenses
Researchers at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw have demonstrated micrometre-sized 3D-printed aspherical microlenses which can replace bulky microscope objectives in spectroscopic measurements of single point-like light emitters (e.g. quantum dots or atomically thin 2D materials).

Penn researchers discover key mechanism of cytokine storm in Castleman disease
Penn researchers discover what is happening at the cellular level when Castleman patients experience a cytokine storm.

Olanzapine may help control nausea, vomiting in patients with advanced cancer
Olanzapine, a generic drug used to treat nervous, emotional and mental conditions, also may help patients with advanced cancer successfully manage nausea and vomiting unrelated to chemotherapy.

By the third day most with COVID-19 lose sense of smell
The loss of the sense of smell and taste are early indicators of possible COVID-19 infection along with symptoms of respiratory distress.

New simple method for measuring the state of lithium-ion batteries
Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM) in Germany have presented a non-contact method for detecting the state of charge and any defects in lithium-ion batteries.

Study shows stem cells constitute alternative approach for treating corneal scarring
STEM CELLS Translational Medicine researchers demonstrate an alternative approach for treating corneal scarring using stem cells.

Cancer and COVID-19: Facing the 'C words'
This essay discusses similarities between a doctor's experiences with diagnoses of cancer and COVID-19.

Laser loop couples quantum systems over a distance
For the first time, researchers have succeeded in creating strong coupling between quantum systems over a greater distance.

Ancient Andes, analyzed
An international research team has conducted the first in-depth, wide-scale study of the genomic history of ancient civilizations in the central Andes mountains and coast before European contact.

Traffic pollution drops in lockdown -- but other risks revealed by Manchester experts
Traffic pollution for most parts of the UK is plummeting thanks to the COVID-19 lockdown but more urban ozone -- a dangerous air pollutant which can cause airway inflammation in humans -- is probably being generated, say experts from The University of Manchester.

New review of studies shows no link between prenatal antidepressant exposure and autism
A mother's use of antidepressants during pregnancy does not appear to increase her child's risk for autism, according to a new meta-analysis by Jeffrey Newport, M.D., published in the American Journal of Psychiatry.

Variance in tree species results in the cleanest urban air
What kind of an effect do trees have on aerosol particle concentrations in cities?

Controlling quantumness: Simulations reveal details about how particles interact
A recent study at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University has described new states that can be found in super-cold atom experiments, which could have applications for quantum technology.

Comparing opioid-related deaths among cancer survivors, general population
Death certificate data were used to compare the rate of opioid-related deaths in the US among cancer survivors with that of the general population from 2006 through 2016.

Telescopes and spacecraft join forces to probe deep into Jupiter's atmosphere
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the ground-based Gemini Observatory in Hawaii have teamed up with the Juno spacecraft to probe the mightiest storms in the solar system, taking place more than 500 million miles away on the giant planet Jupiter.

Accurate 3D imaging of sperm cells moving at top speed could improve IVF treatments
Tel Aviv University (TAU) researchers have developed a safe and accurate 3D imaging method to identify sperm cells moving at a high speed.

Stem cells shown to delay their own death to aid healing
A new study shows how stem cells -- which can contribute to creating many parts of the body, not just one organ or body part -- are able to postpone their own death in order to respond to an injury that needs their attention.

Study examines factors affecting racial disparities before kidney transplantation
Among adults with kidney failure who were referred for transplantation, 60% of black and 66% of white patients were waitlisted within the first year.

How to win back customer defectors
The positive outcomes of customer reacquisition more than offset the costs.

A role reversal for the function of certain circadian network neurons
A newly published study in Current Biology reveals surprising findings about the function of circadian network neurons that undergo daily structural change.

Treatment for opioid use disorder is rare in hospitals, study finds
Despite a national opioid-related overdose epidemic that continues to claim tens of thousands of lives annually, a new nationwide study shows that a scant proportion of hospitalized patients with opioid use disorder receive proven life-saving medications both during and after they're discharged.

Modeling gas diffusion in aggregated soils
Researchers develop soil-gas diffusivity model based on two agricultural soils.

Survey: Half of Americans concerned about new moms, babies being in public amid COVID-19
A new national survey conducted by The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center confirms these fears, finding that nearly 80% of respondents would be concerned about themselves or an expectant mother in their life in the midst of the current COVID-19 outbreak, with almost half expressing fear of going to a scheduled prenatal appointment.

CCNY physicists shed light on the nanoscale dynamics of spin thermalization
In physics, thermalization, or the trend of sub-systems within a whole to gain a common temperature, is typically the norm.

Middle age may be much more stressful now than in the '90s
A new Penn State study found that life may be more stressful now than it was in the 1990s, especially for people between the ages of 45 and 64.

Possible vaccine for virus linked to type 1 diabetes
According to many observations, certain virus infections may play a part in the autoimmune attack that leads to type 1 diabetes.

A closer look at superconductors
From sustainable energy to quantum computers: high-temperature superconductors have the potential to revolutionize today's technologies.

Prediction tool shows how forest thinning may increase Sierra Nevada snowpack
Thinning the Sierra Nevada forest by removing trees by hand or using heavy machinery is one of the few tools available to manage forests.

Can we estimate the time until the next recession?
As the world economy is falling into one of the biggest contractions of the last decades, a new study of economic recession patterns finds that the likelihood of a downturn was high even before the onset of the Coronavirus crisis.

Loyola Medicine neurologist calls for broad changes in stroke care during COVID-19
Broad modifications to current standards for treating acute stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic may be needed to preserve health care resources, limit disease spread and ensure optimal care, according to a Loyola Medicine neurologist.

Virgin birth has scientists buzzing
In a study published today in Current Biology, researchers from University of Sydney have identified the single gene that determines how Cape honey bees reproduce without ever having sex.

Ancient DNA paints genetic portrait of Andes civilizations
An international team of researchers including the University of Adelaide, has completed the first large-scale study of DNA belonging to ancient humans of the central Andes in South America and found early genetic differences between groups of nearby regions, and surprising genetic continuity over thousands of years.

Synthetic chloroplast enables light-powered CO2 fixation in artificial biological systems
Combining microfluidics and the natural photosynthetic membranes from spinach plants, researchers have developed 'synthetic chloroplasts,' which are capable of mimicking complex and life-like photosynthetic processes, a new study reports.

Gemini gets lucky and takes a deep dive into Jupiter's clouds
Researchers using a technique known as 'lucky imaging' with the Gemini North telescope on Hawaii's Maunakea have collected some of the highest resolution images of Jupiter ever obtained from the ground.

Planting trees is no panacea for climate change, ecologist writes in Science commentary
Restoration ecologist Karen Holl has a simple message for anyone who thinks planting 1 trillion trees will reverse the damage of climate change: 'We can't plant our way out of climate change.'

How do police view legalized cannabis? In Washington state, officers raise concerns
A new study evaluated the effects of legalizing cannabis on police officers' law enforcement efforts in Washington.

Vitamin D linked to low virus death rate -- Study
A new study has found an association between low average levels of vitamin D and high numbers of COVID-19 cases and mortality rates across 20 European countries.

See a 3D mouse brain with single-cell resolution
A manually constructed 3D atlas offers a cellular-level view of the entire mouse brain.

Key failings in government's approach to COVID-19 preparations and emergency response
The UK government made key failings in their strategic preparations and emergency response to coronavirus and this, in turn, undermined the NHS's ability to cope with the crisis.

2D oxide flakes pick up surprise electrical properties
Rice University researchers find evidence of piezoelectricity in lab-grown, two-dimensional flakes of molybdenum dioxide.

Eliminating damaged germline cells preserves germline integrity
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba discovered that the transcription factor Myc plays a central role in the elimination of damaged germline cells.

Cannibalism helps invading invertebrates survive severe conditions
Investing in the future: Researchers show how cannibalism among the invasive comb jelly enables adults to survive severe conditions at the edge of their ecological range with implications for the use and evolutionary origins of cannibalism.

Quantum resonances near absolute zero
Prof. YANG Xueming from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Prof.

Addressing the ethical considerations of SARS-CoV-2 human challenge trials
While an effective vaccine for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is likely many months away, development could be accelerated by conducting controlled human infection (CHI) studies -- which are increasingly being considered by the scientific community due to the urgent need.

The Lancet Rheumatology: Small observational study of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with the arthritis drug anakinra finds clinical improvements
The first study to report use of the rheumatoid arthritis drug anakinra to treat COVID-19 patients found that high-dose anakinra was safe and was associated with respiratory improvements and reduced signs of cytokine storm [1] in 72% (21/29) of patients, according to results from patients studied for 21 days (enrolled from 17 to 27 March 2020) in a Milan hospital, published in The Lancet Rheumatology journal.

New molecular auto-control system to avoid an excessive brown adipose tissue activity
A scientific team found a new metabolism regulation system for the brown adipose tissue using the kallikrein-kinin hormonal system, so far related to the physiology of the renal and cardiovascular system and inflammation and pain processes.

The great unconformity
The geologic record is exactly that: a record. The strata of rock tell scientists about past environments, much like pages in an encyclopedia.

Do I look mad? Reading facial cues with the touch-screen generation
Are today's children, who grew up with mobile technology from birth, worse at reading emotions and picking up cues from people's faces than children who didn't grow up with tablets and smartphones?

Scientists measured electrical conductivity of pure interfacial water
Skoltech scientists in collaboration with researchers from the University of Stuttgart, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Russian Quantum Center achieved the first systematic experimental measurements of the electrical conductivity of pure interfacial water, hence producing new results significantly extending our knowledge of interfacial water.

Repurposing existing drugs for COVID-19 offers a more rapid alternative to a vaccine
Repurposing existing medicines focused on known drug targets is likely to offer a more rapid hope of tackling COVID-19 than developing and manufacturing a vaccine, argue an international team of scientists in the British Journal of Pharmacology today.

Carbon footprint hotspots: Mapping China's export-driven emissions
The coronavirus pandemic has highlighted just how reliant the United States and other countries are on Chinese manufacturing, with widespread shortages of protective medical gear produced there.

Hayabusa2's touchdown on Ryugu reveals its surface in stunning detail
High-resolution images and video were taken by the Japanese space agency's Hayabusa2 spacecraft as it briefly landed to collect samples from Ryugu -- a nearby asteroid that orbits mostly between Earth and Mars -- allowing researchers to get an up-close look at its rocky surface, according to a new report.

Deciphering the hidden interactions within biological networks of varying sizes
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba discovered that fish schools showed a significant change in behavior with varying school sizes.

Editorial: US healthcare must take a more proactive approach to prepare for future disasters
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed major deficiencies and inequities in the US healthcare system, shining a spotlight on improvements that must be made to steel the country for future disasters, argues Maia.

A review on phytochemistry, pharmacological action, ethanobotanical uses and nutritional potential
This comprehensive review presented by researchers from K.S. Rangasamy College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode, Tamil-Nadu, India, gives readers a brief overview of phytoconstituents, nutritional values and medicinal properties of the plant.

Global trade in soy has major implications for the climate
The extent to which Brazilian soy production and trade contribute to climate change depends largely on the location where soybeans are grown.

Palliative care for patients with cancer in COVID-19 era
The considerations and challenges affecting the palliative care specialty and delivery of palliative care in the COVID-19 era, as well as potential solutions, are discussed in this Viewpoint.

Clay layers and distant pumping trigger arsenic contamination in Bangladesh groundwater
To avoid arsenic contamination, many Bangladeshi households access water via private wells drilled to 300 feet or less, beneath impermeable clay layers.

Bioethicist calls out unproven and unlicensed 'stem cell treatments' for COVID-19
As the COVID-19 pandemic enters its third month, businesses in the United States are marketing unlicensed and unproven stem-cell-based 'therapies' and exosome products that claim to prevent or treat the disease.

COVID-19 baby boom? This new study suggests perhaps not
Over 80% of people surveyed in a study do not plan to conceive during the COVID-19 crisis, perhaps putting to rest suggestions that the lockdown could lead to rise in birth numbers.

A radar for plastic: High-resolution map of 1 kilometre grids to track plastic emissions in seas
Plastic waste often ends up in river bodies and oceans, posing a serious threat to the marine ecosystem.

NIH-funded study links early sleep problems to autism diagnosis among at-risk children
A small study funded by the National Institutes of Health suggests that sleep problems among children who have a sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may further raise the likelihood of an ASD diagnosis, compared to at-risk children who do not have difficulty sleeping.

Dearth of medical resources in Africa for COVID-19 reminiscent of early HIV/AIDS pandemic
'We have seen this before.' Global health scholars have issued a clarion call about the needless loss of life expected because of a foreseeable prospect of 'slow and inadequate access to supplies' to control COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa.

Beer was here! A new microstructural marker for malting in the archaeological record
A new method for reliably identifying the presence of beer or other malted foodstuffs in archaeological finds is described in a study published May 6, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Andreas G.

Researchers have found accumulation of gene mutations in chronic Graft-versus-host disease
Mutations in white blood cells can contribute to abnormal immune profile after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Highly efficient hydrogen gas production using sunlight, water and hematite
Hydrogen is a possible next generation energy solution, and it can be produced from sunlight and water using photocatalysts.

Revealing links between education and a good diet
Educational status appears to have positive influence on a healthy diet, particularly in low income countries, according to new research examining European nutritional data.

Stroke doctors establish best practices to protect against COVID-19
To keep patients and health-care providers safe from COVID-19, while providing urgent treatment to stroke patients, extra precautions must be taken, according to new guidelines published in the journal Stroke.

The EU not ready for the release of Gene drive organisms into the environment
Gene drive organisms (GDOs) have been suggested as an approach to solve some of the most pressing environmental and public health issues.

Clinical characteristics, results of semen tests among men with COVID-19
The clinical characteristics of men with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) whose semen tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are examined in this observational study.

Lipid metabolism controls brain development
A lipid metabolism enzyme controls brain stem cell activity and lifelong brain development.

Immunity of recovered COVID-19 patients could cut risk of expanding economic activity
New modeling of coronavirus behavior suggests that an intervention strategy based on shield immunity could reduce the risk of allowing the higher levels of human interaction needed to support expanded economic activity.

Delaying bariatric and metabolic surgery during COVID-19 pandemic puts patients at risk, experts warn
New guidance identifies patients with the greatest need for bariatric and metabolic surgery as experts warn delaying treatment could put them at a greater risk of complications from their disease as well as from COVID-19.

Emergency drug overdose visits associated with increased risk for later suicide
A new study finds patients who visited the emergency department for an opioid overdose are 100 times more likely to die by drug overdose in the year after being discharged and 18 times more likely to die by suicide relative to the general population.

An optical brain-to-brain interface supports information exchange for locomotion control
Chinese researchers established an optical BtBI that supports rapid information transmission for precise locomotion control, thus providing a proof-of-principle demonstration of fast BtBI for real-time behavioral control.

Clinicians and autistic transgender youth partner to create first community-built care model
The first ever set of specific recommendations to support transgender autistic young people was co-created by these youth and their families working hand-in-hand with clinical experts.

Using digital twins to design more sustainable cities
Over the past several years, a collaboration at HLRS has been developing a digital twin of Herrenberg, a small city just outside of Stuttgart, Germany.

Study finds breathing and talking contribute to COVID-19 spread
Current knowledge about the role of aerosols in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 warrants urgent attention.

The feeling a limb doesn't belong is linked to lack of brain structure and connection
People with body integrity dysphoria (BID) often feel as though one of their healthy limbs isn't meant to be a part of their bodies.

New invisibility concept and miniaturization of photonic circuits using ultrafast laser
Thanks to its unique three-dimensional manufacturing capacity, ultrafast laser writing is a prime candidate to meet the growing demand for the miniaturization of photonic circuitry, e.g., for scaling up optical quantum computers capacity.

Molecule reduces multiple pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease
When tested in brain cells and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, a new compound significantly reduced the number of amyloid plaques in the brain, lessened brain inflammation and diminished other molecular markers of the disease.

Inclusion of children in clinical trials of treatments for COVID-19
This Viewpoint discusses the exclusion of children from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical trials and why that could harm treatment options for children.

Treatment for Diverticulitis -- updated ASCRS Guidelines published in Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
Reflecting research-driven changes in clinical practice, a revised set of evidence-based recommendations for the medical and surgical treatment of left-sided colonic diverticulitis has been published in Diseases of the Colon & Rectum (DC&R), the official journal of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS).
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