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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | May 08, 2020


First simulation of a full-sized mitochondrial membrane
Scientists from the University of Groningen have developed a method that combines different resolution levels in a computer simulation of biological membranes.
Forecasting urbanization
A new global simulation model offers the first long-term look at how urbanization -- the growth of cities and towns--will unfold in the coming decades.
Newly discovered cell type plays crucial role in immune response to respiratory infections
With a discovery that could rewrite the immunology textbooks, an international group of scientists, including the teams of Bart Lambrecht, Martin Guilliams, Hamida Hammad, and Charlotte Scott (all from the VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research) identified a new type of antigen-presenting immune cell.
Computer modeling reveals behavior of individual lipid molecules
Lipids are essential building blocks of cell membranes, which control the exchange of substances and energy between a cell and its environment.
International research improves quality of CT scan imagery
Computerized tomography (CT) is one of the most effective medical tests for analysing the effects of many illnesses, including COVID-19.
Inspired by cheetahs, researchers build fastest soft robots yet
Inspired by the biomechanics of cheetahs, researchers have developed a new type of soft robot that is capable of moving more quickly on solid surfaces or in the water than previous generations of soft robots.
How to manipulate light on the nanoscale over wide frequency ranges
An international team has discovered an effective method for controlling the frequency of confined light at the nanoscale in the form of phonon polaritons (light coupled to vibrations in the crystal).
Understanding the impact of COVID-19 in pets and livestock
A new paper identifies the critical need for research on the ability of the COVID-19 virus to infect certain animal species, the transmissibility of infection between humans and those animals, and the impact infection could have on food security and the economy.
KIST-CUK research team develops vaccine platform applicable to various viruses
MERS, which struck South Korea in a 2015 outbreak, was caused by a coronavirus--the same family of viruses that is responsible for COVID-19.
Novel radiotracer meets gold standard for imaging prostate cancer
The novel radiopharmaceutical 18F-PSMA-1007 is both effective and readily available for detecting malignant prostate cancer lesions, according to research published in the April issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
Gene therapy in mice builds muscle, reduces fat
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis found that gene therapy in mice helped build strength and significant muscle mass quickly, while reducing the severity of osteoarthritis.
COVID-19 and the role of tissue engineering
Tissue engineering has a unique set of tools and technologies for developing preventive strategies, diagnostics, and treatments that can play an important role during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Talent is key to school turnarounds
New research has shown that the key to implementing successful reform in low-performing schools is hiring and retaining effective principals and teachers.
Computer vision helps SLAC scientists study lithium ion batteries
New machine learning methods bring insights into how lithium ion batteries degrade, and show it's more complicated than many thought.
Seahorse and pipefish study by CCNY opens window to marine genetic diversity May 08, 2020
The direction of ocean currents can determine the direction of gene flow in rafting species, but this depends on species traits that allow for rafting propensity.
Promising study by Texas A&M scientists offers hope for Menkes disease patients
A Texas A&M AgriLife Research team has good news for patients with copper-deficiency disorders, especially young children diagnosed with Menkes disease.
To err is human, to learn, divine
New research describes a new model for how the brain interprets patterns in complex networks.
Flies sleep when need arises to adapt to new situations
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that flies sleep more when they can't fly, possibly because sleeping helps them adapt to a challenging new situation.
To climb like a gecko, robots need toes
Researchers know the secret to geckos' ability to walk on the ceiling: their hairy toes.
New antigen test for detecting COVID-19 could help triage patients during the pandemic
A new antigen test for detecting COVID-19 can return results within 15 minutes.
Protein shredder regulates fat metabolism in the brain
A protein shredder that occurs in cell membranes of brain cells apparently also indirectly regulates the fat metabolism.
Like a molecular knob: That is how a gene controls the electrical activity of the brain
Its name is Foxg1, it is a gene, and its unprecedented role is the protagonist of the discovery just published on the journal Cerebral Cortex.
The role of European policy for improving power plant fuel efficiency
A new study published in the Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists investigates the impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), the largest international cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gas emissions in the world, on power plant fuel efficiency.
A pioneering study into the description of the architecture of a new standard for telecommunications
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is a United Nations Organization agency commissioned to regulate international telecommunications between different operating administrations and businesses.
Perspective: Rapid repurposing of drugs for COVID-19
Given the rapid spread of COVID-19 and its relatively high mortality, filling the gap for coronavirus-specific drugs is urgent.
Better antibiotic dosing could save lives in ICU
More lives could be saved in intensive care units around the world if new antibiotic guidelines designed by The University of Queensland are adopted.
Neighborhood and cognitive performance in middle-age: Does racial residential segregation matter?
A study at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health found that black subjects who were exposed to highly segregated neighborhoods in young adulthood exhibited worse performance in cognitive skills in mid-life.
Immune system discovery paves way to lengthen organ transplant survival
A new discovery in mice shows the innate immune system has 'memory,' previously thought to be a unique feature of the adaptive immune system.
NTU Singapore scientists develop sustainable way to extract chitin from prawn shells
Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a green way to create chitin, by using two forms of food waste - prawn shells and discarded fruit - and fermenting them.
Pediatric coronavirus disease (COVID-19) x-ray, CT in review of new lung disorders
Although the clinical symptoms of SARS, H1N1, MERS, EVALI, and COVID-19 may be nonspecific, some characteristic imaging findings are emerging, says the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR).
Sea level could rise by more than 1 meter by 2100 if emission targets are not met
An international study led by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) scientists found that the global mean sea-level rise could exceed 1 meter by 2100 and 5 meters by 2300 if global targets on emissions are not achieved.
USF researchers find human-driven pollution alters the environment even underground
The Monte Conca cave system in Sicily is showing signs of being altered by pollution from above.
Transporting energy through a single molecular nanowire
Photosynthetic systems in nature transport energy very efficiently towards a reaction center, where it is converted into a useful form for the organism.
Individualized mosaics of microbial strains transfer from the maternal to the infant gut
Researchers have used a microbiome 'fingerprint' method to report that an individualized mosaic of microbial strains is transmitted to the infant gut microbiome from a mother giving birth through vaginal delivery.
How does the brain link events to form a memory? Study reveals unexpected mental processes
The brain has a powerful ability to remember and connect events separated in time.
New study shines light on mysterious giant viruses
In recent years, giant viruses have been unearthed in several of the world's most mysterious locations, from the thawing permafrost of Siberia to locations unknown beneath the Antarctic ice.
The Lancet: New triple antiviral drug combination shows early promise for treating COVID-19 in phase 2 randomized trial
A two-week course of antiviral therapy with interferon beta-1b plus lopinavir-ritonavir and ribavirin, started within 7 days of showing COVID-19 symptoms, is safe and more effective at reducing the duration of viral shedding than lopinavir-ritonavir alone in patients with mild to moderate illness, according to the first randomized trial of this triple combination therapy involving 127 adults (aged 18 and older) from six public hospitals in Hong Kong.
Hydrogen blamed for interfering with nickelate superconductors synthesis
Prof. ZHONG Zhicheng's team at the Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering has investigated the electronic structure of the recently discovered nickelate superconductors NdNiO2. They successfully explained the experimental difficulties in synthesizing superconducting nickelates, in cooperation with Prof.
More selective elimination of leukemia stem cells and blood stem cells
Hematopoietic stem cells from a healthy donor can help patients suffering from acute leukemia.
Potentially fatal combinations of humidity and heat are emerging across the globe
A new study has identified thousands of incidents of previously rare or unprecedented extreme heat/humidity combinations in parts of Asia, Africa, Australia, South America and North America, including in the US Gulf Coast region.
Stretched beyond the limits
It's a common phenomenon we know from cracked sneakers and burst tyres: worn-out materials can cause anything from mild annoyance to fatal accidents.
Our pupil moves to the rhythm of the environment
Regular processes in the environment improve our eyesight.
OSU study shows grange a 'natural partner' for expanding health outreach
In the ongoing struggle to address health care disparities in rural communities across the US, a recent study found that the perfect partner may be hiding in plain sight.
Perspective: Rapid COVID-19 vaccine development
When seeking the fastest pathway to a vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), defining the stakes and potential hurdles is critical, says Barney Graham in this Perspective.
Plasma medicine research highlights antibacterial effects and potential uses
As interest in the application of plasma medicine -- the use of low-temperature plasma (LTP) created by an electrical discharge to address medical problems -- continues to grow, so does the need for research advancements proving its capabilities and potential impacts on the health care industry.
Chemistry breakthrough could speed up drug development
Scientists have successfully developed a new technique to reliably grow crystals of organic soluble molecules from nanoscale droplets, unlocking the potential of accelerated new drug development.
Disproportionate burden of COVID-19 for immigrants in the Bronx, New York
The authors explain why COVID-19 presents a greater burden for immigrant communities and this article advocates for a more equitable health care system.
Canadian study finds temperature, latitude not associated with COVID-19 spread
Temperature and latitude do not appear to be associated with the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), according to a study of many countries published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal), but school closures and other public health measures are having a positive effect.
Stroke evaluations drop by nearly 40% during COVID-19 pandemic
A study from Washington University School of Medicine in St.
Discovered a multilayer haze system on Saturn's Hexagon
The most extensive system of haze layers ever observed in the solar system have been discovered and characterised on the planet Saturn.
IST Austria scientists demonstrate quantum radar prototype
Physicists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have invented a new radar prototype that utilizes quantum entanglement as a method of object detection.
Burning out in silence
Russian companies still pursue authoritarian leadership styles, and employees often avoid articulating their concerns and complaints to management.
How a molecular 'alarm' system in plants protects them from predators
Some plants, like soybean, are known to possess an innate defense machinery that helps them develop resistance against insects trying to feed on them.
Prehistoric sea creatures evolved pebble-shaped teeth to crush shellfish
Ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles during the time of the dinosaurs, and scientists don't know much about their ancestry.
Epithelial GPS: Position of RNAi machinery is associated with epithelial identity
Researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina show in a new report that the RNA interference machinery, normally thought to reside in the nucleus or cytoplasm, predominantly localizes to these apical junctions and influences cell biology in the colon.
How herpes simplex virus can evade the immune response to infect the brain
A research team has discovered a molecular mechanism that helps Herpes simplex virus (HSV1) evade the innate immune system and infect the brain causing a rare disease with high mortality.
Neandertals were choosy about making bone tools
Evidence continues to mount that the Neandertals, who lived in Europe and Asia until about 40,000 years ago, were more sophisticated people than once thought.
Scientists have created new nanocomposite from gold and titanium oxide
ITMO University researchers together with their colleagues from France and the USA have demonstrated how a femtosecond laser can be used to tune the structure and nanocomposite properties for titanium dioxide films filled with gold nanoparticles.
Fishing can disrupt mating systems
In many fish species body size plays an important role in sexual selection.
Newly discovered mechanism can explain increased risk of dementia
Millions of people around the world use acid suppressants called proton pump inhibitors for conditions like heartburn, gastritis and stomach ulcers.
Pangolins may possess evolutionary advantage against coronavirus
Pangolins lack two genes that function to sound the alarm when a virus enters the body, triggering an immune response in most other mammals.

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