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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | May 12, 2020


Dogs can detect traces of gasoline down to one billionth of a teaspoon
Trained dogs can detect fire accelerants such as gasoline in quantities as small as one billionth of a teaspoon, according to new research by University of Alberta chemists.
A combo of fasting plus vitamin C is effective for hard-to-treat cancers, study shows
Researchers from USC and IFOM Cancer Institute found a fasting-mimicking diet could be more effective at treating some types of cancer when combined with vitamin C.
Platelets exacerbate immune response
Platelets not only play a key role in blood clotting, but can also significantly intensify inflammatory processes.
Repetitive head impacts lead to early death for NFL players
According to a new study published Monday in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) by researchers from Syracuse University, an increase in repetitive head impacts for NFL players leads to an increased risk of premature death.
Immunoscore guided cold tumors acquire temperature through integrating methods
In this review article the authors Jing Liu, Mengze Xu and Zhen Yuan from University of Macau, Macau SAR, China consider immunotherapy for the treatment of tumors.
Transcranial direct current stimulation is a safe treatment
Transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS, is a promising treatment for conditions such as depression and addictive disorders.
Primary care practice transformation introduces different staff types
The Comprehensive Primary Care initiative was launched in 2012 by the CMS Innovation Center as a four-year multi-payer initiative designed to strengthen primary care.
High calcium levels in mitochondria linked to neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease
For the first time, using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital have documented a link between raised levels of calcium in mitochondria and neuronal death in the living brain.
Two-face god in sound: Directionality beyond spin-directed acoustics
Understanding unidirectional and topological wave phenomena requires the unveiling of intrinsic geometry and symmetry for wave dynamics.
Illuminating the impact of COVID-19 on hospitals and health systems
In the third week of March 2020, as the COVID-19 pandemic escalated, large hospitals in the Northeast experienced a 26 percent decline in average per-facility revenues based on estimated in-network amounts as compared to the same period in 2019.
Antiferromagnetic fluoride nanocrystals
Recently, researchers from Peking University, Shenzhen University and National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) report that the altered passivation of specified facets can direct the synthesis of fluoride nanocrystals into dimension-controlled products in a colloidal approach.
Coronavirus infection in children -- it may not start with a cough
Children suffering from sickness and diarrhea, coupled with a fever or history of exposure to coronavirus, should be suspected of being infected with COVID-19, recommends a new study by doctors from Wuhan, China, who detail five cases of coronavirus in children who had no initial signs of respiratory illness.
Filming quantic measurement for the first time
The measurement of a strontium ion lasts barely a millionth of a second but the researchers have managed to make a 'film' of the process by reconstructing the quantum state of the system at different moments.
What we can learn from Singapore's COVID-19 containment response in primary care
Singapore, a global hub for international travel and business, was among the first countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Celiac disease linked to common chemical pollutants
Elevated blood levels of toxic chemicals found in pesticides, nonstick cookware, and fire retardants have been tied to an increased risk for celiac disease in young people, new research shows.
Marine waste management: Recycling efficiency by marine microbes
It was only relatively recently that tiny, single-celled thaumarchaea were discovered to exist and thrive in the pelagic ocean, where their population size of roughly 1028 (10 billion quintillion) cells makes them one of the most abundant organisms on our planet.
Presence of spouse alters how parents' brains react to children stimuli, finds NTU Singapore study
A study led by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) researchers has revealed how the physical presence of spouses who are co-parenting can alter each other's brain activity.
Measuring methane from space
A group of researchers from Alaska and Germany is reporting for the first time on remote sensing methods that can observe thousands of lakes and thus allow more precise estimates of methane emissions.
New weapon identified in arsenal against disease
New research describes the structure and composition of supramolecular attack particles (SMAPs) and their role in killing targeted cells.
Study suggests remnants of human migration paths exist underwater at 'choke points'
A study in Geographical Review shows evidence vital to understanding human prehistory beneath the seas in places that were dry during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Researchers invent technology to remedy 3D printing's 'weak spot'
Allowing users to create objects from simple toys to custom prosthetic parts, plastics are a popular 3D printing material.
Examining association of prenatal alcohol, tobacco exposure with newborn brain activity
Researchers looked at the association between prenatal alcohol and tobacco smoking exposure and brain activity in 1,700 newborns measured during sleep.
Can we really tell male and female dinosaurs apart?
Scientists worldwide have long debated our ability to identify male and female dinosaurs.
Vitamin D determines severity in COVID-19 so government advice needs to change
Researchers in Trinity College Dublin are urging the Irish government to immediately change recommendations on vitamin D supplements given recent changes by Welsh, English and Scottish governments.
Lung cancer screening in primary care
The benefits of routine lung cancer screenings have been hotly debated in the medical community.
Little skates could hold the key to cartilage therapy in humans
Unlike humans and other mammals, the skeletons of sharks, skates, and rays are made entirely of cartilage and they continue to grow that cartilage throughout adulthood.
Study shows how memory function could be preserved after brain injury
study examining the effect of the immune receptor known as Toll-like Receptor 4, or TLR4, on how memory functions in both the normal and injured brain has found vastly different cellular pathways contribute to the receptor's effects on excitability in the uninjured and injured brain.
A Finnish study adds to knowledge about treating fractures of the humeral shaft
Surgical patients appear to recover faster and more reliably than patients treated with functional bracing.
Complex compounds of vital metals serving as models of biological systems
Current research of metal complexes with organic ligands at Kazan Federal University concentrates on complex compounds of transition metals in aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions.
New study could help better predict rainfall during El Niño
Researchers at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science have uncovered a new connection between tropical weather events and US rainfall during El Niño years.
Rotavirus vaccination leads to reduced hospitalizations, fewer infant deaths
Vaccination against rotavirus has led to a significant decrease in hospitalisations and deaths of children due to severe diarrhoea in the Western Pacific region, a new study has found.
Classification-coordination-collaboration
Fu et al. outlined a systems approach, Classification-Coordination-Collaboration (3C), to advance Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Ants use collective 'brainpower' to navigate obstacles
Ants use their numbers to overcome navigational challenges that are too large and disorienting to be tackled by any single individual, reports a new study in the open-access journal eLife.
Malaria vaccine: Could this 'ingredient' be the secret to success?
Melbourne researchers have identified a microscopic 'ingredient' that can be added to a malaria vaccine for efficient protection against the deadly pathogen.
How has the COVID-19 pandemic affected women's sexual behavior?
A recent study examines the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on female sexual behavior.
Psychological scars for child burn survivors hurt more than physical wounds
Children and young adult burn survivors are more troubled by staring, bullying, and uncomfortable questions than the actual physical discomfort and memories of their accidents, according to research that was selected to be presented at the American Burn Association's Annual Meeting and published in the Journal of Burn Care & Research.
Silver nanocubes make point-of-care diagnostics easier to read
Engineers at Duke University have shown that nanosized silver cubes can make diagnostic tests that rely on fluorescence easier to read by making them more than 150 times brighter.
NASA sees Tropical Storm Vongfong form and threaten the Philippines
A low-pressure area that formed in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean several days ago has consolidated and organized into a tropical storm.
How the brain responds to the sudden sound of silent danger
You know that feeling when everything suddenly goes quiet? Researchers have identified a novel neural circuit that plays a critical role in processing sound cues of danger to trigger defense responses in rats when silence falls.
Specially designed footwear reduces pain of knee osteoarthritis
Wearing shoes specifically designed with a novel sole (biomechanical footwear) significantly reduces the pain associated with knee osteoarthritis.
Johns Hopkins: What we can't see can help us find things
Anyone who's ever tried to find something in a hurry knows how helpful it is to think about the lost item's color, size and shape.
Hollow-core fiber raises prospects for next-generation scientific instruments
Hollow-core fiber technology developed in the Optoelectronics Research Centre at the Zepler Institute for Photonics and Nanoelectronics exhibits up to 1,000 times better polarization purity than state-of-the-art solid core fibers.
Arthritis clinical trial shows support for dextrose injection to alleviate knee pain
A randomized controlled trial conducted by a research team at a primary care clinic at the Chinese University of Hong Kong indicates that intra-articular-only injection therapy with hypertonic dextrose is safe and effective for alleviating symptoms of knee osteoarthritis.
Lighting the path for cells
ETH researchers have developed a new method in which they use light to draw patterns of molecules that guide living cells.
Ancient rocks show high oxygen levels on Earth 2 billion years ago
Earth may have been far more oxygen-rich early in its history than previously thought, setting the stage for the evolution of complex life, according to new research by scientists at the University of Alberta and the University of Tartu in Estonia.
Is pulmonary rehab after hospitalization for COPD associated with better survival?
Claims data for nearly 200,000 Medicare patients were used to examine the association between starting pulmonary rehabilitation within 90 days of being hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and survival after one year.
Trouble getting a doctor's appointment may drive Medicaid enrollees to opt for the ER
The expansion of Medi-Cal, California's Medicaid program, gave millions of low-income Californians access to health insurance, but this study conducted in Northern California found that new patients may have to wait up up to a month for an appointment with a participating primary care provider, depending on their county of residence.
Scientists show MRI predicts the efficacy of a stem cell therapy for brain injury
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute and Loma Linda University Health have demonstrated the promise of applying magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the efficacy of using human neural stem cells to treat a brain injury -- a first-ever 'biomarker' for regenerative medicine that could help personalize stem cell treatments for neurological disorders and improve efficacy.
Genes may play a role in weight gain from birth control
A woman's genetic make-up may cause her to gain weight when using a popular form of birth control, according to a study from researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.
OU professor examines the fifty shades phenomenon
In a new study, Meredith G. F. Worthen, professor of sociology at the University of Oklahoma, and Trenton M.
#Thisisourlane: How physicians can take action to reduce gun violence
As strategies to curb gun violence at the federal level have stalled, leaders in primary care and health policy have identified the role doctors can play in national gun safety efforts and the prevention of firearm suicide.
Inexpensively locating friendly (and unfriendly) radio waves
Electrical engineers at Duke University have devised a low-cost method for passively locating sources of radio waves such as Wi-Fi and cellular communication signals.
Adolescence is ruff for dogs too
The study, headed by Dr Lucy Asher from Newcastle University, is the first to find evidence of adolescent behavior in dogs.
Malaria mosquitoes eliminated in lab by creating all-male populations
A modification that creates more male offspring was able to eliminate populations of malaria mosquitoes in lab experiments.
Learning what's dangerous is costly, but social animals have a way of lowering the price
For social animals, such as humans, being able to recognize the presence of a threat in the behavior of others could literally be a life-saver.
A recent study by food scientists confirms low fibre intake among Estonians
For normal gut and body function, the diet should contain sufficient amounts of (at least 25 -- 35 grams of) various (a variety of )dietary fibres.
DNA metabarcoding reveals metacommunity dynamics in a threatened boreal wetland
Researchers working in Alberta's Peace-Athabasca Delta found that DNA metabarcoding is an effective tool for detection of a broad range of biodiversity in water samples compared to traditional morphological identification methods.
New paper helps advance myopia management strategies
'Myopia Control 2020: Where are we and where are we heading?' has been published in Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, the peer-reviewed journal of The College of Optometrists, giving eye care practitioners a comprehensive analysis of evidence-based information needed to help manage myopia.
Nanofiber membranes transformed into 3D scaffolds
Researchers combined gas foaming and 3D molding technologies to quickly transform electrospun membranes into complex 3D shapes for biomedical applications.
AI techniques in medical imaging may lead to incorrect diagnoses
Machine learning and AI are highly unstable in medical image reconstruction, and may lead to false positives and false negatives, a new study suggests.
Alaskan rainforests are a global lichen hotspot, new study shows
The rainforest fjords of Southeastern Alaska harbor one of the highest concentrations of lichen diversity found anywhere on Earth, according to a new study spearheaded by University of Alberta scientists.
Early experiences determine how birds build their first nest
Early life experiences of zebra finches have a big effect on the construction of their first homes, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Alberta's Faculty of Science and the University of St.
Not all psychopaths are violent; a new study may explain why some are 'successful' instead
Psychopathy is widely recognized as a risk factor for violent behavior, but many psychopathic individuals refrain from antisocial or criminal acts.
After cancer: The role of primary care in cancer survivorship care
Primary care physicians are treating an increasing number of cancer survivors, yet they have no clear guidance on how best to care for such patients.
COVID-19's silent spread: Princeton study explores role of symptomless transmission
A team of researchers at Princeton University modeled the spread of pathogens through a population to look at how a symptom-less infection phase before symptoms emerge affects the success of the pathogen in establishing itself in the population.
Princeton researcher bringing single-cell gene expression studies to a benchtop near you
By combining CRISPR-based approaches with single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), scientists can learn a lot about what genes do and how they are controlled.
Why visual perception is a decision process
A popular theory in neuroscience called predictive coding proposes that the brain produces all the time expectations that are compared with incoming information.
New measure of broad psychopathology can predict future care requirement
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show that different measures of psychopathology can be combined into a single factor, 'p', which predicts the patient's prognosis and need of extra support.
Primary care case management among frequent users with chronic conditions
Case management is an effective, collaborative, and cost-effective way to help frequent users of health care services integrate all aspects of their care.
May/June 2020 Annals of Family Medicine tip sheet
Annals of Family Medicine is a peer-reviewed, indexed research journal that provides a cross-disciplinary forum for new, evidence-based information affecting the primary care disciplines.
Growing mountains or shifting ground: What is going on in Earth's inner core?
Exhaustive seismic data from repeating earthquakes and new data-processing methods have yielded the best evidence yet that the Earth's inner core is rotating - revealing a better understanding of the hotly debated processes that control the planet's magnetic field.
Journal of Dental Research study: Fluoridation is not associated with increase in osteosarcoma
The Journal of Dental Research published today the results of a study that demonstrated that community water fluoridation is not associated with increased risk of osteosarcoma.
Child's play 'lost' in pandemic fear
Social and community disruptions caused by the COVID-19 restrictions could have a lasting effect on child wellbeing, Flinders University researchers warn.
The COVID-19 pandemic reveals the potential of telehealth to improve care
Two new articles provide insights on the use of telehealth or virtual care in the age of COVID-19 and beyond, pointing to its value to not only prevent contagious diseases but also to provide access to effective and equitable care.
Do democracies behave differently from non-democracies when it comes to foreign policy?
The question of whether democracies behave differently from non-democracies is a central, and intense, debate in the field of international relations.
Patients improve after heart cell therapy
Four of six critically ill COVID-19 (coronavirus) patients significantly improved after receiving an experimental therapeutic designed to reduce inflammation, a major cause of death from this disease, according to a case series published by Cedars-Sinai and Capricor Therapeutics.
New tool helps distinguish the cause of blood clots
A new tool using cutting-edge technology is able to distinguish different types of blood clots based on what caused them, according to a study published today in eLife.
DNA surprises surfacing in the Atlantic: Species far from their usual southern homes
Scientists investigating shifting Atlantic Ocean migration patterns bottled the genetic traces of species far north of their normal homes.
Geometry guided construction of earliest known temple, built 6,000 years before Stonehenge
Researchers at Tel Aviv University and the Israel Antiquities Authority have now used architectural analysis to discover that geometry informed the layout of Göbekli Tepe's impressive round stone structures and enormous assembly of limestone pillars, which they say were initially planned as a single structure.
Social media influencers could encourage adolescents to follow social distancing guidelines
Public health bodies should consider incentivizing social media influencers to encourage adolescents to follow social distancing guidelines, say researchers.
Researchers find the 'brain's steering wheel' in the brainstem of mice
In a new study in mice, neuroscientists from the University of Copenhagen have found neurons in the brain that control how the mice turn right and left.
Our ability to focus may falter after eating one meal high in saturated fat
Fatty food may feel like a friend during these troubled times, but new research suggests that eating just one meal high in saturated fat can hinder our ability to concentrate - not great news for people whose diets have gone south while they're working at home during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Acute stress may slow down the spread of fears
Psychologists from the University of Konstanz in Southern Germany find that we are less likely to amplify fears in social exchange if we are stressed.
A hidden history of artificial intelligence in primary care
Artificial intelligence methods are being utilized in radiology, cardiology and other medical specialty fields to quickly and accurately process large quantities of health data to improve the diagnostic and treatment power of health care teams.
Study finds newborn opioid withdrawal rates show evidence of stabilizing
Rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have plateaued after 20 years of increasing frequency across the country, according to a new study published in Health Affairs.
The economic gap also affects the consumption of screens by children
The presence and variety of mobile devices in Spanish households, regardless of social and economic circumstances, has been mainstream for years.
Testing suggests 3% of NHS hospital staff may be unknowingly infected with coronavirus
Hospital staff may be carrying SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 disease, without realising they are infected, according to a study by researchers at the University of Cambridge.
COVID-19 may compound the social and economic burdens of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reach over 14 million cases worldwide by 2040.
Dock and harbor: A novel mechanism for controlling genes
In a recent study published in Molecular Cell, researchers at Kanazawa University report the role of cellular structures called PML bodies in regulating gene function.
Machine learning cracks quantum chemistry conundrum
A new machine learning tool can calculate the energy required to make -- or break -- simple molecules with higher accuracy than conventional methods.
The butterfly effect: Climate change could cause decline of some alpine butterfly species
The long-term effects of climate change suggests that the butterfly effect is at work on butterflies in the alpine regions of North America, according to a new study by University of Alberta scientists -- and the predictions don't bode well.
Risk score for critical illness in patients with COVID-19
In this study, a risk score based on characteristics of patients with COVID-19 at the time of hospital admission was developed that may help predict a patient's risk of developing critical illness.
Comparing changes in rates of cardiovascular deaths in urban, rural areas in US
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data were used to examine changes in rates of deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease from 1999 to 2017 in urban and rural areas of the US overall and by age, sex and race/ethnicity.
The challenges of developing a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and colleagues identify critical points to pay close attention to when designing and developing COVID-19 vaccines.
Research Brief: A new approach to averting inflammation caused by COVID-19
U of M Twin Cities student Molly Gilligan studies the body's inflammatory response to the SARS-CoV-2.
Team shares blueprint for adapting academic research center to SARS-CoV-2 testing lab
During the COVID-19 pandemic, as demand for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing has far outweighed the supply, academic research scientists have begun converting their labs to testing facilities.
A new concept of designing photocatalytic systems with reversed configurations
A reversed configuration of photocatalysts with a core/shell structure of microsized Mo2N cocatalysts and nanosized CdS photocatalysts exhibits superior solar hydrogen production.
Researchers find protein that helps cancer cells to survive
In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered two important functions of a protein called RTEL1 during cell division.
Beauty and the beast: Why both can win at social selling
Consumers tend to make judgments of a seller's sociability, competence, and credibility based on facial attractiveness.
Too little sleep can mean more asthma attacks in adults
A new article in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology reveals that too little sleep, and occasionally too much sleep, can negatively impact adults with asthma.
NRL researchers create electronic diodes beyond 5G performance
NRL researchers have developed a new resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with performance beyond the anticipated speed of 5G.
Biosynthetic capacity: The key to switch-off cancer stem cells
The Colorectal Cancer Lab at IRB Barcelona identifies the capacity to synthesize proteins (or biosynthetic capacity) as a key property for the regenerative potential of colon cancer cells.
Health inequities magnified during COVID-19 pandemic
The impact of COVID-19 on underserved and vulnerable populations, including persons of color, is addressed in a new roundtable discussion in Health Equity, a peer-reviewed open access journal
Powerful new AI technique detects and classifies galaxies in astronomy image data
Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have developed a powerful new computer program called Morpheus that can analyze astronomical image data pixel by pixel to identify and classify all of the galaxies and stars in large data sets from astronomy surveys.
Blood cells could serve as a 'thermometer' to detect breast cancer
This study shows that patients develop alterations in a type of leukocyte at the initial stage of the disease.
More than the sum of their genes
Reproducing efficiently in captivity is crucial for the survival of many wildlife species, yet reproductive success is often lower than in the wild.
Passive immunization may slow down SARS-CoV-2 and boost immunity in patients, buying time
The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 4 million people and killed close to 280,000.1 Finding a vaccine has become a global public health priority.
Total synthesis of cotylenin A for a new anticancer drug without side effects
Waseda University scientists succeeded in developing the world's first method for a total synthesis of cotylenin A, a plant growth regulator which has attracted considerable attention from the scientific community due to its promising bioactivity as an anti-cancer agent.
A study analyzes the unexpected behavior of hydrogen flames
Hydrogen flames can propagate even with very little fuel, within surprisingly narrow gaps and can extend breaking up into fractal patterns.
HKU super steel project attains major breakthrough
The Super Steel project led by Professor Huang Mingxin at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Hong Kong (HKU), with collaborators at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), has made important breakthrough in its new super D&P steel (produced using a new deformed and partitioned method) to greatly enhance its fracture resistance while maintaining super strong in strength for advanced industrial applications.
New software supports decision-making for breeding
Researchers at the University of Göttingen have developed an innovative software program for the simulation of breeding programmes.
Ancient reptile had mammal-like tooth enamel, study shows
A new study by University of Alberta paleontologists shows that one type of ancient reptiles evolved a special type of tooth enamel, similar to that of mammals, with high resistance to wear and tear.
'Water wires' may play bigger role in cellular function
In a new PNAS paper, FSU researchers call into question the role water wires play in the cellular process, explaining how scientists have vastly underestimated the role they play in the cellular membrane channel.

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