Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 25, 2020
Solving the space junk problem
Aging satellites and space debris crowd low-Earth orbit, and launching new satellites adds to the collision risk.

Exotic properties of helium-methane compounds inside giant planets
Both helium and methane are major components of icy giant planets, however, whether they can react with each other is still an open question.

The deep ocean is warming slowly -- but dramatic changes are ahead
The world's deep oceans are warming at a slower rate than the surface, but it's still not good news for deep-sea creatures according to an international study.

New method provides unique insight into the development of the human brain
Stem cell researchers at Lund University in Sweden have developed a new research model of the early embryonic brain.

Record-high data transmission using a soliton crystal
Australian and Canadian researchers led by Prof David J. Moss at Swinburne University of Technology and honorary professor at the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS) was able to achieve world record-high data transmission over 75 km of standard optical fibre using a powerful class of micro-comb called soliton crystals.

Development of electrode material improving the efficiency of salinity gradient energy
Dr. Jeong Nam-Jo of Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER) Marine Energy Convergence and Integration Research Team developed synthesis technologies of electrode material that can directly synthesize molybdenum disulfide thin films on the electrode current collector surface to contribute improving the efficiency and economic feasibility of salt gradient power generation using reverse electrodialysis.

Towards visible-wavelength passively mode-locked lasers in all-fibre format
Mode-locked fibre lasers are the fundamental building blocks of many photonic systems, ultrafast lasers in the visible region are costly and challenging to make.

MetaviralSPAdes -- New assembler for virus genomes
There was no specialized viral metagenome assembler until recently. But the joint team of Russian and US researchers from Saint-Petersburg State University and University of California at San Diego just released the metaviralSPAdes assembler (published in journal Bioinformatics on May 16) that turns the analysis of the metavirome sequencing results into an easy task.

Heart failure patients with limited health literacy may have higher risk of death
Patients with heart failure who experience low health literacy are at an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality.

Chirality-assisted lateral momentum transfer for bidirectional enantioselective separation
Chiral nanoparticles which twist the light were theoretically predicted to experience lateral forces perpendicular to light vector but lacks experimental verification.

Microbial cyborgs: Bacteria supplying power
Electronic devices are still made of lifeless materials. One day, however, 'microbial cyborgs' might be used in fuel cells, biosensors, or bioreactors.

A new Critically Endangered frog named after 'the man from the floodplain full of frogs'
A new species of a Critically Endangered miniaturised stump-toed frog of the genus Stumpffia found in Madagascar is named Stumpffia froschaueri after ''the man from the floodplain full of frogs'', Christoph Froschauer.

Kidney transplantations: Better results with larger case volumes
Kidney transplantations: better results with larger case volumes. Survival probabilities increase in hospitals where kidneys are transplanted more frequently.

A new law in laser physics could make eye surgery simpler
Revisiting simple soliton lasers and their relationship to light dispersion has allowed scientists at the University of Sydney to ramp up their power.

A single negative colonoscopy associated with long-lasting and significantly reduced cancer incidence
Having a single negative high-quality screening colonoscopy was associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality (by 84% and 90%, respectively) for up to 17.4 years.

Study finds childhood cancer does not affect parental separation, divorce, and family planning in Denmark
The diagnosis of cancer in a child can be devastating to parents and other loved ones, but in a recent study from Denmark, having a child with cancer did not appear to impact parents' risk of separation or divorce or affect future family planning.

COVID-19 pandemic uniting Canadians like no other event in decades
A new study by researchers from McGill University and the University of Toronto finds a cross-partisan consensus on battling COVID-19 in Canada.

Synthesis of prebiotic peptides gives clues to the origin of life on Earth
Coordination Compounds Lab of Kazan Federal University started researching prebiotic peptide synthesis in 2013 with the use of the ASIA-330 flow chemistry system.

Understanding ceramic materials' 'mortar' may reveal ways to improve them
New research shows that in the important ceramic material silicon carbide, carbon atoms collect at those grain boundaries when the material is exposed to radiation.

Inexpensive retinal diagnostics via smartphone
Retinal damage due to diabetes is now considered the most common cause of blindness in working-age adults.

New therapy for triple negative breast cancer
Researchers at the Principe Felipe Research Center (CIPF), the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), CIBER-BBN and the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB) of Barcelona have inhibited tumor growth and reduced metastasis, as well as the toxicity of the antitumor drug Navitoclax in preclinical animal models of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).

Scientists identify obscure protein responsible for advanced breast cancer
South Australian scientists have made a critical breakthrough, discovering how an obscure protein causes breast cancer to develop and grow more quickly.

Marine species are outpacing terrestrial species in the race against global warming
Global warming is causing species to search for more temperate environments in which to migrate to, but it is marine species -- according to the latest results of a Franco-American study mainly involving scientists from the CNRS, Ifremer, the Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier and the University of Picardy Jules Verne -- that are leading the way by moving up to six times faster towards the poles than their terrestrial congeners.

Problems with alcohol? 29 gene variants may explain why
A genome-wide analysis of more than 435,000 people has identified 29 genetic variants linked to problematic drinking, researchers at Yale University School of Medicine and colleagues report May 25 in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

uOttawa researchers discover new sex hormone
When University of Ottawa biologists Kim Mitchell and Vance Trudeau began studying the effects of gene mutations in zebrafish, they uncovered new functions that regulate how males and females interact while mating.

A natural amino acid could be a novel treatment for polyglutamine diseases
Researchers from Osaka University, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, and Niigata University identified the amino acid arginine as a potential disease-modifying drug for polyglutamine diseases, including familial spinocerebellar ataxia and Huntington disease.

Fatal cases of COVID-19 deepen our understanding of the disease's progression
Identifying risk factors underlying fatal COVID-19 cases is critical to understanding - and treating - the deadly disease.

Efficient generation of relativistic near-single-cycle mid-infrared pulses in plasmas
Intense few-cycle optical pulses in the mid-infrared region are of great importance yet difficult to obtain with normal optical materials and techniques.

Majority of cannabis use in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside for therapeutic purposes
Most people at high risk of overdose in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside who use cannabis do so for pain relief and other therapeutic reasons -- and they may be at lower risk of overdosing on opioids as a result, suggests new research published in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE.

The evolutionary history of the Milky Way determined in more detail than ever
Thanks to data from the Gaia mission, of the European Space Agency (ESA), and international team led by researchers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) has presented a study which shows the crucial role of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy in the evolution of our galaxy.

COVID-19 should be treated as a thrombotic disease, Brazilian pulmonologist argues
Dr. Elnara Negri, who works in São Paulo City at the largest hospital complex in Latin America, advocates the use of the anti-coagulant drug heparin to treat complications caused by novel coronavirus.

Study reveals first evidence inherited genetics can drive cancer's spread
Scientists have long struggled to understand what drives a tumor to seed itself elsewhere in the body.

7,000 years of demographic history in France
A team led by scientists from the Institut Jacques Monod (CNRS/Université de Paris)1 have shown that French prehistory was punctuated by two waves of migration: the first during the Neolithic period, about 6,300 years ago, the second during the Bronze Age, about 4,200 years ago.

Title: Two-dimensional MXene as a novel electrode material for next-generation display
Researchers in the US and Korea reported the first efficient flexible light-emitting diodes with a two-dimensional titanium carbide MXene as a flexible and transparent electrode.

Fatal Lyme carditis in a 37-year-old man shows need for awareness of unusual symptoms
Physicians and the public should be aware of the different presentations of Lyme disease, as people spend more time outside in the warmer weather and as areas in Canada where the black legged tick is found expand.

Scientists take first census of Arctic freshwater molluscs in 130 years
Based on previously released data and their own investigations, researchers at the St Petersburg University Laboratory of Macroecology and Biogeography of Invertebrates have assessed the diversity of freshwater molluscs in the Circumpolar region of the World.

What information is coded in bird alarm calls -- a new study from Korea
Recordings of the Oriental tit's alarm responses showed that alarm calls to snakes have special acoustic properties different from calls to chipmunks, even though both predators can enter bird's nests and destroy broods.

Performing optical logic operations by a diffractive neural network
Optical logic operations, as the basis of optical computing, hold huge potentials to many applications such as cryptographically secured wireless communication and real-time wavefront-shaping.

Observations of robotic swarm behavior can help workers safely navigate disaster sites
Using biologically inspired robotic swarms consisting of large groups of robots that have been programmed to operate cooperatively, much like individuals in an ant or bee colony, scientists from the University of Colorado demonstrate that the locally observed distribution of robots can be correlated to the location of environmental features, such as exits in office-like environments.

Astronomers see 'cosmic ring of fire,' 11 billion years ago
Astronomers have captured an image of a super-rare type of galaxy -- described as a 'cosmic ring of fire' -- as it existed 11 billion years ago.

Scientists find genes to save ash trees from deadly beetle
An international team of scientists have identified candidate resistance genes that could protect ash trees from the emerald ash borer (EAB), a deadly pest that is expected to kill billions of trees worldwide.

How drones can monitor explosive volcanoes
Due to high risk for researchers, the imaging of active volcanoes has so far been a great challenge in volcanology.

Unique insight into development of the human brain: Model of the early embryonic brain
Stem cell researchers from the University of Copenhagen have designed a model of an early embryonic brain.

There is no escaping from climate change, even in the deep sea
Even though the deeper layers of the ocean are warming at a slower pace than the surface, animals living in the deep ocean are more exposed to climate warming and will face increasing challenges to maintain their preferred thermal habitats in the future.

Reducing neighborhood crime: Place management of alcohol outlets
Recent research suggests that neighborhood crime may be reduced by enhancing 'place management' resources in and around off-premise alcohol sales outlets, particularly at small and independent stores.

Bristol scientists see through glass frogs' translucent camouflage
Glass frogs are well known for their see-through skin but, until now, the reason for this curious feature has received no experimental attention.

We need a new approach to UK resilience -- leading Cranfield academics
Leading academics from across Cranfield University are calling for a new approach to UK resilience.

Evidence shows cloth masks may help against COVID-19
The international research team examined a century of evidence including recent data, and found strong evidence showing that cloth and cloth masks can reduce contamination of air and surfaces.

Worth their salt: Skoltech and MIPT researchers report first case of hexagonal NaCl
Skoltech and MIPT scientists have predicted and then experimentally confirmed the existence of exotic hexagonal thin films of NaCl on a diamond surface.

Lossless conduction at the edges
Atomically thin layers of the semimetal tungsten ditelluride conduct electricity losslessly along narrow, one-dimensional channels at the crystal edges.

New double-contrast technique picks up small tumors on MRI
Early detection of tumors is extremely important in treating cancer.

Breaking down stubborn cellulose in time lapse
Researchers at Graz Unversity of Technology in Austria have for the first time ever succeeded in visualizing at the single-molecule level the processes involved in a biological nanomachine, known as the cellulosome, as it degrades crystalline cellulose.

A nice day for a quantum walk
Scientists at Osaka University initiated a quantum random walk by shining lasers on a row of trapped ions.

Why are we still failing to stop deforestation?
While national and international efforts to reverse the trend of deforestation have multiplied in recent years, there is still no clear evidence to suggest that these initiatives are actually working.

Musical rhythm has very deep evolutionary roots and is present in some animals
The musical motives of a song emerge from the temporal arrangement of discrete tones.

A child's brain activity reveals their memory ability
A child's unique brain activity reveals how good their memories are, according to research recently published in JNeurosci.

Antibody designed to recognize pathogens of Alzheimer's disease
Researchers have found a way to design an antibody that can identify the toxic particles that destroy healthy brain cells -- a potential advance in the fight against Alzheimer's disease.

Saturable plasmonic metasurfaces for laser mode locking
Nonlinear plasmonics, an interdisciplinary subject combining nonlinear and sub-wavelength optics, is an emerging field in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.