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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | June 03, 2020


'Unparalleled' discovery of ancient skeletons sheds light on mystery of when people started eating maize
The 'unparalleled' discovery of remarkably well-preserved ancient skeletons in Central American rock shelters has shed new light on when maize became a key part of people's diet on the continent.
Collaborative research addresses need for conservation of springs in drying climate
Hydrogeologist Abe Springer contributed results and implications on springs as refugia from his research group's springs ecohydrology research and helped develop a geomorphological-based classification system for springs ecosystems.
Studies of brain activity aren't as useful as scientists thought
Hundreds of published studies over the last decade have claimed it's possible to predict an individual's patterns of thoughts and feelings by scanning their brain in an MRI machine as they perform some mental tasks.
Hairy, lab-grown human skin cell model could advance hair loss research
A new, hair-sprouting dollop of human skin created in the lab might one day help prevent hair loss.
New Papua New Guinea research solves archaeological mysteries
New research which 'fills in the blanks' on what ancient Papuan New Guineans ate, and how they processed food, has ended decades-long speculation on tool use and food stables in the highlands of New Guinea several thousand years ago.
A promise to restore hearing
For the first time, researchers have used base editing to restore partial hearing to mice with a recessive mutation in the gene TMC1 that causes complete deafness, the first successful example of genome editing to fix a recessive disease-causing mutation.
'Breast is best' push out of touch
University of Queensland researchers have discovered why only 34 per cent of mothers exclusively breastfeed to six months, despite the global push to increase rates to 50 per cent.
Vision loss influences perception of sound
People with severe vision loss can less accurately judge the distance of nearby sounds, potentially putting them more at risk of injury.
Cholesterol levels dropping in Western nations -- but rising in Asia
Cholesterol levels are declining sharply in Western nations, but rising in low- and middle-income nations - particularly in Asia, suggests the largest ever study of global cholesterol levels.
Study: COVID-19 lockdowns worsen childhood obesity
Lockdowns implemented across the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic have negatively impacted diet, sleep and physical activity among children with obesity, according to University at Buffalo research.
App determines COVID-19 disease severity using artificial intelligence, biomarkers
A new mobile app can help clinicians determine which patients with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are likely to have severe cases.
CNIC researchers discover a system essential for limb formation during embryonic development
Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have identified a system that tells embryonic cells where they are in a developing organ
JCESR lays foundation for safer, longer-lasting batteries
Researchers sped-up the motion of lithium ions in solid-state batteries using the paddlewheel effect.
Anisotropy of spin-lattice relaxations in molecular magnets
Scientists from IFJ PAN in cooperation with researchers from the Nara Women's University (Japan) and the Jagiellonian University (Poland) took another important step towards building a functional quantum computer.
Your doctor's ready: Please log in to the videoconference
The coronavirus has prompted many medical centers to switch from in-person appointments to video visits.
New research leads to lighter and greener bridges
A recently completed research project revealed the potential for reducing material used for a suspension bridge deck by more than 25 per cent -- meaning a saving of up to 30 per cent of CO2 emissions.
Near-atomic 'blueprint' reveals inner workings of drug target for cancer, other diseases
Van Andel Institute scientists have for the first time described the near-atomic level structure of a molecular pathway that plays critical roles in human development, blood pressure regulation, inflammation and cell death.
Atomic blueprint of 'molecular machine' reveals role in membrane protein installation
Van Andel Institute scientists have revealed the first known atomic structure of a 'molecular machine' responsible for installing critical signaling proteins into cellular membranes.
Innocent and highly oxidizing
Freiburg chemists produce new oxidants as a tool for preparative chemistry
Sharp drop in Australia's bad cholesterol levels -- but rising in Asia and Pacific
The proportion of Australians with bad cholesterol levels has dropped significantly, while Asian and Pacific countries recorded a sharp rise, according to the world's largest study on the condition.
Science snapshots May 2020
World's forests are growing younger, US wind plant performance changes with age, and fungi food choices opens the door to better methods for producing bio-based products
Did life emerge in the 'primordial soup' via DNA or RNA? Maybe both
Scientists have long debated which genetic information carrier -- DNA or RNA -- started life on Earth, but a new study suggests life could have begun with a bit of both.
Largest, oldest Maya monument suggests importance of communal work
A University of Arizona discovery suggests that the Maya civilization developed more rapidly than archaeologists once thought and hints at less social inequality than later periods.
National survey gives insight into college-to-work experiences of recent college graduates
Recent college graduates with disabilities were as likely to be employed as their peers without disabilities with 90 percent of each group holding jobs after college.
Negative emotions cause stronger appetite responses in emotional eaters
A recent study at the University of Salzburg found that emotional eaters -- people who use food to regulate negative emotions -- had a stronger appetite response and found food to be more pleasant when experiencing negative emotions compared to neutral emotions.
Black holes? They are like a hologram
Spherical, smooth and simple according to the theory of relativity, or extremely complex and full of information as, according to quantum laws, Stephen Hawking used to say?
Respiratory virus builds 'doorbell' to trick its way into cells, researchers find
New research from UAlberta microbiologists has shed light on how the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)--one of the most common viral infections--breaks into our cells to cause infection.
UNM researchers document the first use of maize in Mesoamerica
international team of researchers investigates the earliest humans in Central America and how they adapted over time to new and changing environments, and how those changes have affected human life histories and societies.
Study ties stroke-related brain blood vessel abnormality to gut bacteria
In a nationwide study, NIH funded researchers found that the presence of abnormal bundles of brittle blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord, called cavernous angiomas (CA), are linked to the composition of a person's gut bacteria.
Solving the mysteries of water and air underground
The mysterious capillary fringe has huge effects on the soil, and new research tells us how it works.
Study on COVID-19 and RMD provides reassurance to patients on immunosuppressive medication
A current study published in the run-up to the European Congress of Rheumatology of the EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) analysed, for the first time, 600 COVID-19 cases in rheumatic disease patients from 40 countries and investigated the impact of the choice of rheumatic disease therapy on potential hospitalization and the course of COVID-19.
Scientists decipher the role of carbon and the break-up of continents
An international collaboration has led scientists to new insights into the storage and dynamic transfer of carbon below thick and very old continental crust currently published in the journal Nature titled, Displacement of cratonic mantle and lithospheric channeling concentrates deep carbon during continental rifting.
Preliminary Criterion scores do not help counteract racial gap in NIH grant awards
A new scoring approach introduced in 2009 to curb bias during the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Enhanced Peer Review process did not mitigate the gap in preliminary overall impact scores between black and white principal investigators (PIs) for the years 2014 to 2016, a new study shows.
Artificial intelligence can improve how chest images are used in care of COVID-19 patients
According to a recent report by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers, artificial intelligence (AI) should be used to expand the role of chest X-ray imaging -- using computed tomography, or CT -- in diagnosing and assessing coronavirus infection so that it can be more than just a means of screening for signs of COVID-19 in a patient's lungs.
Video messages may help spread the word about antibiotic risks
Antibiotics are important drugs that can save lives, but using them too often can lead to dangerous strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Oncotarget: Second line trastuzumab emtansine following horizontal dual blockade
Volume 11, Issue 22 of Oncotarget reported that despite relevant medical advancements, metastatic breast cancer remains an incurable disease.
One-third of American households face troubles paying bills
The shutdown triggered by the coronavirus pandemic has caused massive layoffs and substantial financial hardships.
Unique cells found in lung cancer patients may predict survival
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer where tumor cells shed from the main tumor circulate in the blood and settle in other organs and metastasize.
A new strategy for the optimal electroreduction of Co2 to high-value products
Researchers suggest that modulation of local CO2 concentration improves the selectivity, conversion rate, and electrode stability, and shed a new light on the electrochemical CO2 reduction technology for controlling emissions at a low cost.
Syndrome linked to COVID-19 seems more common among children of African ancestry
An inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents, believed to be linked to covid-19, seems to be more common among children of African ancestry, finds a small study from a hospital in Paris, published by The BMJ today.
New TILDA research highlights online habits of older adults in the age of our 'new normal'
A new report from researchers at The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) at Trinity College entitled 'Internet access and use among adults aged 50 and over in Ireland' delves into the internet habits and behaviours of older adults in Ireland.
Exploring the neurological impact of air pollution
Air pollution has become a fact of modern life, with a majority of the global population facing chronic exposure.
Clinical, immune features of hospitalized pediatric patients with COVID-19
The immunologic features of mild and moderate COVID-19 in pediatric patients is described and compared in this case series.
Tracking cancer's immortality factor
Canadian researchers discover how a key cancer mutation activates telomerase, the 'anti-aging enzyme' that makes tumour cells immortal.
Active particles with light-switchable propulsion direction and reversible interactions
Researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw, ETH in Zurich and the University of Cambridge have synthesized and analysed active microparticles self-propelling in a fluid and reversing their propulsion direction depending on the wavelength of illuminating light.
Women at lower risk for cardiovascular disease than men
Women's risk of falling ill with cardiovascular disease, and dying from it, is lower than that of men of the same age, irrespective of where in the world they live.
New Visa restrictions will make the US economic downturn worse
Research on visa restrictions designed to help American graduates seeking jobs during the pandemic-fueled economic downturn are likely to further hurt the economy, according to new UC San Diego research on immigrant rights.
Princeton team develops 'poisoned arrow' to defeat antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Poison is lethal all on its own -- as are arrows -- and together, they can take down the strongest opponents.
Oncotarget: Anticancer effect of physical activity is mediated
Volume 11, Issue 22 of Oncotarget reported that the goal of this study was to explore the involvement of mi RNAs in beneficial effects exerted by physical activity in breast cancer prevention.
A risk-tailored approach to reopening during the COVID-19 pandemic
A tailored public health approach that accounts for variation in risks across populations, places and time could guide the next phase of Canada's coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response, argue authors in a commentary in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Epidemiology, clinical features, disease severity in pediatric patients with COVID-19
Epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features of 50 children hospitalized with COVID-19 in New York are examined in this case series.
'Major gaps' in understanding how land-use changes affect spread of diseases
The quest to discover how new diseases -- such as Covid-19 -- emerge and spread in response to global land-use change driven by human population expansion still contains 'major gaps', researchers have claimed.
Ultra-bright X-ray source awakens near a galaxy not so far away
A new ultra-bright source of X-rays has awakened in between our galactic neighbours the Magellanic Clouds, after a 26-year slumber.
Discrimination may erase 'birthweight advantage' of black US immigrants in one generation
Black women have the highest prevalence of low birthweight babies, but black immigrants typically have much better outcomes than their US-born counterparts.
Study puts price tag on lost earnings from racial disparities in cancer mortality
A new American Cancer Society study puts a price tag on racial disparities in cancer mortality, finding that $3.2 billion in lost earnings would have been avoided in 2015 if non-Hispanic (NH) blacks had equal years of life lost from cancer deaths and earning rates as NH whites.
Solar hydrogen production: Splitting water with UV is now at almost 100% quantum efficiency
Scientists in Japan successfully split water into hydrogen and oxygen using light and meticulously designed catalysts, and they did so at the maximum efficiency meaning there was almost no loss and undesired side reactions.
'Terminator' protein halts cancer-causing cellular processes
New research from the lab of Hening Lin, professor of chemistry and chemical biology in the College of Arts and Sciences, finds that a protein called TiPARP acts as a terminator for several cancer-causing transcription factors, including HIF-1, which is implicated in many cancers, including breast cancer.
Phase III results show rituximab excels against pediatric Burkitt lymphoma
Results of the phase III Inter-B-NHL-ritux 2010 clinical trial reported today in the New England Journal of Medicine show 95 percent three-year survival for pediatric patients with advanced B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with the addition of anti-cancer immunotherapy rituximab to standard chemotherapy.
NASA finds heavy rainfall in Tropical Storm Cristobal
The third tropical cyclone of the Atlantic Ocean basin has been generating large amounts of rainfall over Mexico's Yucatan and parts of Central America.
Graphene and 2D materials could move electronics beyond 'Moore's Law'
A team of researchers based in Manchester, the Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland and the USA has published a new review on a field of computer device development known as spintronics, which could see graphene used as building block for next-generation electronics.
Get excited by neural networks
Scientists at The University of Tokyo introduced a new method for inferring the energy of the excited states of electrons in materials using machine learning.
The nature of glass-forming liquids is more clear
Researchers from The University of Tokyo have found that attractive and repulsive interactions between particles are both essential to form structural order that controls the dynamics of glass-forming liquids.
Why developing nerve cells can take a wrong turn
Loss of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme leads to impediment in growth of nerve cells / Link found between cellular machineries of protein degradation and regulation of the epigenetic landscape in human embryonic stem cells
The broken mirror: Can parity violation in molecules finally be measured?
Scientists have long tried to experimentally demonstrate a certain symmetry property of the weak interaction - parity violation -- in molecules.
The roots of a staple crop
About 9,000 years ago in the Balsas River Valley of southwestern Mexico, hunter-gatherers began domesticating teosinte, a wild grass.
NASA infrared data shows Tropical Cyclone Nisarga strengthened before landfall
Satellite data of Tropical Cyclone Nisarga's cloud top temperatures revealed that the storm had strengthened before it began making landfall in west central India.
Interventional radiologists modify protocol for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic
Radiologists who perform cross-sectional interventional procedures can take several steps to minimize the risks to patients and radiology personnel, including screening referred patients to decide which procedures can be postponed, using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), minimizing the number of people involved in procedures, preserving PPE when possible, and applying proper room and equipment cleaning measures.
How bacteria fertilize soya
Soya and clover have their very own fertiliser factories in their roots, where bacteria manufacture ammonium, which is crucial for plant growth.
Super water-repellent materials are now durable enough for the real world
Superhydrophobic materials have long promised surfaces that never needed cleaning, or medical equipment that no microbe could ever possibly stick to -- but have always been let down by the fact they are very easily damaged.
Association between outdoor light at night & breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women
Outdoor light at night was linked to a higher risk of breast cancer in a study published in the International Journal of Cancer.
Study finds PFAS exposure may cause early menopause in women
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure may cause menopause to occur two years earlier in women, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Why some older adults remember better than others
This work marks the beginning of an effort to better understand memory and memory loss in older adults using advanced imaging and data analysis techniques.
Age affects decisions related to breast cancer surgery
A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) study indicates that breast cancer surgery is safe for patients who are older than 70 years of age, but age can influence the decision to undergo surgery.
Researchers study genetic outcomes of translocating bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep have maintained a distinctive population genetic structure in Wyoming, even with historical population losses and translocations.
Discovery of ancient super-eruptions indicates the yellowstone hotspot may be waning
Throughout Earth's long history, volcanic super-eruptions have been some of the most extreme events ever to affect our planet's rugged surface.
Survey finds large increase in psychological distress reported among US adults during the COVID-19 pandemic
A new survey conducted by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health during the COVID-19 pandemic found a more-than-threefold increase in the percentage of US adults who reported symptoms of psychological distress -- from 3.9% in 2018 to 13.6% in April 2020.
Metasurface opens world of polarization
Harvard researchers have designed a metasurface that can be continuously tuned from linear to elliptical birefringence, opening up the entire space of polarization control with just one device.
Neurobiology of Disease publishes results of AFFiRiS' antibody mAB C6-17 in Huntington's
Monoclonal antibody mAB C6-17 targeting human/mutant huntingtin protein (HTT/mutHTT) was developed and characterized.
Wearable sensor may help to assess stress in healthcare workers
A wearable biosensor may help monitor stress experienced by healthcare professionals, according to a study published in Physiological Reports.
Rivers help lock carbon from fires into oceans for thousands of years
The extent to which rivers transport burned carbon to oceans - where it can be stored for tens of millennia - is revealed in new research.
How do land-use changes affect the spread of diseases between animals and people?
Most new viruses and other pathogens that arise in humans are transmitted from other animals, as in the case of the virus that causes COVID-19.
Lighting the way to porous electronics and sensors
Researchers from Osaka University have created porous titanium dioxide ceramic thin films, at high temperatures and room temperature.
Designing animal studies to improve research reproducibility and reduce animal use
At the invitation of the University of Bern, international experts worked out new recommendations for the design of animal studies.
Living near oil and gas wells tied to low birth weights in infants
In one of the largest studies of its kind, researchers found that pregnant rural California residents living within 0.62 miles (1 kilometer) of high-production oil and gas wells were 40% more likely to have low birth weight babies and 20% more likely to have babies who were small for their gestational age compared to people living farther away from wells.
Children improve their narrative performance with the help of rhythmic gestures
Gesture is an integral part of language development. Recent studies carried out by the same authors in collaboration with other members of the Prosodic Studies Group (GrEP) coordinated by Pilar Prieto, ICREA research professor Department of Translation and Language Sciences at UPF, have shown that when the speaker accompanies oral communication with rhythmic gesture, preschool children are observed to better understand the message and improve their oral skills.
Etching the road to a hydrogen economy using plasma jets
Hydrogen is a clean energy source that can be produced by splitting water molecules with light.
Counterintuitive phase behavior observed in isotopic hydrogen (H2-HD-D2) alloy
A joint team from the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, collaborating with researchers from the Center for High Pressure Science & Technology Advanced Research and University of Edinburgh, has reported a new discovery in which they found counterintuitive effects of isotopic doping on the phase diagram of H2-HD-D2 molecular alloy.
Study demonstrates association between exposure to air pollution and vascular damage
Researchers who analysed data from more than 3,000 people in India found gender-specific differences in sources of exposure and health outcomes.
Researchers develop sustainable method for extracting vanillin from wood processing waste
Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have developed a new sustainable method of extracting the flavoring agent vanillin from lignin, a component of wood.
Chapman University national study highlights wide-ranging effects of COVID-19 pandemic
The Chapman University National COVID-19 and Mental Health Survey (Spring 2020) examined the experiences of 4,149 adults living in the United States, asking questions about how the COVID-19 pandemic is impacting mental health, physical health, romantic relationships and encounters of prejudice.
A new immunotherapeutic agent for children and adolescents with advanced lymphoma
The excellent results of the phase III international paediatric study, Inter-B-NHL ritux 2010, have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Key gene in leukemia discovered
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most common forms of blood cancer among adults and is associated with a low survival rate, and leads to the inhibition of normal blood formation.
Cognitive behavior therapy tops other psychotherapies in reducing inflammation
A review of 56 randomized clinical trials finds that psychological and behavioral therapies may be effective non-drug treatments for reducing disease-causing inflammation in the body.
Obstructive sleep apnoea: Mandibular advancement device helps against daytime sleepiness
Obstructive sleep apnoea: mandibular advancement device helps against daytime sleepiness In obstructive sleep apnoea, wearing a plastic splint in the mouth at night to keep the airways open mechanically is about as effective as positive airway pressure therapy with a sleep mask.
Early treatment linked to reduced joint damage in young adults with severe hemophilia A
Children with severe hemophilia A who receive early prophylaxis are less likely to have joint damage in young adulthood than those who begin treatment later, according to a new study in Blood Advances.
Precision spray coating could enable solar cells with better performance and stability
Although perovskites are a promising alternative to the silicon used to make most of today's solar cells, new manufacturing processes are needed to make them practical for commercial production.
Penn State researchers evaluate 2020 Census data privacy changes
After the US Census Bureau announced that it was changing how it protects the identities of individuals for the 2020 Census, a Penn State-led research team began to evaluate how these changes may affect census data integrity.
Does using marijuana affect a person's risk of stroke?
The jury's still out on whether the use of marijuana may increase the risk of stroke.
High workload for ICU nurses may increase risk of organ failure for patients
For patients admitted to the intensive care unit in a hospital in Finland, increased workload for nurses and understaffing of nurses were linked with a higher likelihood that patients would experience multiple organ failure.
COVID-19 spurs increase in self-care, new survey shows
The vast majority of U.S. adults (80%) say they will be more mindful about practicing self-care regularly once the pandemic is over, according to a new survey conducted by The Harris Poll on behalf of Samueli Integrative Health Programs.
Slow easing of lockdowns may be better for global economy
The paper, published today in Nature Human Behaviour, is the first peer-reviewed study to comprehensively assess potential global supply chain effects of Covid-19 lockdowns, modelling the impact of lockdowns on 140 countries, including countries not directly affected by Covid-19.
Next-generation cockroach-inspired robot is small but mighty
Dubbed HAMR-JR, this microrobot developed by Harvard researchers is a half-scale version of the cockroach-inspired Harvard Ambulatory Microrobot or HAMR.
Certain personality traits may affect risk of 'pre-dementia'
A study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society examined five personality traits--neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness--and their links to pre-dementia conditions called motoric cognitive risk (MCR) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) syndromes.
Gene therapy with a new base editing technique restores hearing in mice
Using a base editing technique, researchers from Boston Children's Hospital and the Broad Institute, have restored hearing in mice with a known recessive genetic mutation.
'Excretion of sugar into stool'? New action of anti-diabetic drug discovered
A research team led by Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine's Professor OGAWA Wataru and Project Associate Professor NOGAMI Munenobu has discovered that metformin, the most widely prescribed anti-diabetic drug, causes sugar to be excreted in the stool.
Fear of COVID-19 keeping more than half of heart attack patients away from hospitals
The number of heart attack patients seeking urgent hospital care has dropped by more than 50% during the COVID-19 outbreak, according to an extensive worldwide survey by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Researchers find new way to detect blood clots
Researchers in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Texas A&M University are working on an entirely new way to detect blood clots, especially in pediatric patients.
Double-sided solar panels that follow the sun prove most cost effective
Solar power systems with double-sided (bifacial) solar panels--which collect sunlight from two sides instead of one--and single-axis tracking technology that tilts the panels so they can follow the sun are the most cost effective to date, researchers report in the journal Joule.
ETH researchers deconstruct tissue repair
ETH researchers have deconstructed the mechanisms that control wound healing and scar formation in more detail.
Osteoporosis treatment may also protect against pneumonia
A recent study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research found that nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) such as alendronate, which are widely used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, are linked with lower risks of pneumonia and of dying from pneumonia.
Patients with ARDS, COVID-19 face significant financial effects in recovery
Michigan Medicine researchers have been investigating the downstream effects of acute respiratory distress syndrome, or ARDS, for years.
Breaking the mold: An unusual choice of material yields incredibly long-lasting batteries
Scientists from the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Korea, develop a novel silica-based cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries, thereby enabling the realization of batteries that can last for over 2000 charge/discharge cycles.
Researchers identify secretion mechanisms for a protein necessary for maintaining healthy connective
Researchers have discovered that a defective form of the protein aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) from patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is retained in cells and induces cellular stress.
Clinical trials in the era of digital engagement: A SWOG call to action
Social media is an integral part of medicine, and an increasingly important conduit for sharing information about clinical trials.
Human activity threatens 50 billion years of vertebrate evolutionary history
A new study maps for the first time the evolutionary history of the world's terrestrial vertebrates: amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles.
A potential new weapon in the war against superbugs
Researchers in Melbourne, Australia have shown that a newly discovered natural antibiotic, teixobactin, could be effective in treating bacterial lung conditions such as tuberculosis and those commonly associated with COVID-19.
First optical measurements of Milky Way's Fermi Bubbles probe their origin
Using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper telescope, astronomers have for the first time measured the Fermi Bubbles in the visible light spectrum.
New method predicts spin dynamics of materials for quantum computing
Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have developed a theoretical foundation and new computational tools for predicting a material's spin dynamics, a key property for building solid-state quantum computing platforms and other applications of spintronics.
New test of dark energy and expansion from cosmic structures
A new paper has shown how large structures in the distribution of galaxies in the Universe provide the most precise tests of dark energy and cosmic expansion yet.
First do no harm -- researchers urge halt in prescribing hydroxycholoroquine for COVID-19
Researchers urge a moratorium on prescribing chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, to treat or prevent COVID-19, and caution that the reassuring safety profile of hydroxychloroquine may be more apparent than real.
Caring for patients on COVID-19 units: an approach for hospitals
Toronto and Spanish physicians describe in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) an approach to create dedicated COVID-19 patient units, infection control protocols and care teams to help other hospitals safely care for patients.
Larger streams are critical for wild brook trout conservation
The Latin name for brook trout -- Salvelinus fontinalis -- means 'speckled fish of the fountains,' but a new study by Penn State researchers suggests, for the first time, that the larger streams and rivers those fountains, or headwaters, flow into may be just as important to the brook trout.
What are the risks and benefits of low-dose aspirin?
Low-dose aspirin significantly lowers cardiovascular disease risk but increases the risk of bleeding, according to a review published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
Scientists create smallest semiconductor laser
An international team of researchers announced the development of the world's most compact semiconductor laser that works in the visible range at room temperature.
Here be methane: Skoltech scientists investigate the origins of a gaping permafrost crater
Researchers from Skoltech and their colleagues spent more than two years studying a 20-meter wide and 20-meter deep crater in the Yamal Peninsula in northern Russia that formed after an explosive release of gas, mostly methane, from the permafrost.
Pushing photons
UC Santa Barbara researchers continue to push the boundaries of LED design a little further with a new method that could pave the way toward more efficient and versatile LED display and lighting technology.
Patients who use doctors' online portals stay healthier
People who engage with health care providers through online patient portals spend less time in the hospital, cutting medical costs, according to a new study published in the June 2020 issue of MIS Quarterly.
Antiepileptic drugs are associated with a higher risk of mortality in persons with Alzheimer's
The use of antiepileptic drugs is associated with a higher risk of death among persons with Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland.
Synthetic red blood cells mimic natural ones, and have new abilities
Scientists have tried to develop synthetic red blood cells that mimic the favorable properties of natural ones, such as flexibility, oxygen transport and long circulation times.
Tumors disrupt the immune system throughout the body
Cancer treatment has advanced with the advent of immunotherapies that, in some cancers, can overcome tumors' ability to evade the immune system by suppressing local immune responses.
Ocean uptake of CO2 could drop as carbon emissions are cut
The ocean is so sensitive to declining greenhouse gas emissions that it immediately responds by taking up less carbon dioxide, says a new study.
Hubble makes surprising find in the early universe
New results from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope suggest the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the early Universe took place sooner than previously thought.
UMN trial shows hydroxychloroquine has no benefit over placebo in preventing COVID-19
Today, University of Minnesota Medical School researchers published the results from the first randomized clinical trial testing hydroxychloroquine for the post-exposure prevention of COVID-19.
'Different techniques needed' to detect fingermarks on new banknotes
Techniques used to detect fingermarks on traditional cotton banknotes are not effective on Scottish banks' new polymer notes and different methods are required, according to a study by University of Strathclyde researchers.
Mass general model projects sharp rise in alcohol-related liver disease
A new analysis by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Georgia Tech indicates that cases of alcohol-related liver disease will rise dramatically in the coming years without drastic steps to reduce high-risk drinking rates.
Experts debate saturated fat consumption guidelines for Americans
Should public health guidelines recommend reducing saturated fat consumption as much as possible?
New laser system provides 3D reconstructions of living deep-sea animals and mucus filters
Living in an essentially zero-gravity environment, many deep-sea animals have evolved soft, gelatinous bodies and collect food using elaborate mucus filters.
A faster way to make antibody-drug conjugates
In a study published today in Science Advances, USC scientists describe a new technology to rapidly create a homogeneous type of ADC, which attaches to a specific site on the cancer cell, with improved efficiency and potentially enhanced stability, effectiveness and safety.
UT Health San Antonio study shows Nox4 protein may predict untreatable kidney cancer
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio researchers confirmed the role of a certain protein, Nox4, in the development of high-grade kidney cancer.

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