Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 05, 2020
Analysis of Seattle EMS and hospital data indicates low COVID infection risk from bystander CPR
Analysis of Seattle emergency medical services (EMS) and hospital data from Jan.

Russian scientists demonstrate ion implantation advantages for the use of silicon in optoelectronics
Silicon is the main material in electronic engineering. All information and computing technologies that play a key role in modern civilization are based on silicon: computers, communications, astronautics, biomedicine, robotics and much more.

COVID-19 safety recommendations, aim to reduce deaths among elderly in nursing homes
Seeking to address estimates that more than a third of COVID-19 deaths nationally have occurred in nursing homes and long-term care facilities -- more than 38,000 -- the American Medical Directors Association published recommendations for reducing the spread of the pandemic virus among residents and staff.

Protecting the neuronal architecture
Protecting nerve cells from losing their characteristic extensions, the dendrites, can reduce brain damage after a stroke.

Cord blood for stem cell transplant may outperform matched sibling donor
Study based on a decade of research and treatment shows no difference in overall survival between cord blood and matched related donor as source for stem cell transplant, with reduced graft-versus-host disease in patients using cord blood.

Could the blood of COVID-19 patients be used to predict disease progression?
Researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Francis Crick Institute have identified 27 proteins which are present at different levels in the blood of COVID-19 patients, depending on the severity of their symptoms.

Scientists iron out the physics of wrinkling
In a paper recently published in Applied Physics Letters, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have shown how wrinkles can be increased or reduced by altering the curvature at the edge of a material.

Ultrastable, selective catalyst for propane dehydrogenation developed
A group of Japanese scientists has developed an ultrastable, selective catalyst to dehydrogenate propane - an essential process to produce the key petrochemical substance of propylene - without deactivation, even at temperatures of more than 600°C.

Are kidney transplant patients at higher risk? The European experience
The risk of death is relatively high in kidney transplant patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19.

Interpreting DTC testing results imposes a major burden on genetics services
A study from Australia finds that because patients are increasingly approaching GPs about the results of direct-to consumer genetic testing, and GPs are ill-equipped to advise them, this is having an impact on already overloaded clinical genetics services.

EULAR 2020: Thrombosis risk particularly high for people suffering
People suffering from rheumatoid arthritis with increased disease activity are more often affected by thrombosis.

COVID-19 mortality alarmingly high in dialysis patients
Analysis of a Spanish experience shows that COVID-19 is frequent in hemodialysis patients, who appear to be at risk for worse outcome.

Can deep water masses in the Mediterranean cross the Sicily Strait?
The Sicily Strait, an underwater relief connecting the Italian island with the Tunisian coasts, is not a geological barrier for the deep water circulation between eastern and western Mediterranean -which was always thought to be.

Diet, gut microbes affect cancer treatment outcomes, research suggests
What we eat can affect the outcome of chemotherapy - and likely many other medical treatments - because of ripple effects that begin in our gut, new research suggests.

Atherosclerosis screening plus physical activity assessment give doctors a more accurate picture of mortality risk
'On a scale of 1 - 10, how much do you exercise (0-none, 10-always).' Adding this simple question when assessing elderly patients undergoing coronary artery calcium (CAC) scans can help clinicians better understand and treat patients, report scientists in Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, published by Elsevier.

Fighting mosquito-borne viruses requires a precise balance of immune cells
In a new study, published June 5, 2020, in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) shows that antibodies against JEV are 'cross-reactive' and can also recognize Zika virus.

DNA increases our understanding of contact between Stone Age cultures
What kind of interactions did the various Stone Age cultures have with one another?

New identification of genetic basis of COVID-19 susceptibility will aid treatment
Italian researchers have been able to identify the genetic basis of susceptibility to Covid-19 infection, and also to the possibility of contracting a more severe form of the disease.

New killing mechanism discovered in 'game-changing' antibiotic
Scientists at the University of Liverpool and University of Utrecht have taken another step forward on their quest to develop a viable drug based on teixobactin -- a new class of potent natural antibiotic capable of killing superbugs.

Microglia in the olfactory bulb have a nose for protecting the brain from infection
Researchers at NINDS have identified a specific, front-line defense that limits the infection to the olfactory bulb and protects the neurons of the olfactory bulb from damage due to the infection.

A Genethon team has succeeded in inhibiting the immune response linked to AAV
A research team from Genethon, in collaboration with teams from CNRS/Inserm and from the biotechnology company Spark Therapeutics, announced today in Nature Medicine that it has succeeded in inhibiting the immune response induced by AAV antibodies present as a result of natural immunity or following gene therapy, thanks to the IdeS enzyme.

Dreaming with purpose
Researchers from University of Tsukuba and the University of Tokyo have found that activity in adult-born neurons (ABNs) in the hippocampus, which is a brain region associated with memory, are responsible for memory consolidation during REM sleep.

New technique for engineering living materials and patterns
A new method for engineering living materials called 'MeniFluidics', made by researchers at the University of Warwick could see a transformation in tissue engineering and bio-art, as well as new ways to research cellular interactions.

To think like a dinosaur
Palaeontologists from St Petersburg University have been the first to study in detail the structure of the brain and blood vessels in the skull of the ankylosaur Bissektipelta archibaldi.

Air conditioner bumps the electric bill by 42%, increasing the risk of energy poverty
A new study by Ca' Foscari and CMCC combines OECD and NASA datasets for 8 countries to show that the share of households' spending dedicated to cooling is greater to what estimated in previous studies

Early-life education improves memory in old age -- Especially for women
Education appears to protect older adults, especially women, against memory loss, according to a study by investigators at Georgetown University Medical Center, published in the journal Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition

More evidence of no survival benefit in COVID-19 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine
A study of electronic medical records from US Veterans Health Administration medical centers has found that hydroxychloroquine -- with or without azithromycin -- did not reduce the risk of ventilation or death and was associated with longer length of hospital stay.

Psychedelic drug psilocybin tamps down brain's ego center
Perhaps no region of the brain is more fittingly named than the claustrum, taken from the Latin word for 'hidden or shut away.' The claustrum is an extremely thin sheet of neurons deep within the cortex, yet it reaches out to every other region of the brain.

A newly discovered disease may lead to better treatment of cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is the most frequent severe inherited disorder worldwide.

Study documents the challenges of herbicide-resistant annual bluegrass in turf
In an study featured in the journal Weed Science, researchers in Australia examined 31 populations of annual bluegrass suspected to be herbicide resistant.

UTHSC researchers awarded $1.7 million for opioid addiction studies
A team of University of Tennessee Health Science Center researchers in the College of Medicine recently received a National Institutes of Health (NIH) award to study how genetic differences may explain why some people are more susceptible to opioid addiction than others.

BESSY II: Experiment shows for the first time in detail how electrolytes become metallic
To accomplish this, the team first prepared cryogenic solutions of liquid ammonia containing different concentrations of alkali metals.

Is e-cigarette use associated with relapse among former smokers?
Whether use of electronic cigarettes among former cigarette smokers was associated with an increased risk of smoking relapse was examined with the use of nationally representative survey data.

Scientists develop unique polymer coating to tackle harmful fungi
Scientists from the University of Nottingham have developed a new way to control harmful fungi, without the need to use chemical bioactives like fungicides or antifungals.

A tiny arctic shrub reveals secrets of plant growth on Svalbard
It's not easy being a tiny willow on the wind-and snow-blasted islands of the Norwegian territory of Svalbard.

Research shows promising advances to lower cost and durable smart window technology
Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder have developed an improved method for controlling smart tinting on windows that could make them cheaper, more effective and more durable than current options on the market.

Ribociclib in breast cancer: Added benefit for certain women after menopause
After expiry of the G-BA decisions, IQWiG reassessed the drug in two combinations.

Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes represent more than 20 percent of ICU population
The COVID-19 pandemic presents new challenges for clinicians caring for infected patients with diabetes, according to new guidance published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

New discovery advances optical microscopy
New Illinois ECE research is advancing the field of optical microscopy, giving the field a critical new tool to solve challenging problems across many fields of science and engineering including semiconductor wafer inspection, nanoparticle sensing, material characterization, biosensing, virus counting, and microfluidic monitoring.

PFAS present throughout the Yadkin-Pee Dee river food chain
Researchers from North Carolina State University have found per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in every step of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River food chain, even though the river does not have a known industrial input of these compounds.

Wearable brain scanner technology expanded for whole head imaging
A new type of wearable brain scanner is revealing new possibilities for understanding and diagnosing mental illness after the technology has been expanded to scan the whole brain with millimeter accuracy.

NASA analyzes Cristobal, the big rainmaker
NASA's Aqua satellite gathered infrared imagery and cloud top temperature data on Tropical Depression Cristobal, and it revealed the heavy rainmaking capability of the storm.

Long term care faclities are where most COVID-19 deaths occur
Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are a major driver of total COVID-19 deaths.

How is a metal formed?
Metal is characterized by free electrons which give rise to its high electric conductivity.

First measurement of electron energy distributions, could enable sustainable energy technologies
To answer a question crucial to technologies such as energy conversion, a team of researchers at the University of Michigan, Purdue University and the University of Liverpool in the UK have figured out a way to measure how many 'hot charge carriers' -- for example, electrons with extra energy -- are present in a metal nanostructure.

Magnetic liquid structure elucidated through hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulation
Magnetic ionic liquid structures were elucidated through hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulation.

Youth-inspired program increases bike helmet use by urban children
To reduce the number of traumatic brain injuries in children, a team of health care professionals at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is urging emergency room physicians to help ensure that youngsters are thoroughly educated on the proper use of bike helmets, especially in urban environments where most severe head injuries occur.

Chance of finding young Earth-like planets higher than previously thought
Research from the University of Sheffield has found that the chance of finding Earth-like planets in their early stages of formation is much higher than previously thought.

Fewer antibiotics to better fight bacterial infections
Reducing the use of antibiotics appears to be one of the only solutions to preserve their effectiveness and limit the emergence of resistance.

Eclipse data illuminate mysteries of Sun's corona
Observations from total solar eclipses are used to measure the shape of the Sun's magnetic field.

Study identifies potential approach to treat patients with severe COVID-19
Early data from a clinical study suggest that blocking the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) protein provided clinical benefit to a small group of patients with severe COVID-19.

High uric acid levels benefit women's lungs in aging and disease
Researchers at Kumamoto University, Japan have discovered that uric acid, an antioxidant, protects against declining lung function, especially in women.

Investigational treatments of COVID-19 in children
This pharmacokinetic simulation study estimates appropriate pediatric-specific dosing regimens for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir in the treatment of pediatric patients with COVID-19.

Reconsidering the efficiency of grazing exclusion using fences on the Tibetan Plateau
A study about grazing exclusion using fences on the Tibetan Plateau by a team of researchers from China, Australia and Japan recently published in Science Bulletin, and commented in the Editors' choice column of Science.

Physicists create quantum-inspired optical sensor
Researchers from the MIPT, joined by a colleague from Argonne National Laboratory, U.S., have implemented an advanced quantum algorithm for measuring physical quantities using simple optical tools.

Something in the water: Pollutant may be more hazardous than previously thought
Perchlorate, a chemical compound used in rocket fuels and other materials, may be a more hazardous pollutant than previously thought, says a new study from Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Exercise levels can help doctors predict risk of heart disease and death among elderly
Clinicians can use this information to improve care with early interventions.

Genomic surveillance of antibiotic resistance in the Philippines established
Antibiotic resistance surveillance in the Philippines has moved into the genomic era, enabling better tracking of dangerous bacteria.

UTEP researchers help bring biofriendly materials to drug design for neuro disorders
The contributions of researchers from The University of Texas at El Paso have yielded the first indication that carbon quantum dots, a class of nanoparticles, can be utilized to combat neurological disorders, according to a paper published in the journal Processes as part its special issue on protein biosynthesis and drug design and delivery.

View into plant cells: A membrane protein is targeted to two locations
Metabolic processes are especially complex in plants due to their obligate sessile life style.

Creating hairy human skin: Not as easy as you think
For the first time, growing human skin cell capable of growing hair embedded with fat and nerve cells is a reality.

Palliative Care in emergency departments during COVID-19 pandemic
The clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients who received intervention by a COVID-19 palliative care response team are examined in this case series.

Editorial: COVID-19 pandemic likely to result in lasting changes to medical school curricula
Following disruptions to medical education that the COVID-19 pandemic brought to the United States this spring, 'a return to a typical pre-COVID-19 teaching platform is unlikely,' say Diane Wayne and colleagues in this Editorial.

Acute kidney injury and end stage kidney disease in severe COVID-19
Many COVID-19 patients experience hematuria, proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine concentration early in the course of the disease.

New data show Abbott's FreeStyle® Libre 14 day system significantly reduces costs associated with diabetes management and complications
New data show Abbott's freestyle® libre 14 day system significantly reduces costs associated with diabetes management and complications

Telephone interventions could be used to reduce symptoms of cancer
Telephone interventions could be used to successfully treat symptoms of cancer such as fatigue, depression and anxiety, new research in the Cochrane Library reports.

New smart fabrics from bioactive inks monitor body and environment by changing color
Researchers developed biomaterial-based inks that respond to and quantify chemicals released from the body or in the environment by changing color.

Approved drug may help calm cytokine storm in COVID-19
The drug acalabrutinib, FDA-approved for the treatment of several types of B cell cancers, improved the oxygenation levels and decreased molecular markers of inflammation in a majority of 19 patients hospitalized for the treatment of severe COVID-19, according to a new study by Mark Roschewski and colleagues.

Reducing severe breathlessness and psychological trauma in COVID-19 ARDS survivors
A new paper published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society examines ventilation and medication strategies that can help avoid psychological trauma for severe COVID-19 survivors treated for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with mechanical ventilation.

Comparing new use of flavored vs unflavored e-cigarettes with starting, quitting smoking
This survey study looked at the association between starting to use flavored or unflavored e-cigarettes and subsequently starting or quitting smoking among adolescents and adults.

American lobster, sea scallop habitat could shift off the northeast
Researchers have projected significant changes in the habitat of commercially important American lobster and sea scallops on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf.

Something in the water: Environmental pollutant may be more hazardous than previously thought
Sometimes toxins, such as hazardous wastes and industrial byproducts, seep into groundwater, the source of our drinking water.

Volcanic glass spray shows promise in controlling mosquitoes
An indoor residual spray made by combining a type of volcanic glass with water showed effective control of mosquitoes that carry malaria, according to a new study.

Thousands of tons of ocean pollution can be saved by changing washing habits
A new study has revealed that almost 13,000 tonnes of microfibres, equivalent to two rubbish trucks every day, are being released into European marine environments every year -- but this could be reduced by as much as 30% if we made a small change to our laundry habits.

Increasingly efficient serological tests thanks to a new ECL based mechanism
An innovative electrochemiluminescence-based technique (ECL) for quicker, more cost-effective and more ultra-sensitive serological tests, even for SARS-CoV-2.

France has won the R-number battle, but the COVID war rages on
A new study confirms that the lockdown in France successfully reduced the spread of COVID-19 with a seven-fold reduction in the R-number, the measurement of transmission rate.

'Whispering gallery' effect controls electron beams with light
When you speak softly in one of the galleries of St Paul's cathedral, the sound runs around the dome and visitors anywhere on its circumference can hear it.

Researchers find TEG test can identify undetected blood clots in COVID-19 ICU patients
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine are recommending that all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU undergo a thromboelastography (TEG) to test for the risk of forming blood clots.

NMDA receptors may link psychosis and sleep deficits
Sofya Kulikova, a researcher at HSE University in Perm, is part of an international research team that has discovered potential mechanisms that explain the sleep spindle deficit in electroencephalograms (EEG) of people with schizophrenia.

Measuring Atlantic bluefin tuna with a drone
Researchers have used an unmanned aerial system (or drone) to gather data on schooling juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Maine.

Fitful nightly sleep linked to chronic inflammation, hardened arteries
Scientists begin to reveal what it is about fragmented nightly sleep that leads to the fatty arterial plaque buildup that can result in fatal heart disease.

Protecting the kidneys from failing
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba identified the protein MafB as a key molecular actor in the development of FSGS.

T cell immunity in the elderly
A study by Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) expands the understanding of the molecular pathways that control T cell function and survival and how it relates to declining T cell immunity in the elderly.

New report examines challenges and implications of false-negative COVID-19 tests
In a new Dartmouth-led paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers discuss challenges and implications related to false-negative diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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